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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-06-23 18:10:08 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:24:44 UTC
Accession NumberT3D1844
Identification
Common NameBioresmethrin
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionBioresmethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid (type 1) insecticide formerly used as a grain protectant. Bioresmethrin is one of the most effective broad spectrum insecticides currently available. It exhibits a high order of insecticidal activity, which when coupled with its excellent toxicological properties, makes it potentially one of the safest and most useful insecticides now being produced. A pyrethroid is a synthetic chemical compound similar to the natural chemical pyrethrins produced by the flowers of pyrethrums (Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium and C. coccineum). Pyrethroids are common in commercial products such as household insecticides and insect repellents. In the concentrations used in such products, they are generally harmless to human beings but can harm sensitive individuals. They are usually broken apart by sunlight and the atmosphere in one or two days, and do not significantly affect groundwater quality except for being toxic to fish. Insects with certain mutations in their sodium channel gene may be resistant to pyrethroid insecticides. (5, 4, 6, 8)
Compound Type
  • Ester
  • Ether
  • Household Toxin
  • Organic Compound
  • Pesticide
  • Pyrethroid
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
(+)-trans-resmethrin
1R-trans-Resemethrin
5-Benzyl-3-furylmethyl (+)-trans-chrysanthemate
5-Benzyl-3-furylmethyl (1R)-trans-chrysanthemate
Biobenzyfuroline
Resmethrin
Chemical FormulaC22H26O3
Average Molecular Mass338.440 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass338.188 g/mol
CAS Registry Number28434-01-7
IUPAC Name(5-benzylfuran-3-yl)methyl (1R,3R)-2,2-dimethyl-3-(2-methylprop-1-en-1-yl)cyclopropane-1-carboxylate
Traditional Namebioresmethrin
SMILESCC(C)=C[C@@H]1[C@@H](C(=O)OCC2=COC(CC3=CC=CC=C3)=C2)C1(C)C
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C22H26O3/c1-15(2)10-19-20(22(19,3)4)21(23)25-14-17-12-18(24-13-17)11-16-8-6-5-7-9-16/h5-10,12-13,19-20H,11,14H2,1-4H3/t19-,20+/m1/s1
InChI KeyInChIKey=VEMKTZHHVJILDY-UXHICEINSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as aromatic monoterpenoids. These are monoterpenoids containing at least one aromatic ring.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassPrenol lipids
Sub ClassMonoterpenoids
Direct ParentAromatic monoterpenoids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Aromatic monoterpenoid
  • Monocyclic monoterpenoid
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Cyclopropanecarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Benzenoid
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Furan
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Applications
Biological Roles
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceA viscous yellow liquid which on crystallization forms an off-white solid (8).
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point32°C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility0.0003 mg/mL at 25°C [TOMLIN,C (1997)]
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0066 g/LALOGPS
logP5.38ALOGPS
logP5.07ChemAxon
logS-4.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)-2.9ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area39.44 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count7ChemAxon
Refractivity99.88 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability38.93 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0079-0926000000-0fb918a4bbc4bee251b8JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-00di-1911000000-a86170594036d2641beeJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0l6r-4900000000-18c056037d5a7b1ebb5eJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-000i-0409000000-d88ffbc582501a319235JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-01bj-0912000000-763c41ab2e9c3ea0e3ecJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-00rt-1900000000-16d53356f64b1d6c2c34JSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureInhalation (6) ; oral (6) ; dermal (6) ; eye contact (6).
Mechanism of ToxicityPyrethroids exert their effect by prolonging the open phase of the sodium channel gates when a nerve cell is excited. They appear to bind to the membrane lipid phase in the immediate vicinity of the sodium channel, thus modifying the channel kinetics. This blocks the closing of the sodium gates in the nerves, and thus prolongs the return of the membrane potential to its resting state. The repetitive (sensory, motor) neuronal discharge and a prolonged negative afterpotential produces effects quite similar to those produced by DDT, leading to hyperactivity of the nervous system which can result in paralysis and/or death. Other mechanisms of action of pyrethroids include antagonism of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated inhibition, modulation of nicotinic cholinergic transmission, enhancement of noradrenaline release, and actions on calcium ions. (2, 6)
MetabolismThe biodegradation of bioresmethrin is a complex phenomenon with several reactions occurring simultaneously and taking place at various positions in the molecule. The initial step in the metabolism is cleavage at the ester linkage, a reaction found to be catalyzed by esterases localized in the liver microsome. Transisomerization was reported with bioresmethrin but was apparently limited to isomerization of degradation products, not observed with the parent molecule and seen only when bioresmethrin was administered at low levels. Bioresmethrin is degraded by ester cleavage and the alcohol moiety is oxidized to 5-benzyl-3-furylmethanol (BFA), 5-benzyl-3-furoic acid (BFCA), 4'-hydroxy BFCA and alpha-hydroxy BFCA (alpha-OH-BFCA). The chrysanthemate (acid) moiety undergoes oxidation from trans-chrysanthemic acid (tE-CHA) to 2,2-dimethyl3-(2'hydroxymethyl-1'-propenyl)cyclopropanecarboxylic acid (tE-CHA) (oxidative metabolism at the methyl group of the isobutenyl side chain trans (E) to the cyclopropane). This is further oxidized through the formyl derivative (CAA) to the dicarboxylic acid isomers (tE-CDA and cE-CDA). It is at the CAA oxidation stage where isomerization may occur through the proposed aldehyde (cE-CAA) intermediate to (cE-CDA) the cis-dicarboxylic acid (Ueda et al., 1975b). This metabolic sequence may also account for the consideration of Verschoyle and Barnes (1972) that as a delay in signs of poisoning was evident following iv administration, bioresmethrin may be converted in vivo to a toxic metabolite. The presence of (+)-trans-CA,-BFA and BFCA as metabolites, which are more toxic than bioresmethrin, may account for their observation and conclusions. The metabolic sequence is very similar qualitatively to that observed with resmethrin although much less complicated because of the lack of isomeric products and because of the specificity of certain isomers to enzymatic degradation by selected routes as mentioned above. (7)
Toxicity ValuesLD50: 8800 mg/kg (Oral, Rat) (7)
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesPyrethroids are used as insecticides. (6)
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsAs for every type I pyrethroid, bioresmethrin effects typically include rapid onset of aggressive behavior and increased sensitivity to external stimuli, followed by fine tremor, prostration with coarse whole body tremor, elevated body temperature, coma, and death. (6)
SymptomsFollowing dermal exposure to bioresmethrin, feelings of numbness, itching, burning, stinging, tingling, or warmth may occur, that could last for a few hours. Dizziness, headache, nausea, muscle twitching, reduced energy, and changes in awareness can result from inhalation or ingestion of large amounts of bioresmethrin. Paralysis can occur after exposure. (6)
TreatmentFollowing oral exposure, the treatment is symptomatic and supportive and includes monitoring for the development of hypersensitivity reactions with respiratory distress. Provide adequate airway management when needed. Gastric decontamination is usually not required unless the pyrethrin product is combined with a hydrocarbon. Following inhalation exposure, move patient to fresh air. monitor for respiratory distress. If cough or difficulty breathing develops, evaluate for respiratory tract irritation, bronchitis, or pneumonitis. Administer oxygen and assist ventilation as required. Treat bronchospasm with inhaled beta2 agonist and oral or parenteral corticosteroids. In case of eye exposure, irrigate exposed eyes with copious amounts of room temperature water for at least 15 minutes. If irritation, pain, swelling, lacrimation, or photophobia persist, the patient should be seen in a health care facility. If the contamination occurs through dermal exposure, remove contaminated clothing and wash exposed area thoroughly with soap and water. A physician may need to examine the area if irritation or pain persists. Vitamin E topical application is highly effective in relieving parenthesis. (3)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID162381
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL2106605
ChemSpider ID142577
KEGG IDC16810
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID39280
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDC002842
Stitch IDBioresmethrin
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D1844.pdf
General References
  1. Ross MK, Borazjani A, Edwards CC, Potter PM: Hydrolytic metabolism of pyrethroids by human and other mammalian carboxylesterases. Biochem Pharmacol. 2006 Feb 28;71(5):657-69. Epub 2006 Jan 4. [16387282 ]
  2. Hayes WJ Jr. and Laws ER Jr. (eds) (1991). Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology. Volume 3. Classes of Pesticides. New York, NY: Academic Press, Inc.
  3. Rumack BH (2009). POISINDEX(R) Information System. Englewood, CO: Micromedex, Inc. CCIS Volume 141, edition expires Aug, 2009.
  4. Wikipedia. Tralomethrin. Last Updated 22 January 2009. [Link]
  5. Wikipedia. Pyrethroid. Last Updated 8 June 2009. [Link]
  6. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2003). Toxicological profile for pyrethrins and pyrethroids. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  7. International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) INCHEM (1976). Summary of Evaluations Performed by the Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues for Bioresmethrin. [Link]
  8. International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) INCHEM (1975). Summary of Evaluations Performed by the Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues for Bioresmethrin. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated Genes
GeneGene SymbolGene IDInteractionChromosomeDetails
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient.
Gene Name:
SCN1A
Uniprot ID:
P35498
Molecular Weight:
228969.49 Da
References
  1. Everts HB, Sundberg JP, Ong DE: Immunolocalization of retinoic acid biosynthesis systems in selected sites in rat. Exp Cell Res. 2005 Aug 15;308(2):309-19. [15950969 ]
  2. Klaassen CD, Amdur MO, Doull J (eds) (1995). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons. 5th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
  3. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2003). Toxicological profile for pyrethrins and pyrethroids. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function:
Tetrodotoxin-resistant channel that mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which sodium ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient. Plays a role in neuropathic pain mechanisms.
Gene Name:
SCN10A
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y5Y9
Molecular Weight:
220623.605 Da
References
  1. Everts HB, Sundberg JP, Ong DE: Immunolocalization of retinoic acid biosynthesis systems in selected sites in rat. Exp Cell Res. 2005 Aug 15;308(2):309-19. [15950969 ]
  2. Klaassen CD, Amdur MO, Doull J (eds) (1995). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons. 5th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
  3. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2003). Toxicological profile for pyrethrins and pyrethroids. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function:
This protein mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which sodium ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient. It is a tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium channel isoform. Also involved, with the contribution of the receptor tyrosine kinase NTRK2, in rapid BDNF-evoked neuronal depolarization.
Gene Name:
SCN11A
Uniprot ID:
Q9UI33
Molecular Weight:
204919.66 Da
References
  1. Everts HB, Sundberg JP, Ong DE: Immunolocalization of retinoic acid biosynthesis systems in selected sites in rat. Exp Cell Res. 2005 Aug 15;308(2):309-19. [15950969 ]
  2. Klaassen CD, Amdur MO, Doull J (eds) (1995). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons. 5th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
  3. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2003). Toxicological profile for pyrethrins and pyrethroids. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient.
Gene Name:
SCN2A
Uniprot ID:
Q99250
Molecular Weight:
227972.64 Da
References
  1. Everts HB, Sundberg JP, Ong DE: Immunolocalization of retinoic acid biosynthesis systems in selected sites in rat. Exp Cell Res. 2005 Aug 15;308(2):309-19. [15950969 ]
  2. Klaassen CD, Amdur MO, Doull J (eds) (1995). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons. 5th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
  3. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2003). Toxicological profile for pyrethrins and pyrethroids. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient.
Gene Name:
SCN3A
Uniprot ID:
Q9NY46
Molecular Weight:
226291.905 Da
References
  1. Everts HB, Sundberg JP, Ong DE: Immunolocalization of retinoic acid biosynthesis systems in selected sites in rat. Exp Cell Res. 2005 Aug 15;308(2):309-19. [15950969 ]
  2. Klaassen CD, Amdur MO, Doull J (eds) (1995). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons. 5th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
  3. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2003). Toxicological profile for pyrethrins and pyrethroids. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function:
This protein mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient. This sodium channel may be present in both denervated and innervated skeletal muscle.
Gene Name:
SCN4A
Uniprot ID:
P35499
Molecular Weight:
208059.175 Da
References
  1. Everts HB, Sundberg JP, Ong DE: Immunolocalization of retinoic acid biosynthesis systems in selected sites in rat. Exp Cell Res. 2005 Aug 15;308(2):309-19. [15950969 ]
  2. Klaassen CD, Amdur MO, Doull J (eds) (1995). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons. 5th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
  3. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2003). Toxicological profile for pyrethrins and pyrethroids. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity involved in sa node cell action potential
Specific Function:
This protein mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient. It is a tetrodotoxin-resistant Na(+) channel isoform. This channel is responsible for the initial upstroke of the action potential. Channel inactivation is regulated by intracellular calcium levels.
Gene Name:
SCN5A
Uniprot ID:
Q14524
Molecular Weight:
226937.475 Da
References
  1. Everts HB, Sundberg JP, Ong DE: Immunolocalization of retinoic acid biosynthesis systems in selected sites in rat. Exp Cell Res. 2005 Aug 15;308(2):309-19. [15950969 ]
  2. Klaassen CD, Amdur MO, Doull J (eds) (1995). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons. 5th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
  3. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2003). Toxicological profile for pyrethrins and pyrethroids. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient.
Gene Name:
SCN7A
Uniprot ID:
Q01118
Molecular Weight:
193491.605 Da
References
  1. Everts HB, Sundberg JP, Ong DE: Immunolocalization of retinoic acid biosynthesis systems in selected sites in rat. Exp Cell Res. 2005 Aug 15;308(2):309-19. [15950969 ]
  2. Klaassen CD, Amdur MO, Doull J (eds) (1995). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons. 5th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
  3. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2003). Toxicological profile for pyrethrins and pyrethroids. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient. In macrophages and melanoma cells, isoform 5 may participate in the control of podosome and invadopodia formation.
Gene Name:
SCN8A
Uniprot ID:
Q9UQD0
Molecular Weight:
225278.005 Da
References
  1. Everts HB, Sundberg JP, Ong DE: Immunolocalization of retinoic acid biosynthesis systems in selected sites in rat. Exp Cell Res. 2005 Aug 15;308(2):309-19. [15950969 ]
  2. Klaassen CD, Amdur MO, Doull J (eds) (1995). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons. 5th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
  3. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2003). Toxicological profile for pyrethrins and pyrethroids. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient. It is a tetrodotoxin-sensitive Na(+) channel isoform. Plays a role in pain mechanisms, especially in the development of inflammatory pain (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SCN9A
Uniprot ID:
Q15858
Molecular Weight:
226370.175 Da
References
  1. Everts HB, Sundberg JP, Ong DE: Immunolocalization of retinoic acid biosynthesis systems in selected sites in rat. Exp Cell Res. 2005 Aug 15;308(2):309-19. [15950969 ]
  2. Klaassen CD, Amdur MO, Doull J (eds) (1995). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons. 5th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
  3. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2003). Toxicological profile for pyrethrins and pyrethroids. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity involved in purkinje myocyte action potential
Specific Function:
Crucial in the assembly, expression, and functional modulation of the heterotrimeric complex of the sodium channel. The subunit beta-1 can modulate multiple alpha subunit isoforms from brain, skeletal muscle, and heart. Its association with neurofascin may target the sodium channels to the nodes of Ranvier of developing axons and retain these channels at the nodes in mature myelinated axons.Isoform 2: Cell adhesion molecule that plays a critical role in neuronal migration and pathfinding during brain development. Stimulates neurite outgrowth.
Gene Name:
SCN1B
Uniprot ID:
Q07699
Molecular Weight:
24706.955 Da
References
  1. Everts HB, Sundberg JP, Ong DE: Immunolocalization of retinoic acid biosynthesis systems in selected sites in rat. Exp Cell Res. 2005 Aug 15;308(2):309-19. [15950969 ]
  2. Klaassen CD, Amdur MO, Doull J (eds) (1995). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons. 5th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
  3. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2003). Toxicological profile for pyrethrins and pyrethroids. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity involved in cardiac muscle cell action potential
Specific Function:
Crucial in the assembly, expression, and functional modulation of the heterotrimeric complex of the sodium channel. The subunit beta-2 causes an increase in the plasma membrane surface area and in its folding into microvilli. Interacts with TNR may play a crucial role in clustering and regulation of activity of sodium channels at nodes of Ranvier (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SCN2B
Uniprot ID:
O60939
Molecular Weight:
24325.69 Da
References
  1. Everts HB, Sundberg JP, Ong DE: Immunolocalization of retinoic acid biosynthesis systems in selected sites in rat. Exp Cell Res. 2005 Aug 15;308(2):309-19. [15950969 ]
  2. Klaassen CD, Amdur MO, Doull J (eds) (1995). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons. 5th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
  3. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2003). Toxicological profile for pyrethrins and pyrethroids. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity involved in cardiac muscle cell action potential
Specific Function:
Modulates channel gating kinetics. Causes unique persistent sodium currents. Inactivates the sodium channel opening more slowly than the subunit beta-1. Its association with neurofascin may target the sodium channels to the nodes of Ranvier of developing axons and retain these channels at the nodes in mature myelinated axons (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SCN3B
Uniprot ID:
Q9NY72
Molecular Weight:
24702.08 Da
References
  1. Everts HB, Sundberg JP, Ong DE: Immunolocalization of retinoic acid biosynthesis systems in selected sites in rat. Exp Cell Res. 2005 Aug 15;308(2):309-19. [15950969 ]
  2. Klaassen CD, Amdur MO, Doull J (eds) (1995). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons. 5th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
  3. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2003). Toxicological profile for pyrethrins and pyrethroids. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity involved in cardiac muscle cell action potential
Specific Function:
Modulates channel gating kinetics. Causes negative shifts in the voltage dependence of activation of certain alpha sodium channels, but does not affect the voltage dependence of inactivation. Modulates the suceptibility of the sodium channel to inhibition by toxic peptides from spider, scorpion, wasp and sea anemone venom.
Gene Name:
SCN4B
Uniprot ID:
Q8IWT1
Molecular Weight:
24968.755 Da
References
  1. Everts HB, Sundberg JP, Ong DE: Immunolocalization of retinoic acid biosynthesis systems in selected sites in rat. Exp Cell Res. 2005 Aug 15;308(2):309-19. [15950969 ]
  2. Klaassen CD, Amdur MO, Doull J (eds) (1995). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons. 5th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
  3. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2003). Toxicological profile for pyrethrins and pyrethroids. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Signal transducer activity
Specific Function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of the calcium.
Gene Name:
ATP2C1
Uniprot ID:
P98194
Molecular Weight:
100576.42 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of calcium.
Gene Name:
ATP2C2
Uniprot ID:
O75185
Molecular Weight:
103186.475 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function:
Key regulator of striated muscle performance by acting as the major Ca(2+) ATPase responsible for the reuptake of cytosolic Ca(2+) into the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the translocation of calcium from the cytosol to the sarcoplasmic reticulum lumen. Contributes to calcium sequestration involved in muscular excitation/contraction.
Gene Name:
ATP2A1
Uniprot ID:
O14983
Molecular Weight:
110251.36 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
S100 protein binding
Specific Function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the translocation of calcium from the cytosol to the sarcoplasmic reticulum lumen. Isoform 2 is involved in the regulation of the contraction/relaxation cycle.
Gene Name:
ATP2A2
Uniprot ID:
P16615
Molecular Weight:
114755.765 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of calcium. Transports calcium ions from the cytosol into the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum lumen. Contributes to calcium sequestration involved in muscular excitation/contraction.
Gene Name:
ATP2A3
Uniprot ID:
Q93084
Molecular Weight:
113976.23 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.