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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-07-03 22:19:17 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:25:40 UTC
Accession NumberT3D2541
Identification
Common NameCardiotoxin (Naja atra)
ClassProtein
DescriptionCardiotoxin is a peptide toxin produced by the Chinese cobra (Naja atra). It is cytotoxic. (2)
Compound Type
  • Amide
  • Amine
  • Animal Toxin
  • Natural Compound
  • Organic Compound
  • Protein
  • Snake Venom
Protein StructureT3d2541
Synonyms
Synonym
Cardiotoxin 3
Cardiotoxin analog III
Cardiotoxin-A3
CTX III
CTX-3
CTX-A3
Cytotoxin 3
Chemical FormulaNot Available
Average Molecular Mass8991.970 g/mol
CAS Registry Number155808-00-7
SequenceNot Available
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionNot Available
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassOrganic Acids
ClassCarboxylic Acids and Derivatives
Sub ClassAmino Acids, Peptides, and Analogues
Direct ParentPeptides
Alternative ParentsNot Available
SubstituentsNot Available
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External DescriptorsNot Available
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateLiquid
AppearanceClear solution.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting PointNot Available
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility>10 mg/mL
LogPNot Available
Predicted PropertiesNot Available
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureInjection (sting/bite) (4)
Mechanism of ToxicityCardiotoxin binds to the cell membrane and depolarizes cardiomyocytes. It also shows lytic activities on many other cells, including red blood cells. It also targets the mitochondrial membrane and induces mitochondrial swelling and fragmentation, binds to the integrin alpha-V/beta-3 with a moderate affinity, and inhibits protein kinases C. (2)
MetabolismFree toxin may be removed by opsonization via the reticuloendothelial system (primarily the liver and kidneys) or it may be degraded through cellular internalization via the lysosomes. Lysosomes are membrane-enclosed organelles that contain an array of digestive enzymes, including several proteases.
Toxicity ValuesLD50: 0.29 mg/kg (Subcutaneous, Mouse) (5) LD50: 0.345 mg/kg (Intravenous, Mouse) (5)
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesCardiotoxin is a peptide toxin produced by the Chinese cobra (Naja atra). (2)
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsCardiotoxin is cardiotoxic. (2)
SymptomsBites from snakes in the Elapidae family produce pain at the site of the bite, followed by drowsiness, weakness, excessive salivation, decreased blood pressure, difficulty breathing, and paralysis of the facial muscles, lips, tongue, and larynx. In addition, ptosis, blurring of vision, convulsions, and headache may occur. (1)
TreatmentAn antivenom exists for Chinese cobra venom. (3)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound IDNot Available
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider IDNot Available
KEGG IDNot Available
UniProt IDP60304
OMIM ID
ChEBI IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNot Available
PDB ID2CDX
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDSNot Available
General References
  1. Dreisbach, RH (1983). Handbook of Poisoning. Los Altos, California: Lange Medical Publications.
  2. The UniProt Consortium. The Universal Protein Resource (UniProt) Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:D190-D195.
  3. Wikipedia. Antivenom. Last Updated 1 July 2009. [Link]
  4. Wikipedia. Snake venom. Last Updated 25 July 2009. [Link]
  5. Thomas S, Griessel E (1999). LD50 Scores for various snakes. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
The alpha-V (ITGAV) integrins are receptors for vitronectin, cytotactin, fibronectin, fibrinogen, laminin, matrix metalloproteinase-2, osteopontin, osteomodulin, prothrombin, thrombospondin and vWF. They recognize the sequence R-G-D in a wide array of ligands.(Microbial infection) Integrin ITGAV:ITGB5 acts as a receptor for adenovirus type C (PubMed:20615244). Integrin ITGAV:ITGB5 and ITGAV:ITGB3 act as receptors for coxsackievirus A9 and B1 (PubMed:9426447, PubMed:15194773, PubMed:7519807). Integrin ITGAV:ITGB3 acts as a receptor for herpes virus 8/HHV-8 (PubMed:18045938). Integrin ITGAV:ITGB6 acts as a receptor for herpes simplex 1/HHV-1 (PubMed:24367260). Integrin ITGAV:ITGB3 acts as a receptor for Human parechovirus 1 (PubMed:11160695). Integrin ITGAV:ITGB3 acts as a receptor for West nile virus (PubMed:23658209). In case of HIV-1 infection, the interaction with extracellular viral Tat protein seems to enhance angiogenesis in Kaposi's sarcoma lesions (PubMed:10397733).
Gene Name:
ITGAV
Uniprot ID:
P06756
Molecular Weight:
116036.855 Da
References
  1. Armas LA, Hollis BW, Heaney RP: Vitamin D2 is much less effective than vitamin D3 in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Nov;89(11):5387-91. [15531486 ]
  2. The UniProt Consortium. The Universal Protein Resource (UniProt) Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:D190-D195.
General Function:
Virus receptor activity
Specific Function:
Integrin alpha-V/beta-3 (ITGAV:ITGB3) is a receptor for cytotactin, fibronectin, laminin, matrix metalloproteinase-2, osteopontin, osteomodulin, prothrombin, thrombospondin, vitronectin and von Willebrand factor. Integrin alpha-IIb/beta-3 (ITGA2B:ITGB3) is a receptor for fibronectin, fibrinogen, plasminogen, prothrombin, thrombospondin and vitronectin. Integrins alpha-IIb/beta-3 and alpha-V/beta-3 recognize the sequence R-G-D in a wide array of ligands. Integrin alpha-IIb/beta-3 recognizes the sequence H-H-L-G-G-G-A-K-Q-A-G-D-V in fibrinogen gamma chain. Following activation integrin alpha-IIb/beta-3 brings about platelet/platelet interaction through binding of soluble fibrinogen. This step leads to rapid platelet aggregation which physically plugs ruptured endothelial surface. Fibrinogen binding enhances SELP expression in activated platelets (By similarity).(Microbial infection) Integrin ITGAV:ITGB3 acts as a receptor for herpes virus 8/HHV-8 (PubMed:18045938). Integrin ITGAV:ITGB3 acts as a receptor for coxsackievirus A9 (PubMed:7519807). Acts as a receptor for Hantaan virus (PubMed:9618541). Integrin ITGAV:ITGB3 acts as a receptor for cytomegalovirus/HHV-5 (PubMed:15834425). Integrin ITGA5:ITGB3 acts as a receptor for human metapneumovirus (PubMed:24478423). Integrin ITGAV:ITGB3 acts aP05556s a receptor for human parechovirus 1 (PubMed:11160695). Integrin ITGAV:ITGB3 acts as a receptor for west nile virus (PubMed:23658209). In case of HIV-1 infection, the interaction with extracellular viral Tat protein seems to enhance angiogenesis in Kaposi's sarcoma lesions (PubMed:10397733).
Gene Name:
ITGB3
Uniprot ID:
P05106
Molecular Weight:
87056.975 Da
References
  1. Armas LA, Hollis BW, Heaney RP: Vitamin D2 is much less effective than vitamin D3 in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Nov;89(11):5387-91. [15531486 ]
  2. The UniProt Consortium. The Universal Protein Resource (UniProt) Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:D190-D195.
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Calcium-activated, phospholipid- and diacylglycerol (DAG)-dependent serine/threonine-protein kinase that is involved in positive and negative regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, migration and adhesion, tumorigenesis, cardiac hypertrophy, angiogenesis, platelet function and inflammation, by directly phosphorylating targets such as RAF1, BCL2, CSPG4, TNNT2/CTNT, or activating signaling cascade involving MAPK1/3 (ERK1/2) and RAP1GAP. Involved in cell proliferation and cell growth arrest by positive and negative regulation of the cell cycle. Can promote cell growth by phosphorylating and activating RAF1, which mediates the activation of the MAPK/ERK signaling cascade, and/or by up-regulating CDKN1A, which facilitates active cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) complex formation in glioma cells. In intestinal cells stimulated by the phorbol ester PMA, can trigger a cell cycle arrest program which is associated with the accumulation of the hyper-phosphorylated growth-suppressive form of RB1 and induction of the CDK inhibitors CDKN1A and CDKN1B. Exhibits anti-apoptotic function in glioma cells and protects them from apoptosis by suppressing the p53/TP53-mediated activation of IGFBP3, and in leukemia cells mediates anti-apoptotic action by phosphorylating BCL2. During macrophage differentiation induced by macrophage colony-stimulating factor (CSF1), is translocated to the nucleus and is associated with macrophage development. After wounding, translocates from focal contacts to lamellipodia and participates in the modulation of desmosomal adhesion. Plays a role in cell motility by phosphorylating CSPG4, which induces association of CSPG4 with extensive lamellipodia at the cell periphery and polarization of the cell accompanied by increases in cell motility. Is highly expressed in a number of cancer cells where it can act as a tumor promoter and is implicated in malignant phenotypes of several tumors such as gliomas and breast cancers. Negatively regulates myocardial contractility and positively regulates angiogenesis, platelet aggregation and thrombus formation in arteries. Mediates hypertrophic growth of neonatal cardiomyocytes, in part through a MAPK1/3 (ERK1/2)-dependent signaling pathway, and upon PMA treatment, is required to induce cardiomyocyte hypertrophy up to heart failure and death, by increasing protein synthesis, protein-DNA ratio and cell surface area. Regulates cardiomyocyte function by phosphorylating cardiac troponin T (TNNT2/CTNT), which induces significant reduction in actomyosin ATPase activity, myofilament calcium sensitivity and myocardial contractility. In angiogenesis, is required for full endothelial cell migration, adhesion to vitronectin (VTN), and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA)-dependent regulation of kinase activation and vascular tube formation. Involved in the stabilization of VEGFA mRNA at post-transcriptional level and mediates VEGFA-induced cell proliferation. In the regulation of calcium-induced platelet aggregation, mediates signals from the CD36/GP4 receptor for granule release, and activates the integrin heterodimer ITGA2B-ITGB3 through the RAP1GAP pathway for adhesion. During response to lipopolysaccharides (LPS), may regulate selective LPS-induced macrophage functions involved in host defense and inflammation. But in some inflammatory responses, may negatively regulate NF-kappa-B-induced genes, through IL1A-dependent induction of NF-kappa-B inhibitor alpha (NFKBIA/IKBA). Upon stimulation with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), phosphorylates EIF4G1, which modulates EIF4G1 binding to MKNK1 and may be involved in the regulation of EIF4E phosphorylation. Phosphorylates KIT, leading to inhibition of KIT activity. Phosphorylates ATF2 which promotes cooperation between ATF2 and JUN, activating transcription.
Gene Name:
PRKCA
Uniprot ID:
P17252
Molecular Weight:
76749.445 Da
References
  1. Armas LA, Hollis BW, Heaney RP: Vitamin D2 is much less effective than vitamin D3 in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Nov;89(11):5387-91. [15531486 ]
  2. The UniProt Consortium. The Universal Protein Resource (UniProt) Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:D190-D195.
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Calcium-activated, phospholipid- and diacylglycerol (DAG)-dependent serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in various cellular processes such as regulation of the B-cell receptor (BCR) signalosome, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcription regulation, insulin signaling and endothelial cells proliferation. Plays a key role in B-cell activation by regulating BCR-induced NF-kappa-B activation. Mediates the activation of the canonical NF-kappa-B pathway (NFKB1) by direct phosphorylation of CARD11/CARMA1 at 'Ser-559', 'Ser-644' and 'Ser-652'. Phosphorylation induces CARD11/CARMA1 association with lipid rafts and recruitment of the BCL10-MALT1 complex as well as MAP3K7/TAK1, which then activates IKK complex, resulting in nuclear translocation and activation of NFKB1. Plays a direct role in the negative feedback regulation of the BCR signaling, by down-modulating BTK function via direct phosphorylation of BTK at 'Ser-180', which results in the alteration of BTK plasma membrane localization and in turn inhibition of BTK activity. Involved in apoptosis following oxidative damage: in case of oxidative conditions, specifically phosphorylates 'Ser-36' of isoform p66Shc of SHC1, leading to mitochondrial accumulation of p66Shc, where p66Shc acts as a reactive oxygen species producer. Acts as a coactivator of androgen receptor (ANDR)-dependent transcription, by being recruited to ANDR target genes and specifically mediating phosphorylation of 'Thr-6' of histone H3 (H3T6ph), a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional activation that prevents demethylation of histone H3 'Lys-4' (H3K4me) by LSD1/KDM1A. In insulin signaling, may function downstream of IRS1 in muscle cells and mediate insulin-dependent DNA synthesis through the RAF1-MAPK/ERK signaling cascade. May participate in the regulation of glucose transport in adipocytes by negatively modulating the insulin-stimulated translocation of the glucose transporter SLC2A4/GLUT4. Under high glucose in pancreatic beta-cells, is probably involved in the inhibition of the insulin gene transcription, via regulation of MYC expression. In endothelial cells, activation of PRKCB induces increased phosphorylation of RB1, increased VEGFA-induced cell proliferation, and inhibits PI3K/AKT-dependent nitric oxide synthase (NOS3/eNOS) regulation by insulin, which causes endothelial dysfunction. Also involved in triglyceride homeostasis (By similarity). Phosphorylates ATF2 which promotes cooperation between ATF2 and JUN, activating transcription.
Gene Name:
PRKCB
Uniprot ID:
P05771
Molecular Weight:
76868.45 Da
References
  1. Armas LA, Hollis BW, Heaney RP: Vitamin D2 is much less effective than vitamin D3 in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Nov;89(11):5387-91. [15531486 ]
  2. The UniProt Consortium. The Universal Protein Resource (UniProt) Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:D190-D195.
General Function:
Protein serine/threonine kinase activity
Specific Function:
Calcium-independent, phospholipid- and diacylglycerol (DAG)-dependent serine/threonine-protein kinase that plays contrasting roles in cell death and cell survival by functioning as a pro-apoptotic protein during DNA damage-induced apoptosis, but acting as an anti-apoptotic protein during cytokine receptor-initiated cell death, is involved in tumor suppression as well as survival of several cancers, is required for oxygen radical production by NADPH oxidase and acts as positive or negative regulator in platelet functional responses. Negatively regulates B cell proliferation and also has an important function in self-antigen induced B cell tolerance induction. Upon DNA damage, activates the promoter of the death-promoting transcription factor BCLAF1/Btf to trigger BCLAF1-mediated p53/TP53 gene transcription and apoptosis. In response to oxidative stress, interact with and activate CHUK/IKKA in the nucleus, causing the phosphorylation of p53/TP53. In the case of ER stress or DNA damage-induced apoptosis, can form a complex with the tyrosine-protein kinase ABL1 which trigger apoptosis independently of p53/TP53. In cytosol can trigger apoptosis by activating MAPK11 or MAPK14, inhibiting AKT1 and decreasing the level of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), whereas in nucleus induces apoptosis via the activation of MAPK8 or MAPK9. Upon ionizing radiation treatment, is required for the activation of the apoptosis regulators BAX and BAK, which trigger the mitochondrial cell death pathway. Can phosphorylate MCL1 and target it for degradation which is sufficient to trigger for BAX activation and apoptosis. Is required for the control of cell cycle progression both at G1/S and G2/M phases. Mediates phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced inhibition of cell cycle progression at G1/S phase by up-regulating the CDK inhibitor CDKN1A/p21 and inhibiting the cyclin CCNA2 promoter activity. In response to UV irradiation can phosphorylate CDK1, which is important for the G2/M DNA damage checkpoint activation. Can protect glioma cells from the apoptosis induced by TNFSF10/TRAIL, probably by inducing increased phosphorylation and subsequent activation of AKT1. Is highly expressed in a number of cancer cells and promotes cell survival and resistance against chemotherapeutic drugs by inducing cyclin D1 (CCND1) and hyperphosphorylation of RB1, and via several pro-survival pathways, including NF-kappa-B, AKT1 and MAPK1/3 (ERK1/2). Can also act as tumor suppressor upon mitogenic stimulation with PMA or TPA. In N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)-treated cells, is required for NCF1 (p47-phox) phosphorylation and activation of NADPH oxidase activity, and regulates TNF-elicited superoxide anion production in neutrophils, by direct phosphorylation and activation of NCF1 or indirectly through MAPK1/3 (ERK1/2) signaling pathways. May also play a role in the regulation of NADPH oxidase activity in eosinophil after stimulation with IL5, leukotriene B4 or PMA. In collagen-induced platelet aggregation, acts a negative regulator of filopodia formation and actin polymerization by interacting with and negatively regulating VASP phosphorylation. Downstream of PAR1, PAR4 and CD36/GP4 receptors, regulates differentially platelet dense granule secretion; acts as a positive regulator in PAR-mediated granule secretion, whereas it negatively regulates CD36/GP4-mediated granule release. Phosphorylates MUC1 in the C-terminal and regulates the interaction between MUC1 and beta-catenin. The catalytic subunit phosphorylates 14-3-3 proteins (YWHAB, YWHAZ and YWHAH) in a sphingosine-dependent fashion (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PRKCD
Uniprot ID:
Q05655
Molecular Weight:
77504.445 Da
References
  1. Armas LA, Hollis BW, Heaney RP: Vitamin D2 is much less effective than vitamin D3 in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Nov;89(11):5387-91. [15531486 ]
  2. The UniProt Consortium. The Universal Protein Resource (UniProt) Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:D190-D195.
General Function:
Signal transducer activity
Specific Function:
Calcium-independent, phospholipid- and diacylglycerol (DAG)-dependent serine/threonine-protein kinase that plays essential roles in the regulation of multiple cellular processes linked to cytoskeletal proteins, such as cell adhesion, motility, migration and cell cycle, functions in neuron growth and ion channel regulation, and is involved in immune response, cancer cell invasion and regulation of apoptosis. Mediates cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix via integrin-dependent signaling, by mediating angiotensin-2-induced activation of integrin beta-1 (ITGB1) in cardiac fibroblasts. Phosphorylates MARCKS, which phosphorylates and activates PTK2/FAK, leading to the spread of cardiomyocytes. Involved in the control of the directional transport of ITGB1 in mesenchymal cells by phosphorylating vimentin (VIM), an intermediate filament (IF) protein. In epithelial cells, associates with and phosphorylates keratin-8 (KRT8), which induces targeting of desmoplakin at desmosomes and regulates cell-cell contact. Phosphorylates IQGAP1, which binds to CDC42, mediating epithelial cell-cell detachment prior to migration. In HeLa cells, contributes to hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-induced cell migration, and in human corneal epithelial cells, plays a critical role in wound healing after activation by HGF. During cytokinesis, forms a complex with YWHAB, which is crucial for daughter cell separation, and facilitates abscission by a mechanism which may implicate the regulation of RHOA. In cardiac myocytes, regulates myofilament function and excitation coupling at the Z-lines, where it is indirectly associated with F-actin via interaction with COPB1. During endothelin-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, mediates activation of PTK2/FAK, which is critical for cardiomyocyte survival and regulation of sarcomere length. Plays a role in the pathogenesis of dilated cardiomyopathy via persistent phosphorylation of troponin I (TNNI3). Involved in nerve growth factor (NFG)-induced neurite outgrowth and neuron morphological change independently of its kinase activity, by inhibition of RHOA pathway, activation of CDC42 and cytoskeletal rearrangement. May be involved in presynaptic facilitation by mediating phorbol ester-induced synaptic potentiation. Phosphorylates gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2 (GABRG2), which reduces the response of GABA receptors to ethanol and benzodiazepines and may mediate acute tolerance to the intoxicating effects of ethanol. Upon PMA treatment, phosphorylates the capsaicin- and heat-activated cation channel TRPV1, which is required for bradykinin-induced sensitization of the heat response in nociceptive neurons. Is able to form a complex with PDLIM5 and N-type calcium channel, and may enhance channel activities and potentiates fast synaptic transmission by phosphorylating the pore-forming alpha subunit CACNA1B (CaV2.2). In prostate cancer cells, interacts with and phosphorylates STAT3, which increases DNA-binding and transcriptional activity of STAT3 and seems to be essential for prostate cancer cell invasion. Downstream of TLR4, plays an important role in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced immune response by phosphorylating and activating TICAM2/TRAM, which in turn activates the transcription factor IRF3 and subsequent cytokines production. In differentiating erythroid progenitors, is regulated by EPO and controls the protection against the TNFSF10/TRAIL-mediated apoptosis, via BCL2. May be involved in the regulation of the insulin-induced phosphorylation and activation of AKT1.
Gene Name:
PRKCE
Uniprot ID:
Q02156
Molecular Weight:
83673.2 Da
References
  1. Armas LA, Hollis BW, Heaney RP: Vitamin D2 is much less effective than vitamin D3 in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Nov;89(11):5387-91. [15531486 ]
  2. The UniProt Consortium. The Universal Protein Resource (UniProt) Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:D190-D195.
General Function:
Protein kinase c activity
Specific Function:
Calcium-independent, phospholipid- and diacylglycerol (DAG)-dependent serine/threonine-protein kinase that is involved in the regulation of cell differentiation in keratinocytes and pre-B cell receptor, mediates regulation of epithelial tight junction integrity and foam cell formation, and is required for glioblastoma proliferation and apoptosis prevention in MCF-7 cells. In keratinocytes, binds and activates the tyrosine kinase FYN, which in turn blocks epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling and leads to keratinocyte growth arrest and differentiation. Associates with the cyclin CCNE1-CDK2-CDKN1B complex and inhibits CDK2 kinase activity, leading to RB1 dephosphorylation and thereby G1 arrest in keratinocytes. In association with RALA activates actin depolymerization, which is necessary for keratinocyte differentiation. In the pre-B cell receptor signaling, functions downstream of BLNK by up-regulating IRF4, which in turn activates L chain gene rearrangement. Regulates epithelial tight junctions (TJs) by phosphorylating occludin (OCLN) on threonine residues, which is necessary for the assembly and maintenance of TJs. In association with PLD2 and via TLR4 signaling, is involved in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RGS2 down-regulation and foam cell formation. Upon PMA stimulation, mediates glioblastoma cell proliferation by activating the mTOR pathway, the PI3K/AKT pathway and the ERK1-dependent phosphorylation of ELK1. Involved in the protection of glioblastoma cells from irradiation-induced apoptosis by preventing caspase-9 activation. In camptothecin-treated MCF-7 cells, regulates NF-kappa-B upstream signaling by activating IKBKB, and confers protection against DNA damage-induced apoptosis. Promotes oncogenic functions of ATF2 in the nucleus while blocking its apoptotic function at mitochondria. Phosphorylates ATF2 which promotes its nuclear retention and transcriptional activity and negatively regulates its mitochondrial localization.
Gene Name:
PRKCH
Uniprot ID:
P24723
Molecular Weight:
77827.96 Da
References
  1. Armas LA, Hollis BW, Heaney RP: Vitamin D2 is much less effective than vitamin D3 in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Nov;89(11):5387-91. [15531486 ]
  2. The UniProt Consortium. The Universal Protein Resource (UniProt) Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:D190-D195.
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Calcium-activated, phospholipid- and diacylglycerol (DAG)-dependent serine/threonine-protein kinase that plays diverse roles in neuronal cells and eye tissues, such as regulation of the neuronal receptors GRIA4/GLUR4 and GRIN1/NMDAR1, modulation of receptors and neuronal functions related to sensitivity to opiates, pain and alcohol, mediation of synaptic function and cell survival after ischemia, and inhibition of gap junction activity after oxidative stress. Binds and phosphorylates GRIA4/GLUR4 glutamate receptor and regulates its function by increasing plasma membrane-associated GRIA4 expression. In primary cerebellar neurons treated with the agonist 3,5-dihyidroxyphenylglycine, functions downstream of the metabotropic glutamate receptor GRM5/MGLUR5 and phosphorylates GRIN1/NMDAR1 receptor which plays a key role in synaptic plasticity, synaptogenesis, excitotoxicity, memory acquisition and learning. May be involved in the regulation of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), but may be not necessary for the process of synaptic plasticity. May be involved in desensitization of mu-type opioid receptor-mediated G-protein activation in the spinal cord, and may be critical for the development and/or maintenance of morphine-induced reinforcing effects in the limbic forebrain. May modulate the functionality of mu-type-opioid receptors by participating in a signaling pathway which leads to the phosphorylation and degradation of opioid receptors. May also contributes to chronic morphine-induced changes in nociceptive processing. Plays a role in neuropathic pain mechanisms and contributes to the maintenance of the allodynia pain produced by peripheral inflammation. Plays an important role in initial sensitivity and tolerance to ethanol, by mediating the behavioral effects of ethanol as well as the effects of this drug on the GABA(A) receptors. During and after cerebral ischemia modulate neurotransmission and cell survival in synaptic membranes, and is involved in insulin-induced inhibition of necrosis, an important mechanism for minimizing ischemic injury. Required for the elimination of multiple climbing fibers during innervation of Purkinje cells in developing cerebellum. Is activated in lens epithelial cells upon hydrogen peroxide treatment, and phosphorylates connexin-43 (GJA1/CX43), resulting in disassembly of GJA1 gap junction plaques and inhibition of gap junction activity which could provide a protective effect against oxidative stress (By similarity). Phosphorylates p53/TP53 and promotes p53/TP53-dependent apoptosis in response to DNA damage. Involved in the phase resetting of the cerebral cortex circadian clock during temporally restricted feeding. Stabilizes the core clock component ARNTL/BMAL1 by interfering with its ubiquitination, thus suppressing its degradation, resulting in phase resetting of the cerebral cortex clock (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PRKCG
Uniprot ID:
P05129
Molecular Weight:
78447.23 Da
References
  1. Armas LA, Hollis BW, Heaney RP: Vitamin D2 is much less effective than vitamin D3 in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Nov;89(11):5387-91. [15531486 ]
  2. The UniProt Consortium. The Universal Protein Resource (UniProt) Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:D190-D195.
General Function:
Protein serine/threonine kinase activity
Specific Function:
Calcium- and diacylglycerol-independent serine/ threonine-protein kinase that plays a general protective role against apoptotic stimuli, is involved in NF-kappa-B activation, cell survival, differentiation and polarity, and contributes to the regulation of microtubule dynamics in the early secretory pathway. Is necessary for BCR-ABL oncogene-mediated resistance to apoptotic drug in leukemia cells, protecting leukemia cells against drug-induced apoptosis. In cultured neurons, prevents amyloid beta protein-induced apoptosis by interrupting cell death process at a very early step. In glioblastoma cells, may function downstream of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI(3)K) and PDPK1 in the promotion of cell survival by phosphorylating and inhibiting the pro-apoptotic factor BAD. Can form a protein complex in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells with PARD6A and ECT2 and regulate ECT2 oncogenic activity by phosphorylation, which in turn promotes transformed growth and invasion. In response to nerve growth factor (NGF), acts downstream of SRC to phosphorylate and activate IRAK1, allowing the subsequent activation of NF-kappa-B and neuronal cell survival. Functions in the organization of the apical domain in epithelial cells by phosphorylating EZR. This step is crucial for activation and normal distribution of EZR at the early stages of intestinal epithelial cell differentiation. Forms a protein complex with LLGL1 and PARD6B independently of PARD3 to regulate epithelial cell polarity. Plays a role in microtubule dynamics in the early secretory pathway through interaction with RAB2A and GAPDH and recruitment to vesicular tubular clusters (VTCs). In human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC), is activated by saturated fatty acids and mediates lipid-induced apoptosis.
Gene Name:
PRKCI
Uniprot ID:
P41743
Molecular Weight:
68261.855 Da
References
  1. Armas LA, Hollis BW, Heaney RP: Vitamin D2 is much less effective than vitamin D3 in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Nov;89(11):5387-91. [15531486 ]
  2. The UniProt Consortium. The Universal Protein Resource (UniProt) Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:D190-D195.
General Function:
Ubiquitin-protein transferase activity
Specific Function:
Calcium-independent, phospholipid- and diacylglycerol (DAG)-dependent serine/threonine-protein kinase that mediates non-redundant functions in T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling, including T-cells activation, proliferation, differentiation and survival, by mediating activation of multiple transcription factors such as NF-kappa-B, JUN, NFATC1 and NFATC2. In TCR-CD3/CD28-co-stimulated T-cells, is required for the activation of NF-kappa-B and JUN, which in turn are essential for IL2 production, and participates to the calcium-dependent NFATC1 and NFATC2 transactivation. Mediates the activation of the canonical NF-kappa-B pathway (NFKB1) by direct phosphorylation of CARD11 on several serine residues, inducing CARD11 association with lipid rafts and recruitment of the BCL10-MALT1 complex, which then activates IKK complex, resulting in nuclear translocation and activation of NFKB1. May also play an indirect role in activation of the non-canonical NF-kappa-B (NFKB2) pathway. In the signaling pathway leading to JUN activation, acts by phosphorylating the mediator STK39/SPAK and may not act through MAP kinases signaling. Plays a critical role in TCR/CD28-induced NFATC1 and NFATC2 transactivation by participating in the regulation of reduced inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate generation and intracellular calcium mobilization. After costimulation of T-cells through CD28 can phosphorylate CBLB and is required for the ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of CBLB, which is a prerequisite for the activation of TCR. During T-cells differentiation, plays an important role in the development of T-helper 2 (Th2) cells following immune and inflammatory responses, and, in the development of inflammatory autoimmune diseases, is necessary for the activation of IL17-producing Th17 cells. May play a minor role in Th1 response. Upon TCR stimulation, mediates T-cell protective survival signal by phosphorylating BAD, thus protecting T-cells from BAD-induced apoptosis, and by up-regulating BCL-X(L)/BCL2L1 levels through NF-kappa-B and JUN pathways. In platelets, regulates signal transduction downstream of the ITGA2B, CD36/GP4, F2R/PAR1 and F2RL3/PAR4 receptors, playing a positive role in 'outside-in' signaling and granule secretion signal transduction. May relay signals from the activated ITGA2B receptor by regulating the uncoupling of WASP and WIPF1, thereby permitting the regulation of actin filament nucleation and branching activity of the Arp2/3 complex. May mediate inhibitory effects of free fatty acids on insulin signaling by phosphorylating IRS1, which in turn blocks IRS1 tyrosine phosphorylation and downstream activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway. Phosphorylates MSN (moesin) in the presence of phosphatidylglycerol or phosphatidylinositol. Phosphorylates PDPK1 at 'Ser-504' and 'Ser-532' and negatively regulates its ability to phosphorylate PKB/AKT1.
Gene Name:
PRKCQ
Uniprot ID:
Q04759
Molecular Weight:
81864.145 Da
References
  1. Armas LA, Hollis BW, Heaney RP: Vitamin D2 is much less effective than vitamin D3 in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Nov;89(11):5387-91. [15531486 ]
  2. The UniProt Consortium. The Universal Protein Resource (UniProt) Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:D190-D195.
General Function:
Protein serine/threonine kinase activity
Specific Function:
Calcium- and diacylglycerol-independent serine/threonine-protein kinase that functions in phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade, and is involved in NF-kappa-B activation, mitogenic signaling, cell proliferation, cell polarity, inflammatory response and maintenance of long-term potentiation (LTP). Upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment in macrophages, or following mitogenic stimuli, functions downstream of PI3K to activate MAP2K1/MEK1-MAPK1/ERK2 signaling cascade independently of RAF1 activation. Required for insulin-dependent activation of AKT3, but may function as an adapter rather than a direct activator. Upon insulin treatment may act as a downstream effector of PI3K and contribute to the activation of translocation of the glucose transporter SLC2A4/GLUT4 and subsequent glucose transport in adipocytes. In EGF-induced cells, binds and activates MAP2K5/MEK5-MAPK7/ERK5 independently of its kinase activity and can activate JUN promoter through MEF2C. Through binding with SQSTM1/p62, functions in interleukin-1 signaling and activation of NF-kappa-B with the specific adapters RIPK1 and TRAF6. Participates in TNF-dependent transactivation of NF-kappa-B by phosphorylating and activating IKBKB kinase, which in turn leads to the degradation of NF-kappa-B inhibitors. In migrating astrocytes, forms a cytoplasmic complex with PARD6A and is recruited by CDC42 to function in the establishment of cell polarity along with the microtubule motor and dynein. In association with FEZ1, stimulates neuronal differentiation in PC12 cells. In the inflammatory response, is required for the T-helper 2 (Th2) differentiation process, including interleukin production, efficient activation of JAK1 and the subsequent phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of STAT6. May be involved in development of allergic airway inflammation (asthma), a process dependent on Th2 immune response. In the NF-kappa-B-mediated inflammatory response, can relieve SETD6-dependent repression of NF-kappa-B target genes by phosphorylating the RELA subunit at 'Ser-311'. Necessary and sufficient for LTP maintenance in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells. In vein endothelial cells treated with the oxidant peroxynitrite, phosphorylates STK11 leading to nuclear export of STK11, subsequent inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling, and increased apoptosis. Phosphorylates VAMP2 in vitro (PubMed:17313651).
Gene Name:
PRKCZ
Uniprot ID:
Q05513
Molecular Weight:
67659.335 Da
References
  1. Armas LA, Hollis BW, Heaney RP: Vitamin D2 is much less effective than vitamin D3 in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Nov;89(11):5387-91. [15531486 ]
  2. The UniProt Consortium. The Universal Protein Resource (UniProt) Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:D190-D195.