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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-07-06 21:35:50 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:25:48 UTC
Accession NumberT3D2645
Identification
Common NameBrevetoxin
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionBrevetoxins are cyclic polyether compounds produced naturally by a species of dinoflagellates (Karenia brevis). They are neurotoxins that bind to voltage-gated sodium channels in nerve cells, leading to disruption of normal neurological processes and causing the illness clinically described as neurotoxic shellfish poisoning. (2)
Compound Type
  • Aldehyde
  • Animal Toxin
  • Ester
  • Ether
  • Marine Toxin
  • Natural Compound
  • Organic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
BREVETOXIN PbTx-1
Chemical FormulaC49H68O14
Average Molecular Mass881.056 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass880.461 g/mol
CAS Registry Number98112-41-5
IUPAC Name2-{[(1R,3S,5R,7S,9R,11S,12S,14R,16R,18S,20R,21Z,24S,26R,28S,30R,31R,33S,35R,37S,42R,44S,46R,48S)-12-hydroxy-1,3,11,31,41,44-hexamethyl-39-oxo-2,6,10,15,19,25,29,34,38,43,47-undecaoxaundecacyclo[26.22.0.0³,²⁶.0⁵,²⁴.0⁷,²⁰.0⁹,¹⁸.0¹¹,¹⁶.0³⁰,⁴⁸.0³³,⁴⁶.0³⁵,⁴⁴.0³⁷,⁴²]pentaconta-21,40-dien-14-yl]methyl}prop-2-enal
Traditional Name2-{[(1R,3S,5R,7S,9R,11S,12S,14R,16R,18S,20R,21Z,24S,26R,28S,30R,31R,33S,35R,37S,42R,44S,46R,48S)-12-hydroxy-1,3,11,31,41,44-hexamethyl-39-oxo-2,6,10,15,19,25,29,34,38,43,47-undecaoxaundecacyclo[26.22.0.0³,²⁶.0⁵,²⁴.0⁷,²⁰.0⁹,¹⁸.0¹¹,¹⁶.0³⁰,⁴⁸.0³³,⁴⁶.0³⁵,⁴⁴.0³⁷,⁴²]pentaconta-21,40-dien-14-yl]methyl}prop-2-enal
SMILES[H]\C1=C([H])\[C@@]2([H])O[C@@]3([H])C[C@@]4([H])O[C@]([H])(CC(=C)C=O)C[C@]([H])(O)[C@]4(C)O[C@]3([H])C[C@]2([H])O[C@]2([H])C[C@]3(C)O[C@]4(C)CC[C@]5([H])O[C@]6([H])C[C@]7(C)O[C@]8([H])C(C)=CC(=O)O[C@@]8([H])C[C@@]7([H])O[C@@]6([H])C[C@@]([H])(C)[C@@]5([H])O[C@@]4([H])C[C@@]3([H])O[C@@]2([H])C1
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C49H68O14/c1-24(23-50)13-27-16-38(51)49(7)42(53-27)18-33-34(61-49)17-32-28(54-33)9-8-10-29-36(56-32)22-48(6)41(57-29)20-40-46(4,63-48)12-11-30-44(60-40)25(2)14-31-37(55-30)21-47(5)39(58-31)19-35-45(62-47)26(3)15-43(52)59-35/h8-9,15,23,25,27-42,44-45,51H,1,10-14,16-22H2,2-7H3/b9-8-/t25-,27-,28-,29+,30+,31+,32+,33+,34-,35+,36-,37-,38+,39-,40+,41-,42-,44-,45-,46-,47+,48+,49+/m1/s1
InChI KeyInChIKey=WTXGTTBOKVQBGS-ZOTXBKINSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as brevetoxins and derivatives. These are a group of cyclic polyether compounds produced naturally by a species of dinoflagellate known as Karenia brevis. They contain a Pentaoxapentacycloheptacos- 23-en-7-one derivative (type a brevetoxin) or a pentaoxapentacyclotetracosa- 8,23-dien-7-one derivative (type b brevetoxin).
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassPhenylpropanoids and polyketides
ClassBrevetoxins and derivatives
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentBrevetoxins and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Brevetoxin type b fragment
  • Oxepane
  • Dihydropyranone
  • Pyran
  • Oxane
  • Monosaccharide
  • Alpha,beta-unsaturated carboxylic ester
  • Enoate ester
  • Enal
  • Alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehyde
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Lactone
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Ether
  • Dialkyl ether
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aldehyde
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Extracellular
  • Lysosome
  • Membrane
  • Microsome
  • Mitochondrion
  • Plasma Membrane
  • Synaptic Vesicle
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
ApoptosisNot Availablemap04210
Influenza aNot Availablemap05164
AnticonvulsantsNot AvailableNot Available
Sulfur metabolismNot Availablemap00920
Nitrogen MetabolismNot AvailableNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting PointNot Available
Boiling PointNot Available
SolubilityNot Available
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0048 g/LALOGPS
logP3.08ALOGPS
logP3.39ChemAxon
logS-5.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)13.84ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count13ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area155.9 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity225.48 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability100.07 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings11ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-01q9-0110011090-99eb7f8a9af5fc80f32bJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-8312013970-edf3ce46a0ac7a052d6eJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0hrr-9514007020-6ec6b6d6fc4ed77a20bfJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-004s-3021212190-46e89ecd03317711c20fJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-06si-1900013000-a8f04f18b5fb46ec2081JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-066s-2984111000-427309917b5e34ee783eJSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureInjection (sting/bite) (3)
Mechanism of ToxicityBrevetoxins are neurotoxins that bind to voltage-gated sodium channels in nerve cells, leading to disruption of normal neurological processes. (2)
MetabolismNot Available
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesBrevetoxins are cyclic polyether compounds produced naturally by a species of dinoflagellates (Karenia brevis). (2)
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsBrevetoxins are neurotoxins that cause the illness clinically described as neurotoxic shellfish poisoning. (2)
SymptomsBrevetoxins are neurotoxins that cause the illness clinically described as neurotoxic shellfish poisoning. Symptoms include vomiting and nausea and a variety of neurologic symptoms such as slurred speech. (2)
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID105135
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL1077122
ChemSpider ID24684127
KEGG IDC16839
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDBrevetoxin
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D2645.pdf
General References
  1. Radwan FF, Ramsdell JS: Brevetoxin forms covalent DNA adducts in rat lung following intratracheal exposure. Environ Health Perspect. 2008 Jul;116(7):930-6. doi: 10.1289/ehp.11068. [18629316 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Brevetoxin. Last Updated 22 February 2009. [Link]
  3. Wikipedia. Mollusca. Last Updated 5 August 2009. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient.
Gene Name:
SCN1A
Uniprot ID:
P35498
Molecular Weight:
228969.49 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Brevetoxin. Last Updated 22 February 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function:
Tetrodotoxin-resistant channel that mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which sodium ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient. Plays a role in neuropathic pain mechanisms.
Gene Name:
SCN10A
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y5Y9
Molecular Weight:
220623.605 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Brevetoxin. Last Updated 22 February 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function:
This protein mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which sodium ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient. It is a tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium channel isoform. Also involved, with the contribution of the receptor tyrosine kinase NTRK2, in rapid BDNF-evoked neuronal depolarization.
Gene Name:
SCN11A
Uniprot ID:
Q9UI33
Molecular Weight:
204919.66 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Brevetoxin. Last Updated 22 February 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient.
Gene Name:
SCN2A
Uniprot ID:
Q99250
Molecular Weight:
227972.64 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Brevetoxin. Last Updated 22 February 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient.
Gene Name:
SCN3A
Uniprot ID:
Q9NY46
Molecular Weight:
226291.905 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Brevetoxin. Last Updated 22 February 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function:
This protein mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient. This sodium channel may be present in both denervated and innervated skeletal muscle.
Gene Name:
SCN4A
Uniprot ID:
P35499
Molecular Weight:
208059.175 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Brevetoxin. Last Updated 22 February 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity involved in sa node cell action potential
Specific Function:
This protein mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient. It is a tetrodotoxin-resistant Na(+) channel isoform. This channel is responsible for the initial upstroke of the action potential. Channel inactivation is regulated by intracellular calcium levels.
Gene Name:
SCN5A
Uniprot ID:
Q14524
Molecular Weight:
226937.475 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Brevetoxin. Last Updated 22 February 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient.
Gene Name:
SCN7A
Uniprot ID:
Q01118
Molecular Weight:
193491.605 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Brevetoxin. Last Updated 22 February 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient. In macrophages and melanoma cells, isoform 5 may participate in the control of podosome and invadopodia formation.
Gene Name:
SCN8A
Uniprot ID:
Q9UQD0
Molecular Weight:
225278.005 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Brevetoxin. Last Updated 22 February 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient. It is a tetrodotoxin-sensitive Na(+) channel isoform. Plays a role in pain mechanisms, especially in the development of inflammatory pain (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SCN9A
Uniprot ID:
Q15858
Molecular Weight:
226370.175 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Brevetoxin. Last Updated 22 February 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity involved in purkinje myocyte action potential
Specific Function:
Crucial in the assembly, expression, and functional modulation of the heterotrimeric complex of the sodium channel. The subunit beta-1 can modulate multiple alpha subunit isoforms from brain, skeletal muscle, and heart. Its association with neurofascin may target the sodium channels to the nodes of Ranvier of developing axons and retain these channels at the nodes in mature myelinated axons.Isoform 2: Cell adhesion molecule that plays a critical role in neuronal migration and pathfinding during brain development. Stimulates neurite outgrowth.
Gene Name:
SCN1B
Uniprot ID:
Q07699
Molecular Weight:
24706.955 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Brevetoxin. Last Updated 22 February 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity involved in cardiac muscle cell action potential
Specific Function:
Crucial in the assembly, expression, and functional modulation of the heterotrimeric complex of the sodium channel. The subunit beta-2 causes an increase in the plasma membrane surface area and in its folding into microvilli. Interacts with TNR may play a crucial role in clustering and regulation of activity of sodium channels at nodes of Ranvier (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SCN2B
Uniprot ID:
O60939
Molecular Weight:
24325.69 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Brevetoxin. Last Updated 22 February 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity involved in cardiac muscle cell action potential
Specific Function:
Modulates channel gating kinetics. Causes unique persistent sodium currents. Inactivates the sodium channel opening more slowly than the subunit beta-1. Its association with neurofascin may target the sodium channels to the nodes of Ranvier of developing axons and retain these channels at the nodes in mature myelinated axons (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SCN3B
Uniprot ID:
Q9NY72
Molecular Weight:
24702.08 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Brevetoxin. Last Updated 22 February 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity involved in cardiac muscle cell action potential
Specific Function:
Modulates channel gating kinetics. Causes negative shifts in the voltage dependence of activation of certain alpha sodium channels, but does not affect the voltage dependence of inactivation. Modulates the suceptibility of the sodium channel to inhibition by toxic peptides from spider, scorpion, wasp and sea anemone venom.
Gene Name:
SCN4B
Uniprot ID:
Q8IWT1
Molecular Weight:
24968.755 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Brevetoxin. Last Updated 22 February 2009. [Link]