Tmic
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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-07-21 20:28:51 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:25:56 UTC
Accession NumberT3D3047
Identification
Common NameFlunitrazepam
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionA benzodiazepine with pharmacologic actions similar to those of diazepam that can cause anterograde amnesia. Some reports indicate that it is used as a date rape drug and suggest that it may precipitate violent behavior. The United States Government has banned the importation of this drug. [PubChem]
Compound Type
  • Amide
  • Amine
  • Anti-Anxiety Agent
  • Benzodiazepine
  • Drug
  • GABA Modulator
  • Hypnotic and Sedative
  • Metabolite
  • Organic Compound
  • Organofluoride
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
Flunitrazepamum
Hipnosedon
Hypnodorm
Narcozep
Rohypnol
Roipnol
Chemical FormulaC16H12FN3O3
Average Molecular Mass313.283 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass313.086 g/mol
CAS Registry Number1622-62-4
IUPAC Name5-(2-fluorophenyl)-1-methyl-7-nitro-2,3-dihydro-1H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one
Traditional Nameflunitrazepam
SMILESCN1C2=C(C=C(C=C2)N(=O)=O)C(=NCC1=O)C1=CC=CC=C1F
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C16H12FN3O3/c1-19-14-7-6-10(20(22)23)8-12(14)16(18-9-15(19)21)11-4-2-3-5-13(11)17/h2-8H,9H2,1H3
InChI KeyInChIKey=PPTYJKAXVCCBDU-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as 1,4-benzodiazepines. These are organic compounds containing a benzene ring fused to a 1,4-azepine.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassBenzodiazepines
Sub Class1,4-benzodiazepines
Direct Parent1,4-benzodiazepines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • 1,4-benzodiazepine
  • Alpha-amino acid or derivatives
  • Nitroaromatic compound
  • Fluorobenzene
  • Halobenzene
  • Aryl fluoride
  • Aryl halide
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Benzenoid
  • Tertiary carboxylic acid amide
  • Organic nitro compound
  • Carboxamide group
  • Ketimine
  • Lactam
  • C-nitro compound
  • Azacycle
  • Organic 1,3-dipolar compound
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound
  • Allyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound
  • Organic oxoazanium
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Imine
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organofluoride
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point166-167°C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility8.58e-03 g/L
LogP2.06
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0086 g/LALOGPS
logP2.2ALOGPS
logP2.55ChemAxon
logS-4.6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)1.7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area78.49 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity82.55 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability29.6 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-03du-2191000000-6d65c6a7646264996d7cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-03di-0009000000-d3cdbd0e6db0ff7d3658View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-02t9-0098000000-ed4fc29ca5e103e7e7acView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-014i-0292000000-910e58767edf9829ae76View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-000i-0590000000-f32a6119c0a1af4b09f1View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-03di-0009000000-0917b69ebd96bce7d228View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-03di-0009000000-52198b26a21902b1164dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-02t9-0095000000-6905e6ef41a999c5c6bbView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-014r-0291000000-05daa60855227774f98aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-01p9-0590000000-1dc724d4ffca2a0dcc87View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-0230-0970000000-c801330e64d95e44fce8View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-00si-1920000000-6d855cf670784a504122View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-001i-2910000000-ab0a5646c93755d78538View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-0gx0-3900000000-0e0998c190e076f40d1bView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-03di-0009000000-93aa3b8655f147913878View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-03di-0039000000-2c09292b786206e62c27View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-07vl-3922000000-a46dddc6a35eee14faf9View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-03di-0009000000-de2d40c51a7b8e4bb054View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-03di-0009000000-d6e19246eb2e60003f64View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9001000000-8593a33f1e3dc94a81c5View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-01p9-2393000000-5d873203e4acf1211838View in MoNA
Toxicity Profile
Route of Exposure50% (suppository) and 64-77% (oral)
Mechanism of ToxicityBenzodiazepines bind nonspecifically to benzodiazepine receptors BNZ1, which mediates sleep, and BNZ2, which affects affects muscle relaxation, anticonvulsant activity, motor coordination, and memory. As benzodiazepine receptors are thought to be coupled to gamma-aminobutyric acid-A (GABAA) receptors, this enhances the effects of GABA by increasing GABA affinity for the GABA receptor. Binding of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA to the site opens the chloride channel, resulting in a hyperpolarized cell membrane that prevents further excitation of the cell.
MetabolismHepatic. Half Life: 18-26 hours
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesFor short-term treatment of severe insomnias, that are not responsive to other hypnotics. Not approved by the FDA in the U.S. In the U.K. it is used (and available only by private prescription) in some hospitals to sedate patients undergoing colonoscopy. In Norway, flunitrazepam is available as a prescription drug to treat insomnia under the brand name Flunipam 1 mg. [Wikipedia]
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsThey cause slurred speech, disorientation and "drunken" behavior. They are physically and psychologically addictive.
SymptomsSymptoms of overdose include confusion, coma, impaired coordination, sleepiness, and slowed reaction time.
TreatmentGeneral supportive measures should be employed, along with intravenous fluids, and an adequate airway maintained. Hypotension may be combated by the use of norepinephrine or metaraminol. Dialysis is of limited value. Flumazenil (Anexate) is a competitive benzodiazepine receptor antagonist that can be used as an antidote for benzodiazepine overdose. In particular, flumazenil is very effective at reversing the CNS depression associated with benzodiazepines but is less effective at reversing respiratory depression. Its use, however, is controversial as it has numerous contraindications. It is contraindicated in patients who are on long-term benzodiazepines, those who have ingested a substance that lowers the seizure threshold, or in patients who have tachycardia or a history of seizures. As a general rule, medical observation and supportive care are the mainstay of treatment of benzodiazepine overdose. Although benzodiazepines are absorbed by activated charcoal, gastric decontamination with activated charcoal is not beneficial in pure benzodiazepine overdose as the risk of adverse effects often outweigh any potential benefit from the procedure. It is recommended only if benzodiazepines have been taken in combination with other drugs that may benefit from decontamination. Gastric lavage (stomach pumping) or whole bowel irrigation are also not recommended.
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB01544
HMDB IDHMDB15510
PubChem Compound ID3380
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL13280
ChemSpider ID3263
KEGG IDNot Available
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID111715
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDFlunitrazepam
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkFlunitrazepam
References
Synthesis Reference

Kariss, J. and Newmark, H.L.; U.S. Patent 3,116,203; December 31, 1963; assigned to Hoffmann-la Roche Inc.
 Kariss, J. and Newmark, H.L.; US. Patent 3,123,529; March 3,1964; assigned to Hoffmann-La Roche Inc. 
Keiler, O., Steiger, N. and Sternbach, L.H.; U.S. Patent 3,203,990; August 31, 1965; assigned to Hoffmann-La Roche Inc.

MSDST3D3047.pdf
General References
  1. Rickels K: The clinical use of hypnotics: indications for use and the need for a variety of hypnotics. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl. 1986;332:132-41. [2883820 ]
  2. Oelschlager H: [Chemical and pharmacologic aspects of benzodiazepines]. Schweiz Rundsch Med Prax. 1989 Jul 4;78(27-28):766-72. [2570451 ]
  3. Tokunaga S, Takeda Y, Shinomiya K, Hirase M, Kamei C: Effects of some H1-antagonists on the sleep-wake cycle in sleep-disturbed rats. J Pharmacol Sci. 2007 Feb;103(2):201-6. Epub 2007 Feb 8. [17287588 ]
  4. Usami N, Yamamoto T, Shintani S, Ishikura S, Higaki Y, Katagiri Y, Hara A: Substrate specificity of human 3(20)alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase for neurosteroids and its inhibition by benzodiazepines. Biol Pharm Bull. 2002 Apr;25(4):441-5. [11995921 ]
  5. Robertson MD, Drummer OH: Postmortem drug metabolism by bacteria. J Forensic Sci. 1995 May;40(3):382-6. [7782744 ]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Cholesterol binding
Specific Function:
Can bind protoporphyrin IX and may play a role in the transport of porphyrins and heme (By similarity). Promotes the transport of cholesterol across mitochondrial membranes and may play a role in lipid metabolism (PubMed:24814875), but its precise physiological role is controversial. It is apparently not required for steroid hormone biosynthesis. Was initially identified as peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor; can also bind isoquinoline carboxamides (PubMed:1847678).
Gene Name:
TSPO
Uniprot ID:
P30536
Molecular Weight:
18827.81 Da
References
  1. Awad M, Gavish M: Solubilization of peripheral-type benzodiazepine binding sites from cat cerebral cortex. J Neurochem. 1989 Jun;52(6):1880-5. [2723642 ]
  2. Katz Y, Weizman R, Weizman A, Gavish M: Disulfiram and diethyldithiocarbamate are competitive inhibitors at the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1992 Jul;262(1):394-7. [1320691 ]
  3. Papadopoulos V, Berkovich A, Krueger KE, Costa E, Guidotti A: Diazepam binding inhibitor and its processing products stimulate mitochondrial steroid biosynthesis via an interaction with mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptors. Endocrinology. 1991 Sep;129(3):1481-8. [1651852 ]
  4. Papadopoulos V, Nowzari FB, Krueger KE: Hormone-stimulated steroidogenesis is coupled to mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptors. Tropic hormone action on steroid biosynthesis is inhibited by flunitrazepam. J Biol Chem. 1991 Feb 25;266(6):3682-7. [1847384 ]
  5. Gandolfo P, Patte C, Leprince J, Thoumas JL, Vaudry H, Tonon MC: The stimulatory effect of the octadecaneuropeptide (ODN) on cytosolic Ca2+ in rat astrocytes is not mediated through classical benzodiazepine receptors. Eur J Pharmacol. 1997 Mar 19;322(2-3):275-81. [9098698 ]
  6. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  7. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA2
Uniprot ID:
P47869
Molecular Weight:
51325.85 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Iorio LC, Barnett A, Billard W: Selective affinity of 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for cerebellar type 1 receptor sites. Life Sci. 1984 Jul 2;35(1):105-13. [6738302 ]
  4. Wamsley JK, Golden JS, Yamamura HI, Barnett A: Autoradiographic demonstration of the selectivity of two 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for the BZD-1 receptors in the rat brain. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1985 Dec;23(6):973-8. [2867566 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA3
Uniprot ID:
P34903
Molecular Weight:
55164.055 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Iorio LC, Barnett A, Billard W: Selective affinity of 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for cerebellar type 1 receptor sites. Life Sci. 1984 Jul 2;35(1):105-13. [6738302 ]
  4. Wamsley JK, Golden JS, Yamamura HI, Barnett A: Autoradiographic demonstration of the selectivity of two 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for the BZD-1 receptors in the rat brain. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1985 Dec;23(6):973-8. [2867566 ]
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA5
Uniprot ID:
P31644
Molecular Weight:
52145.645 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Iorio LC, Barnett A, Billard W: Selective affinity of 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for cerebellar type 1 receptor sites. Life Sci. 1984 Jul 2;35(1):105-13. [6738302 ]
  4. Wamsley JK, Golden JS, Yamamura HI, Barnett A: Autoradiographic demonstration of the selectivity of two 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for the BZD-1 receptors in the rat brain. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1985 Dec;23(6):973-8. [2867566 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GABRA1
Uniprot ID:
P14867
Molecular Weight:
51801.395 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA4
Uniprot ID:
P48169
Molecular Weight:
61622.645 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GABRB1
Uniprot ID:
P18505
Molecular Weight:
54234.085 Da
References
  1. Iorio LC, Barnett A, Billard W: Selective affinity of 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for cerebellar type 1 receptor sites. Life Sci. 1984 Jul 2;35(1):105-13. [6738302 ]
  2. Wamsley JK, Golden JS, Yamamura HI, Barnett A: Autoradiographic demonstration of the selectivity of two 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for the BZD-1 receptors in the rat brain. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1985 Dec;23(6):973-8. [2867566 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRB2
Uniprot ID:
P47870
Molecular Weight:
59149.895 Da
References
  1. Iorio LC, Barnett A, Billard W: Selective affinity of 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for cerebellar type 1 receptor sites. Life Sci. 1984 Jul 2;35(1):105-13. [6738302 ]
  2. Wamsley JK, Golden JS, Yamamura HI, Barnett A: Autoradiographic demonstration of the selectivity of two 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for the BZD-1 receptors in the rat brain. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1985 Dec;23(6):973-8. [2867566 ]
General Function:
Gaba-gated chloride ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRB3
Uniprot ID:
P28472
Molecular Weight:
54115.04 Da
References
  1. Iorio LC, Barnett A, Billard W: Selective affinity of 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for cerebellar type 1 receptor sites. Life Sci. 1984 Jul 2;35(1):105-13. [6738302 ]
  2. Wamsley JK, Golden JS, Yamamura HI, Barnett A: Autoradiographic demonstration of the selectivity of two 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for the BZD-1 receptors in the rat brain. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1985 Dec;23(6):973-8. [2867566 ]
General Function:
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRD
Uniprot ID:
O14764
Molecular Weight:
50707.835 Da
References
  1. Iorio LC, Barnett A, Billard W: Selective affinity of 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for cerebellar type 1 receptor sites. Life Sci. 1984 Jul 2;35(1):105-13. [6738302 ]
  2. Wamsley JK, Golden JS, Yamamura HI, Barnett A: Autoradiographic demonstration of the selectivity of two 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for the BZD-1 receptors in the rat brain. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1985 Dec;23(6):973-8. [2867566 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRE
Uniprot ID:
P78334
Molecular Weight:
57971.175 Da
References
  1. Iorio LC, Barnett A, Billard W: Selective affinity of 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for cerebellar type 1 receptor sites. Life Sci. 1984 Jul 2;35(1):105-13. [6738302 ]
  2. Wamsley JK, Golden JS, Yamamura HI, Barnett A: Autoradiographic demonstration of the selectivity of two 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for the BZD-1 receptors in the rat brain. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1985 Dec;23(6):973-8. [2867566 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRG1
Uniprot ID:
Q8N1C3
Molecular Weight:
53594.49 Da
References
  1. Iorio LC, Barnett A, Billard W: Selective affinity of 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for cerebellar type 1 receptor sites. Life Sci. 1984 Jul 2;35(1):105-13. [6738302 ]
  2. Wamsley JK, Golden JS, Yamamura HI, Barnett A: Autoradiographic demonstration of the selectivity of two 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for the BZD-1 receptors in the rat brain. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1985 Dec;23(6):973-8. [2867566 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRG2
Uniprot ID:
P18507
Molecular Weight:
54161.78 Da
References
  1. Iorio LC, Barnett A, Billard W: Selective affinity of 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for cerebellar type 1 receptor sites. Life Sci. 1984 Jul 2;35(1):105-13. [6738302 ]
  2. Wamsley JK, Golden JS, Yamamura HI, Barnett A: Autoradiographic demonstration of the selectivity of two 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for the BZD-1 receptors in the rat brain. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1985 Dec;23(6):973-8. [2867566 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRG3
Uniprot ID:
Q99928
Molecular Weight:
54288.16 Da
References
  1. Iorio LC, Barnett A, Billard W: Selective affinity of 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for cerebellar type 1 receptor sites. Life Sci. 1984 Jul 2;35(1):105-13. [6738302 ]
  2. Wamsley JK, Golden JS, Yamamura HI, Barnett A: Autoradiographic demonstration of the selectivity of two 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for the BZD-1 receptors in the rat brain. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1985 Dec;23(6):973-8. [2867566 ]
General Function:
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. In the uterus, the function of the receptor appears to be related to tissue contractility. The binding of this pI subunit with other GABA(A) receptor subunits alters the sensitivity of recombinant receptors to modulatory agents such as pregnanolone.
Gene Name:
GABRP
Uniprot ID:
O00591
Molecular Weight:
50639.735 Da
References
  1. Iorio LC, Barnett A, Billard W: Selective affinity of 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for cerebellar type 1 receptor sites. Life Sci. 1984 Jul 2;35(1):105-13. [6738302 ]
  2. Wamsley JK, Golden JS, Yamamura HI, Barnett A: Autoradiographic demonstration of the selectivity of two 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for the BZD-1 receptors in the rat brain. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1985 Dec;23(6):973-8. [2867566 ]
General Function:
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. Rho-1 GABA receptor could play a role in retinal neurotransmission.
Gene Name:
GABRR1
Uniprot ID:
P24046
Molecular Weight:
55882.91 Da
References
  1. Iorio LC, Barnett A, Billard W: Selective affinity of 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for cerebellar type 1 receptor sites. Life Sci. 1984 Jul 2;35(1):105-13. [6738302 ]
  2. Wamsley JK, Golden JS, Yamamura HI, Barnett A: Autoradiographic demonstration of the selectivity of two 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for the BZD-1 receptors in the rat brain. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1985 Dec;23(6):973-8. [2867566 ]
General Function:
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. Rho-2 GABA receptor could play a role in retinal neurotransmission.
Gene Name:
GABRR2
Uniprot ID:
P28476
Molecular Weight:
54150.41 Da
References
  1. Iorio LC, Barnett A, Billard W: Selective affinity of 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for cerebellar type 1 receptor sites. Life Sci. 1984 Jul 2;35(1):105-13. [6738302 ]
  2. Wamsley JK, Golden JS, Yamamura HI, Barnett A: Autoradiographic demonstration of the selectivity of two 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for the BZD-1 receptors in the rat brain. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1985 Dec;23(6):973-8. [2867566 ]
General Function:
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRR3
Uniprot ID:
A8MPY1
Molecular Weight:
54271.1 Da
References
  1. Iorio LC, Barnett A, Billard W: Selective affinity of 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for cerebellar type 1 receptor sites. Life Sci. 1984 Jul 2;35(1):105-13. [6738302 ]
  2. Wamsley JK, Golden JS, Yamamura HI, Barnett A: Autoradiographic demonstration of the selectivity of two 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for the BZD-1 receptors in the rat brain. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1985 Dec;23(6):973-8. [2867566 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA6
Uniprot ID:
Q16445
Molecular Weight:
51023.69 Da
References
  1. Santhakumar V, Hanchar HJ, Wallner M, Olsen RW, Otis TS: Contributions of the GABAA receptor alpha6 subunit to phasic and tonic inhibition revealed by a naturally occurring polymorphism in the alpha6 gene. J Neurosci. 2006 Mar 22;26(12):3357-64. [16554486 ]
General Function:
Glucuronosyltransferase activity
Specific Function:
UDPGTs are of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isozyme has glucuronidating capacity with steroid substrates such as 5-beta-androstane 3-alpha,17-beta-diol, estradiol, ADT, eugenol and bile acids. Only isoform 1 seems to be active.
Gene Name:
UGT2B28
Uniprot ID:
Q9BY64
Molecular Weight:
60905.8 Da
References
  1. Thomassin J, Tephly TR: Photoaffinity labeling of rat liver microsomal morphine UDP-glucuronosyltransferase by [3H]flunitrazepam. Mol Pharmacol. 1990 Sep;38(3):294-8. [2119476 ]
21. GABA-A receptor (anion channel) (Protein Group)
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel (By similarity).
Included Proteins:
P14867 , P47869 , P34903 , P48169 , P31644 , Q16445 , P18505 , P47870 , P28472 , O14764 , P78334 , Q8N1C3 , P18507 , Q99928 , O00591 , Q9UN88