Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2010-06-10 09:41:05 -0600
Update Date2014-11-04 15:52:59 -0700
Accession NumberT3D3780
Identification
Common NamePaxilline
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionTremorgenic agent from Penicillium paxilli, Acremonium lorii, Emericella foveolata, Emericella desertorum and Emericella striata Paxilline is a potassium channel blocker. Paxilline is a toxic, tremorgenic indole alkaloid produced by Penicillium paxilli. Paxilline belongs to the family of Diterpenes. These are terpene compounds formed by four isoprene units.
Compound Type
  • Ester
  • Ether
  • Food Toxin
  • Fungal Toxin
  • Metabolite
  • Mycotoxin
  • Natural Compound
  • Organic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
(2R,4bS,6aS,12bS,12cR,14aS)-4b-Hydroxy-2-(2-hydroxy-2-propanyl)-12b,12c-dimethyl-5,6,6a,7,12,12b,12c,13,14,14a-decahydro-2H-chromeno[5',6':6,7]indeno[1,2-b]indol-3(4bH)-one
(2R,4bS,6aS,12bS,12cR,14aS)-5,6,6a,7,12,12b,12c,13,14,14a-Decahydro-4b-hydroxy-2-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)-12b,12c-dimethyl-2H-pyrano[2'',3'':5',6']benz[1',2':6,7]indeno[1,2-b]indol-3(4bH)-one
5,6,6a,7,12,12bS,12cR,13,14,14aS-decahydro-4bS-hydroxy-2R-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)-12b,12c-dimethyl-2H-1-benzopyrano[5?,6?:6,7]indeno[1,2-b]indole-3(4bH)-one
Chemical FormulaC27H33NO4
Average Molecular Mass435.555 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass435.241 g/mol
CAS Registry Number57186-25-1
IUPAC Name11-hydroxy-7-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-1,2-dimethyl-6-oxa-23-azahexacyclo[12.10.0.0²,¹¹.0⁵,¹⁰.0¹⁶,²⁴.0¹⁷,²²]tetracosa-9,16(24),17,19,21-pentaen-8-one
Traditional Name11-hydroxy-7-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-1,2-dimethyl-6-oxa-23-azahexacyclo[12.10.0.0²,¹¹.0⁵,¹⁰.0¹⁶,²⁴.0¹⁷,²²]tetracosa-9,16(24),17,19,21-pentaen-8-one
SMILESCC(C)(O)C1OC2CCC3(C)C4(C)C(CC5=C4NC4=CC=CC=C54)CCC3(O)C2=CC1=O
InChI IdentifierInChI=1/C27H33NO4/c1-24(2,30)23-20(29)14-18-21(32-23)10-11-25(3)26(4)15(9-12-27(18,25)31)13-17-16-7-5-6-8-19(16)28-22(17)26/h5-8,14-15,21,23,28,30-31H,9-13H2,1-4H3
InChI KeyInChIKey=ACNHBCIZLNNLRS-UHFFFAOYNA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassHeterocyclic Compounds
ClassNaphthopyrans
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentNaphthopyrans
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Naphthalene
  • Organonitrogen Compound
  • Dialkyl Ether
  • Cyclic Alcohol
  • Alcohol
  • Tertiary Alcohol
  • Pyrrole
  • Indole
  • Pyran
  • Naphthopyran
  • Dihydropyranone
  • Benzenoid
  • Ether
  • Organooxygen Compound
  • Aromatic Heteropolycyclic Compound
  • Carbonyl Group
  • Cyclic Ketone
  • Indole Or Derivatives
Molecular FrameworkAromatic Heteropolycyclic Compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point252°C
Boiling PointNot Available
SolubilityNot Available
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00145ALOGPS
logP4.38ALOGPS
logP3.62ChemAxon
logS-5.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)13.56ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.2ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area82.55 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity123.22 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability50.05 Å3ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral, dermal, inhalation, and parenteral (contaminated drugs). (4)
Mechanism of ToxicityTremorgenic mycotoxins exert their toxic effects by interfering with neurotransmitter release, possibly by causing degeneration of nerve terminals. They are thought to inhibit gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors, both pre- and postsynaptic, as well as inhibit transmitter breakdown at the GABA-T receptors. This would initially increase neurotransmitter levels, potentiating the GABA-induced chloride current, then lead to decreased levels of neurotransmitter in the synapse. In addition, paxilline inhibits presynaptic high-conductance Ca+2 activated maxi-K+ channels in the smooth muscle. Paxilline is also genotoxic and causes DNA damage. (1, 2, 3)
MetabolismNot Available
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)Not Available
Uses/SourcesPaxilline is a tremorgenic mycotoxin that has been found in fungus Penicillium paxilli. It may be found in contaminated cereal crops such as oats, barley, millet, corn and rice. (1, 5)
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsTremorgenic mycotoxins affect central nervous system activity. They cause a neurological disease of cattle known as "staggers syndrome". (1)
SymptomsTremorgenic mycotoxins affect central nervous system activity, inducing neurologic symptoms including mental confusion, paralysis, tremors, seizures, and death. They cause a neurological disease of cattle known as "staggers syndrome", which is characterized by muscle tremors, hyperexcitability, convulsions and ataxia. (1)
TreatmentTo control severe tremors caused by tremorgenic mycotoxins, methocarbamol should be administered. Generalized seizures may be treated with diazepam followed by methocarbamol or a barbiturate such as pentobarbital sodium. Gastric lavage should be performed and activated charcoal administered to limit further absorption of toxins. (6)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDHMDB30323
PubChem Compound ID4697
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider ID4535
KEGG IDC13782
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNot Available
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkPaxilline
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D3780.pdf
General References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]
  2. Knaus HG, McManus OB, Lee SH, Schmalhofer WA, Garcia-Calvo M, Helms LM, Sanchez M, Giangiacomo K, Reuben JP, Smith AB 3rd, et al.: Tremorgenic indole alkaloids potently inhibit smooth muscle high-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels. Biochemistry. 1994 May 17;33(19):5819-28. [7514038 ]
  3. Sabater-Vilar M, Nijmeijer S, Fink-Gremmels J: Genotoxicity assessment of five tremorgenic mycotoxins (fumitremorgen B, paxilline, penitrem A, verruculogen, and verrucosidin) produced by molds isolated from fermented meats. J Food Prot. 2003 Nov;66(11):2123-9. [14627292 ]
  4. Peraica M, Domijan AM: Contamination of food with mycotoxins and human health. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol. 2001 Mar;52(1):23-35. [11370295 ]
  5. Korennykh AV, Plantinga MJ, Correll CC, Piccirilli JA: Linkage between substrate recognition and catalysis during cleavage of sarcin/ricin loop RNA by restrictocin. Biochemistry. 2007 Nov 6;46(44):12744-56. Epub 2007 Oct 12. [17929942 ]
  6. Prevention of stroke by antihypertensive drug treatment in older persons with isolated systolic hypertension. Final results of the Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program (SHEP). SHEP Cooperative Research Group. JAMA. 1991 Jun 26;265(24):3255-64. [2046107 ]
  7. Schell MM. Tremorgenic mycotoxin intoxication. Veterinary Medicine. 2000.
  8. Yannai, Shmuel. (2004) Dictionary of food compounds with CD-ROM: Additives, flavors, and ingredients. Boca Raton: Chapman & Hall/CRC.
  9. Wikipedia. Paxilline. Last Updated 23 March 2010. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the conversion of gamma-aminobutyrate and L- beta-aminoisobutyrate to succinate semialdehyde and methylmalonate semialdehyde, respectively. Can also convert delta-aminovalerate and beta-alanine
Gene Name:
ABAT
Uniprot ID:
P80404
Molecular Weight:
56440.0 Da
References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]
General Function:
Inorganic ion transport and metabolism
Specific Function:
Potassium channel activated by both membrane depolarization or increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) that mediates export of K(+). It is also activated by the concentration of cytosolic Mg(2+). Its activation dampens the excitatory events that elevate the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration and/or depolarize the cell membrane. It therefore contributes to repolarization of the membrane potential. Plays a key role in controlling excitability in a number of systems, such as regulation of the contraction of smooth muscle, the tuning of hair cells in the cochlea, regulation of transmitter release, and innate immunity. In smooth muscles, its activation by high level of Ca(2+), caused by ryanodine receptors in the sarcoplasmic reticulum, regulates the membrane potential. In cochlea cells, its number and kinetic properties partly determine the characteristic frequency of each hair cell and thereby helps to establish a tonotopic map. Kinetics of KCNMA1 channels are determined by alternative splicing, phosphorylation status and its combination with modulating beta subunits. Highly sensitive to both iberiotoxin (IbTx) and charybdotoxin (CTX)
Gene Name:
KCNMA1
Uniprot ID:
Q12791
Molecular Weight:
137561.0 Da
References
  1. Knaus HG, McManus OB, Lee SH, Schmalhofer WA, Garcia-Calvo M, Helms LM, Sanchez M, Giangiacomo K, Reuben JP, Smith AB 3rd, et al.: Tremorgenic indole alkaloids potently inhibit smooth muscle high-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels. Biochemistry. 1994 May 17;33(19):5819-28. [7514038 ]
General Function:
Involved in calcium-activated potassium channel activity
Specific Function:
Regulatory subunit of the calcium activated potassium KCNMA1 (maxiK) channel. Modulates the calcium sensitivity and gating kinetics of KCNMA1, thereby contributing to KCNMA1 channel diversity. Increases the apparent Ca(2+)/voltage sensitivity of the KCNMA1 channel. It also modifies KCNMA1 channel kinetics and alters its pharmacological properties. It slows down the activation and the deactivation kinetics of the channel. Acts as a negative regulator of smooth muscle contraction by enhancing the calcium sensitivity to KCNMA1. Its presence is also a requirement for internal binding of the KCNMA1 channel opener dehydrosoyasaponin I (DHS-1) triterpene glycoside and for external binding of the agonist hormone 17-beta-estradiol (E2). Increases the binding activity of charybdotoxin (CTX) toxin to KCNMA1 peptide blocker by increasing the CTX association rate and decreasing the dissociation rate
Gene Name:
KCNMB1
Uniprot ID:
Q16558
Molecular Weight:
21798.2 Da
References
  1. Knaus HG, McManus OB, Lee SH, Schmalhofer WA, Garcia-Calvo M, Helms LM, Sanchez M, Giangiacomo K, Reuben JP, Smith AB 3rd, et al.: Tremorgenic indole alkaloids potently inhibit smooth muscle high-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels. Biochemistry. 1994 May 17;33(19):5819-28. [7514038 ]
General Function:
Involved in calcium-activated potassium channel activity
Specific Function:
Regulatory subunit of the calcium activated potassium KCNMA1 (maxiK) channel. Modulates the calcium sensitivity and gating kinetics of KCNMA1, thereby contributing to KCNMA1 channel diversity. Acts as a negative regulator that confers rapid and complete inactivation of KCNMA1 channel complex. May participate in KCNMA1 inactivation in chromaffin cells of the adrenal gland or in hippocampal CA1 neurons
Gene Name:
KCNMB2
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y691
Molecular Weight:
27130.0 Da
References
  1. Knaus HG, McManus OB, Lee SH, Schmalhofer WA, Garcia-Calvo M, Helms LM, Sanchez M, Giangiacomo K, Reuben JP, Smith AB 3rd, et al.: Tremorgenic indole alkaloids potently inhibit smooth muscle high-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels. Biochemistry. 1994 May 17;33(19):5819-28. [7514038 ]
General Function:
Involved in calcium-activated potassium channel activity
Specific Function:
Regulatory subunit of the calcium activated potassium KCNMA1 (maxiK) channel. Modulates the calcium sensitivity and gating kinetics of KCNMA1, thereby contributing to KCNMA1 channel diversity. Alters the functional properties of the current expressed by the KCNMA1 channel. Isoform 2, isoform 3 and isoform 4 partially inactivate the current of KCNBMA. Isoform 4 induces a fast and incomplete inactivation of KCNMA1 channel that is detectable only at large depolarizations. In contrast, isoform 1 does not induce detectable inactivation of KCNMA1. Two or more subunits of KCNMB3 are required to block the KCNMA1 tetramer
Gene Name:
KCNMB3
Uniprot ID:
Q9NPA1
Molecular Weight:
31603.3 Da
References
  1. Knaus HG, McManus OB, Lee SH, Schmalhofer WA, Garcia-Calvo M, Helms LM, Sanchez M, Giangiacomo K, Reuben JP, Smith AB 3rd, et al.: Tremorgenic indole alkaloids potently inhibit smooth muscle high-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels. Biochemistry. 1994 May 17;33(19):5819-28. [7514038 ]
General Function:
Involved in calcium-activated potassium channel activity
Specific Function:
Regulatory subunit of the calcium activated potassium KCNMA1 (maxiK) channel. Modulates the calcium sensitivity and gating kinetics of KCNMA1, thereby contributing to KCNMA1 channel diversity. Decreases the gating kinetics and calcium sensitivity of the KCNMA1 channel, but with fast deactivation kinetics. May decrease KCNMA1 channel openings at low calcium concentrations but increases channel openings at high calcium concentrations. Makes KCNMA1 channel resistant to 100 nM charybdotoxin (CTX) toxin concentrations
Gene Name:
KCNMB4
Uniprot ID:
Q86W47
Molecular Weight:
23948.5 Da
References
  1. Knaus HG, McManus OB, Lee SH, Schmalhofer WA, Garcia-Calvo M, Helms LM, Sanchez M, Giangiacomo K, Reuben JP, Smith AB 3rd, et al.: Tremorgenic indole alkaloids potently inhibit smooth muscle high-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels. Biochemistry. 1994 May 17;33(19):5819-28. [7514038 ]
General Function:
Involved in GABA-A receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRA1
Uniprot ID:
P14867
Molecular Weight:
51802.0 Da
References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]
General Function:
Involved in GABA-A receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRA2
Uniprot ID:
P47869
Molecular Weight:
51340.0 Da
References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]
General Function:
Involved in GABA-A receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRA3
Uniprot ID:
P34903
Molecular Weight:
55165.0 Da
References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]
General Function:
Involved in GABA-A receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRA4
Uniprot ID:
P48169
Molecular Weight:
61641.0 Da
References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]
General Function:
Involved in GABA-A receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRA5
Uniprot ID:
P31644
Molecular Weight:
52147.0 Da
References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]
General Function:
Involved in GABA-A receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRA6
Uniprot ID:
Q16445
Molecular Weight:
51035.0 Da
References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRB1
Uniprot ID:
P18505
Molecular Weight:
54235.0 Da
References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRB2
Uniprot ID:
P47870
Molecular Weight:
54607.0 Da
References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRB3
Uniprot ID:
P28472
Molecular Weight:
54116.0 Da
References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]
General Function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRD
Uniprot ID:
O14764
Molecular Weight:
50707.8 Da
References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]
General Function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRE
Uniprot ID:
P78334
Molecular Weight:
57971.2 Da
References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]
General Function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRG1
Uniprot ID:
Q8N1C3
Molecular Weight:
53594.5 Da
References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]
General Function:
Involved in benzodiazepine receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRG2
Uniprot ID:
P18507
Molecular Weight:
54161.8 Da
References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]
General Function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRG3
Uniprot ID:
Q99928
Molecular Weight:
54288.2 Da
References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]
General Function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. In the uterus, the function of the receptor appears to be related to tissue contractility. The binding of this pI subunit with other GABA(A) receptor subunits alters the sensitivity of recombinant receptors to modulatory agents such as pregnanolone
Gene Name:
GABRP
Uniprot ID:
O00591
Molecular Weight:
50639.7 Da
References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]
General Function:
Involved in GABA-A receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. Rho-1 GABA receptor could play a role in retinal neurotransmission
Gene Name:
GABRR1
Uniprot ID:
P24046
Molecular Weight:
55258.0 Da
References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]
General Function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. Rho-2 GABA receptor could play a role in retinal neurotransmission
Gene Name:
GABRR2
Uniprot ID:
P28476
Molecular Weight:
54150.4 Da
References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]
General Function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel (By similarity)
Gene Name:
GABRR3
Uniprot ID:
A8MPY1
Molecular Weight:
54271.1 Da
References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]
General Function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRQ
Uniprot ID:
Q9UN88
Molecular Weight:
72020.9 Da
References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]
General Function:
Involved in GABA-B receptor activity
Specific Function:
Isoform 1E function may be to regulate the availability of functional GABA-B-R1A/GABA-B-R2 heterodimers by competing for GABA-B-R2 dimerization. This could explain the observation that certain small molecule ligands exhibit differential affinity for central versus peripheral sites
Gene Name:
GABBR1
Uniprot ID:
Q9UBS5
Molecular Weight:
108321.0 Da
References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
Receptor for GABA. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G-proteins that inhibit adenylyl cyclase activity, stimulates phospholipase A2, activates potassium channels, inactivates voltage-dependent calcium-channels and modulates inositol phospholipids hydrolysis. Plays a critical role in the fine-tuning of inhibitory synaptic transmission. Pre-synaptic GABA-B-R inhibit neurotransmitter release by down-regulating high- voltage activated calcium channels, whereas postsynaptic GABA-B-R decrease neuronal excitability by activating a prominent inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir) conductance that underlies the late inhibitory postsynaptic potentials. Not only implicated in synaptic inhibition but also in hippocampal long-term potentiation, slow wave sleep, muscle relaxation and antinociception
Gene Name:
GABBR2
Uniprot ID:
O75899
Molecular Weight:
105823.0 Da
References
  1. Selala MI, Daelemans F, Schepens PJ: Fungal tremorgens: the mechanism of action of single nitrogen containing toxins--a hypothesis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1989 Sep-Dec;12(3-4):237-57. [2698801 ]