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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2014-08-29 05:48:50 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:26:41 UTC
Accession NumberT3D4168
Identification
Common NameNiacinamide
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionNicotinamide is a uremic toxin. Uremic toxins can be subdivided into three major groups based upon their chemical and physical characteristics: 1) small, water-soluble, non-protein-bound compounds, such as urea; 2) small, lipid-soluble and/or protein-bound compounds, such as the phenols and 3) larger so-called middle-molecules, such as beta2-microglobulin. Chronic exposure of uremic toxins can lead to a number of conditions including renal damage, chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease. Niacinamide or vitamin B3 is an important compound functioning as a component of the coenzyme NAD. Its primary significance is in the prevention and/or cure of blacktongue and pellagra. Most animals cannot manufacture this compound in amounts sufficient to prevent nutritional deficiency and it therefore must be supplemented through dietary intake. Niacinamide is used to increase the effect of radiation therapy on tumor cells. Niacin (nicotinic acid) and niacinamide, while both labeled as vitamin B3 also have different applications. Niacinamide is useful in arthritis and early-onset type I diabetes while niacin is an effective reducer of high cholesterol levels.
Compound Type
  • Amide
  • Amine
  • Ester
  • Food Toxin
  • Household Toxin
  • Metabolite
  • Natural Compound
  • Organic Compound
  • Uremic Toxin
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
3-Carbamoylpyridine
3-Pyridinecarboxamide
3-Pyridinecarboxylic acid amide
Acid amide
Amid kyseliny nikotinove
Amide PP
Aminicotin
Amixicotyn
Amnicotin
Austrovit PP
b-Pyridinecarboxamide
Benicot
beta-Pyridinecarboxamide
Delonin Amide
Dipegyl
Dipigyl
Endobion
Factor pp
Hansamid
Inovitan PP
m-(Aminocarbonyl)pyridine
Mediatric
NAM
Nandervit-N
Niacevit
Niamide
Niavit PP
Nicamide
Nicamina
Nicamindon
Nicasir
Nicobion
Nicofort
Nicogen
Nicomidol
Nicosan 2
Nicosylamide
Nicota
Nicotamide
Nicotilamide
Nicotililamido
Nicotinamida
Nicotinamide
Nicotinamidum
Nicotine acid amide
Nicotine amide
Nicotinic acid amide
Nicotinic amide
Nicotinsaureamid
Nicotol
Nicotylamide
Nicotylamidum
Nicovel
Nicovit
Nicovitina
Nicovitol
Nicozymin
Nictoamide
Niko-tamin
Nikotinamid
Nikotinsaeureamid
Niocinamide
Niozymin
Papulex
Pelmin
Pelmine
Pelonin amide
PP-Faktor
Propamine A
Pyridine-3-carboxylic acid amide
Savacotyl
Vi-Nicotyl
Vi-noctyl
Vitamin B3
Vitamin PP
Witamina PP
Chemical FormulaC6H6N2O
Average Molecular Mass122.125 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass122.048 g/mol
CAS Registry Number98-92-0
IUPAC Namepyridine-3-carboxamide
Traditional Namenicotinamide
SMILESOC(=N)C1=CN=CC=C1
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C6H6N2O/c7-6(9)5-2-1-3-8-4-5/h1-4H,(H2,7,9)
InChI KeyInChIKey=DFPAKSUCGFBDDF-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as nicotinamides. These are heterocyclic aromatic compounds containing a pyridine ring substituted at position 3 by a carboxamide group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassPyridines and derivatives
Sub ClassPyridinecarboxylic acids and derivatives
Direct ParentNicotinamides
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Nicotinamide
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Primary carboxylic acid amide
  • Carboxamide group
  • Azacycle
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginEndogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue Locations
  • Bladder
  • Fibroblasts
  • Neuron
  • Pancreas
  • Placenta
  • Prostate
  • Skin
  • Spleen
  • Stratum Corneum
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Nicotinate and Nicotinamide MetabolismSMP00048 map00760
Applications
Biological Roles
Chemical Roles
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point130°C
Boiling Point334°C
Solubility500 mg/mL at 25°C
LogP-0.37
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility50.1 g/LALOGPS
logP-0.45ALOGPS
logP-0.39ChemAxon
logS-0.39ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)13.39ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)3.63ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area55.98 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity32.98 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability11.71 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (1 TMS)splash10-004i-0900000000-acb6a21304b0c09c8472JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-004r-0900000000-ce86dcff0153b66dd538JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (1 TMS)splash10-004i-9500000000-790385e574240b8d39deJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-0udi-2910000000-d760b65bb76d6464038eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS)splash10-004i-4900000000-47c6f72d1bb5465c1376JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0kor-9800000000-1809e537780b814af0c9JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0kor-9800000000-c4a5ff5285417499eff8JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-004i-0900000000-0e84a60cc2a2d44704f4JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-004i-0900000000-acb6a21304b0c09c8472JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-004r-0900000000-ce86dcff0153b66dd538JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-004i-9500000000-790385e574240b8d39deJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0udi-2910000000-d760b65bb76d6464038eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-004i-4900000000-47c6f72d1bb5465c1376JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-004i-0900000000-23a567506bfbc259e77cJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-05fr-8900000000-931c139355be3ef594f2JSpectraViewer
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-00di-2900000000-72a7c92eb2667f5b6c3fJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-001i-9000000000-6486d230a4a2fd4bab0eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-001i-9000000000-6486d230a4a2fd4bab0eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI M-80) , Positivesplash10-0kor-9800000000-89d56b6cb7e033699d24JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-00di-0900000000-eed71abbb10ba926c13dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-00di-3900000000-0c62aa6aba6e23b6c195JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-001i-9100000000-4357a8833611d1756c59JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-c9685717817d0081fe6dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-0fc0-9000000000-ec0ccca306f38cf72a78JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-00di-4900000000-f6d71a6c467f84ddd6abJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) 30V, Positivesplash10-001i-9100000000-62c4bd312efbfa37d1a1JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-00di-4900000000-05714b528dc84942b9dbJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) 30V, Positivesplash10-001i-9100000000-edb6a77c0dfdcbdacc5dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-00di-0900000000-eed71abbb10ba926c13dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-00di-3900000000-0c62aa6aba6e23b6c195JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-001i-9100000000-4357a8833611d1756c59JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-c9685717817d0081fe6dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-0fc0-9000000000-ec0ccca306f38cf72a78JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-00di-0900000000-960acce7ead55399b5dbJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-00di-0900000000-2c7ec333d35eb740520aJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0089-9600000000-466f98885e2efba73575JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0ue9-9200000000-6ef8d7e5edcdd0b02758JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-00di-1900000000-f38177aa475e58941088JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-00fr-9800000000-6a883d82fcd7c450f6ceJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-882d0c59d946a5087b9fJSpectraViewer
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0kor-9600000000-2b1c5667d92bc1b80b36JSpectraViewer | MoNA
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureEndogenous, Ingestion, Dermal (contact)
Mechanism of ToxicityUremic toxins such as nicotinamide are actively transported into the kidneys via organic ion transporters (especially OAT3). Increased levels of uremic toxins can stimulate the production of reactive oxygen species. This seems to be mediated by the direct binding or inhibition by uremic toxins of the enzyme NADPH oxidase (especially NOX4 which is abundant in the kidneys and heart) (2). Reactive oxygen species can induce several different DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) which are involved in the silencing of a protein known as KLOTHO. KLOTHO has been identified as having important roles in anti-aging, mineral metabolism, and vitamin D metabolism. A number of studies have indicated that KLOTHO mRNA and protein levels are reduced during acute or chronic kidney diseases in response to high local levels of reactive oxygen species (3).
MetabolismUremic toxins tend to accumulate in the blood either through dietary excess or through poor filtration by the kidneys. Most uremic toxins are metabolic waste products and are normally excreted in the urine or feces.
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesNaturally produced by the body (endogenous).
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsChronic exposure to uremic toxins can lead to a number of conditions including renal damage, chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease.
SymptomsAs a uremic toxin, this compound can cause uremic syndrome. Uremic syndrome may affect any part of the body and can cause nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and weight loss. It can also cause changes in mental status, such as confusion, reduced awareness, agitation, psychosis, seizures, and coma. Abnormal bleeding, such as bleeding spontaneously or profusely from a very minor injury can also occur. Heart problems, such as an irregular heartbeat, inflammation in the sac that surrounds the heart (pericarditis), and increased pressure on the heart can be seen in patients with uremic syndrome. Shortness of breath from fluid buildup in the space between the lungs and the chest wall (pleural effusion) can also be present.
TreatmentKidney dialysis is usually needed to relieve the symptoms of uremic syndrome until normal kidney function can be restored.
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB02701
HMDB IDHMDB01406
PubChem Compound ID936
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL1140
ChemSpider ID911
KEGG IDC00153
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID17154
BioCyc IDNIACINAMIDE
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNot Available
PDB IDNCA
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNiacinamide
References
Synthesis Reference

Helmut Beschke, Heinz Friedrich, Klaus-Peter Muller, Gerd Schreyer, “Process for the production of nicotinamide.” U.S. Patent US4314064, issued May, 1949.

MSDSLink
General References
  1. Duranton F, Cohen G, De Smet R, Rodriguez M, Jankowski J, Vanholder R, Argiles A: Normal and pathologic concentrations of uremic toxins. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012 Jul;23(7):1258-70. doi: 10.1681/ASN.2011121175. Epub 2012 May 24. [22626821 ]
  2. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  3. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
  4. Draelos ZD, Ertel K, Berge C: Niacinamide-containing facial moisturizer improves skin barrier and benefits subjects with rosacea. Cutis. 2005 Aug;76(2):135-41. [16209160 ]
  5. Soma Y, Kashima M, Imaizumi A, Takahama H, Kawakami T, Mizoguchi M: Moisturizing effects of topical nicotinamide on atopic dry skin. Int J Dermatol. 2005 Mar;44(3):197-202. [15807725 ]
  6. Final report of the safety assessment of niacinamide and niacin. Int J Toxicol. 2005;24 Suppl 5:1-31. [16596767 ]
  7. Draelos ZD, Matsubara A, Smiles K: The effect of 2% niacinamide on facial sebum production. J Cosmet Laser Ther. 2006 Jun;8(2):96-101. [16766489 ]
  8. Schulpis K, Spiropoulos A, Gavrili S, Karikas G, Grigori C, Vlachos G, Papassotiriou I: Maternal - neonatal folate and vitamin B12 serum concentrations in Greeks and in Albanian immigrants. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2004 Oct;17(5):443-8. [15357698 ]
  9. Yang L, Yao Y, Shi Y, Wang X, Shi J: [Expression of nicotinamide edenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase gene in placenta of patients with pregnancy induced hypertension]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi. 2002 Nov;37(11):660-2. [12487919 ]
  10. Sonee M, Martens JR, Mukherjee SK: Nicotinamide protects HCN2 cells from the free radical generating toxin, tertiary butylhydroperoxide (t-BuOOH). Neurotox Res. 2002 Nov-Dec;4(7-8):595-599. [12709297 ]
  11. Bayraktar F, Dereli D, Ozgen AG, Yilmaz C: Plasma homocysteine levels in polycystic ovary syndrome and congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Endocr J. 2004 Dec;51(6):601-8. [15644580 ]
  12. Sonee M, Martens JR, Evers MR, Mukherjee SK: The effect of tertiary butylhydroperoxide and nicotinamide on human cortical neurons. Neurotoxicology. 2003 Jun;24(3):443-8. [12782109 ]
  13. Anisimov AG, Bolotnikov IA: [Nicotinamide decreases DNA destabilization in K562 cells treated with AlF(-4)]. Tsitologiia. 1997;39(9):822-8. [9518388 ]
  14. Matuoka K, Chen KY, Takenawa T: Rapid reversion of aging phenotypes by nicotinamide through possible modulation of histone acetylation. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2001 Dec;58(14):2108-16. [11814060 ]
  15. Bartalena L, Tanda ML, Piantanida E, Lai A: Oxidative stress and Graves' ophthalmopathy: in vitro studies and therapeutic implications. Biofactors. 2003;19(3-4):155-63. [14757966 ]
  16. Bissett DL, Oblong JE, Berge CA: Niacinamide: A B vitamin that improves aging facial skin appearance. Dermatol Surg. 2005 Jul;31(7 Pt 2):860-5; discussion 865. [16029679 ]
  17. Baeza N, Moriscot C, Figarella C, Guy-Crotte O, Vialettes B: Reg protein: a potential beta-cell-specific growth factor? Diabetes Metab. 1996 Jul;22(4):229-34. [8767167 ]
  18. Hoskin PJ, Rojas AM, Phillips H, Saunders MI: Acute and late morbidity in the treatment of advanced bladder carcinoma with accelerated radiotherapy, carbogen, and nicotinamide. Cancer. 2005 Jun 1;103(11):2287-97. [15834926 ]
  19. Rembold CM: Combination therapy of dyslipidemia in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and the metabolic syndrome. Curr Diab Rep. 2004 Oct;4(5):330-4. [15461896 ]
  20. Kawasaki E, Abiru N, Eguchi K: Prevention of type 1 diabetes: from the view point of beta cell damage. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2004 Dec;66 Suppl 1:S27-32. [15563975 ]
  21. Rybak ME, Pfeiffer CM: Clinical analysis of vitamin B(6): determination of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and 4-pyridoxic acid in human serum by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with chlorite postcolumn derivatization. Anal Biochem. 2004 Oct 15;333(2):336-44. [15450810 ]
  22. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07762. [19212411 ]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Transcription factor binding
Specific Function:
NAD-dependent protein deacetylase that links transcriptional regulation directly to intracellular energetics and participates in the coordination of several separated cellular functions such as cell cycle, response to DNA damage, metobolism, apoptosis and autophagy. Can modulate chromatin function through deacetylation of histones and can promote alterations in the methylation of histones and DNA, leading to transcriptional repression. Deacetylates a broad range of transcription factors and coregulators, thereby regulating target gene expression positively and negatively. Serves as a sensor of the cytosolic ratio of NAD(+)/NADH which is altered by glucose deprivation and metabolic changes associated with caloric restriction. Is essential in skeletal muscle cell differentiation and in response to low nutrients mediates the inhibitory effect on skeletal myoblast differentiation which also involves 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT). Component of the eNoSC (energy-dependent nucleolar silencing) complex, a complex that mediates silencing of rDNA in response to intracellular energy status and acts by recruiting histone-modifying enzymes. The eNoSC complex is able to sense the energy status of cell: upon glucose starvation, elevation of NAD(+)/NADP(+) ratio activates SIRT1, leading to histone H3 deacetylation followed by dimethylation of H3 at 'Lys-9' (H3K9me2) by SUV39H1 and the formation of silent chromatin in the rDNA locus. Deacetylates 'Lys-266' of SUV39H1, leading to its activation. Inhibits skeletal muscle differentiation by deacetylating PCAF and MYOD1. Deacetylates H2A and 'Lys-26' of HIST1H1E. Deacetylates 'Lys-16' of histone H4 (in vitro). Involved in NR0B2/SHP corepression function through chromatin remodeling: Recruited to LRH1 target gene promoters by NR0B2/SHP thereby stimulating histone H3 and H4 deacetylation leading to transcriptional repression. Proposed to contribute to genomic integrity via positive regulation of telomere length; however, reports on localization to pericentromeric heterochromatin are conflicting. Proposed to play a role in constitutive heterochromatin (CH) formation and/or maintenance through regulation of the available pool of nuclear SUV39H1. Upon oxidative/metabolic stress decreases SUV39H1 degradation by inhibiting SUV39H1 polyubiquitination by MDM2. This increase in SUV39H1 levels enhances SUV39H1 turnover in CH, which in turn seems to accelerate renewal of the heterochromatin which correlates with greater genomic integrity during stress response. Deacetylates 'Lys-382' of p53/TP53 and impairs its ability to induce transcription-dependent proapoptotic program and modulate cell senescence. Deacetylates TAF1B and thereby represses rDNA transcription by the RNA polymerase I. Deacetylates MYC, promotes the association of MYC with MAX and decreases MYC stability leading to compromised transformational capability. Deacetylates FOXO3 in response to oxidative stress thereby increasing its ability to induce cell cycle arrest and resistance to oxidative stress but inhibiting FOXO3-mediated induction of apoptosis transcriptional activity; also leading to FOXO3 ubiquitination and protesomal degradation. Appears to have a similar effect on MLLT7/FOXO4 in regulation of transcriptional activity and apoptosis. Deacetylates DNMT1; thereby impairs DNMT1 methyltransferase-independent transcription repressor activity, modulates DNMT1 cell cycle regulatory function and DNMT1-mediated gene silencing. Deacetylates RELA/NF-kappa-B p65 thereby inhibiting its transactivating potential and augments apoptosis in response to TNF-alpha. Deacetylates HIF1A, KAT5/TIP60, RB1 and HIC1. Deacetylates FOXO1 resulting in its nuclear retention and enhancement of its transcriptional activity leading to increased gluconeogenesis in liver. Inhibits E2F1 transcriptional activity and apoptotic function, possibly by deacetylation. Involved in HES1- and HEY2-mediated transcriptional repression. In cooperation with MYCN seems to be involved in transcriptional repression of DUSP6/MAPK3 leading to MYCN stabilization by phosphorylation at 'Ser-62'. Deacetylates MEF2D. Required for antagonist-mediated transcription suppression of AR-dependent genes which may be linked to local deacetylation of histone H3. Represses HNF1A-mediated transcription. Required for the repression of ESRRG by CREBZF. Modulates AP-1 transcription factor activity. Deacetylates NR1H3 AND NR1H2 and deacetylation of NR1H3 at 'Lys-434' positively regulates transcription of NR1H3:RXR target genes, promotes NR1H3 proteosomal degradation and results in cholesterol efflux; a promoter clearing mechanism after reach round of transcription is proposed. Involved in lipid metabolism. Implicated in regulation of adipogenesis and fat mobilization in white adipocytes by repression of PPARG which probably involves association with NCOR1 and SMRT/NCOR2. Deacetylates ACSS2 leading to its activation, and HMGCS1. Involved in liver and muscle metabolism. Through deacteylation and activation of PPARGC1A is required to activate fatty acid oxidation in skeletel muscle under low-glucose conditions and is involved in glucose homeostasis. Involved in regulation of PPARA and fatty acid beta-oxidation in liver. Involved in positive regulation of insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells in response to glucose; the function seems to imply transcriptional repression of UCP2. Proposed to deacetylate IRS2 thereby facilitating its insulin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation. Deacetylates SREBF1 isoform SREBP-1C thereby decreasing its stability and transactivation in lipogenic gene expression. Involved in DNA damage response by repressing genes which are involved in DNA repair, such as XPC and TP73, deacetylating XRCC6/Ku70, and faciliting recruitment of additional factors to sites of damaged DNA, such as SIRT1-deacetylated NBN can recruit ATM to initiate DNA repair and SIRT1-deacetylated XPA interacts with RPA2. Also involved in DNA repair of DNA double-strand breaks by homologous recombination and specifically single-strand annealing independently of XRCC6/Ku70 and NBN. Transcriptional suppression of XPC probably involves an E2F4:RBL2 suppressor complex and protein kinase B (AKT) signaling. Transcriptional suppression of TP73 probably involves E2F4 and PCAF. Deacetylates WRN thereby regulating its helicase and exonuclease activities and regulates WRN nuclear translocation in response to DNA damage. Deacetylates APEX1 at 'Lys-6' and 'Lys-7' and stimulates cellular AP endonuclease activity by promoting the association of APEX1 to XRCC1. Increases p53/TP53-mediated transcription-independent apoptosis by blocking nuclear translocation of cytoplasmic p53/TP53 and probably redirecting it to mitochondria. Deacetylates XRCC6/Ku70 at 'Lys-539' and 'Lys-542' causing it to sequester BAX away from mitochondria thereby inhibiting stress-induced apoptosis. Is involved in autophagy, presumably by deacetylating ATG5, ATG7 and MAP1LC3B/ATG8. Deacetylates AKT1 which leads to enhanced binding of AKT1 and PDK1 to PIP3 and promotes their activation. Proposed to play role in regulation of STK11/LBK1-dependent AMPK signaling pathways implicated in cellular senescence which seems to involve the regulation of the acetylation status of STK11/LBK1. Can deacetylate STK11/LBK1 and thereby increase its activity, cytoplasmic localization and association with STRAD; however, the relevance of such activity in normal cells is unclear. In endothelial cells is shown to inhibit STK11/LBK1 activity and to promote its degradation. Deacetylates SMAD7 at 'Lys-64' and 'Lys-70' thereby promoting its degradation. Deacetylates CIITA and augments its MHC class II transactivation and contributes to its stability. Deacteylates MECOM/EVI1. Isoform 2 is shown to deacetylate 'Lys-382' of p53/TP53, however with lower activity than isoform 1. In combination, the two isoforms exert an additive effect. Isoform 2 regulates p53/TP53 expression and cellular stress response and is in turn repressed by p53/TP53 presenting a SIRT1 isoform-dependent auto-regulatory loop. In case of HIV-1 infection, interacts with and deacetylates the viral Tat protein. The viral Tat protein inhibits SIRT1 deacetylation activity toward RELA/NF-kappa-B p65, thereby potentiates its transcriptional activity and SIRT1 is proposed to contribute to T-cell hyperactivation during infection. Deacetylates PML at 'Lys-487' and this deacetylation promotes PML control of PER2 nuclear localization. During the neurogenic transition, repress selective NOTCH1-target genes through histone deacetylation in a BCL6-dependent manner and leading to neuronal differentiation. Regulates the circadian expression of several core clock genes, including ARNTL/BMAL1, RORC, PER2 and CRY1 and plays a critical role in maintaining a controlled rhythmicity in histone acetylation, thereby contributing to circadian chromatin remodeling. Deacetylates ARNTL/BMAL1 and histones at the circadian gene promoters in order to facilitate repression by inhibitory components of the circadian oscillator. Deacetylates PER2, facilitating its ubiquitination and degradation by the proteosome. Protects cardiomyocytes against palmitate-induced apoptosis (PubMed:11672523, PubMed:12006491, PubMed:14976264, PubMed:14980222, PubMed:15126506, PubMed:15152190, PubMed:15205477, PubMed:15469825, PubMed:15692560, PubMed:16079181, PubMed:16166628, PubMed:16892051, PubMed:16998810, PubMed:17283066, PubMed:17334224, PubMed:17505061, PubMed:17612497, PubMed:17620057, PubMed:17936707, PubMed:18203716, PubMed:18296641, PubMed:18662546, PubMed:18687677, PubMed:19188449, PubMed:19220062, PubMed:19364925, PubMed:19690166, PubMed:19934257, PubMed:20097625, PubMed:20100829, PubMed:20203304, PubMed:20375098, PubMed:20620956, PubMed:20670893, PubMed:20817729, PubMed:20975832, PubMed:21149730, PubMed:21245319, PubMed:21471201, PubMed:21504832, PubMed:21555002, PubMed:21698133, PubMed:21701047, PubMed:21775285, PubMed:21807113, PubMed:21841822, PubMed:21890893, PubMed:21909281, PubMed:21947282, PubMed:22274616). Deacetylates XBP1 isoform 2; deacetylation decreases protein stability of XBP1 isoform 2 and inhibits its transcriptional activity (PubMed:20955178). Involved in the CCAR2-mediated regulation of PCK1 and NR1D1 (PubMed:24415752). Deacetylates CTNB1 at 'Lys-49' (PubMed:24824780).SirtT1 75 kDa fragment: catalytically inactive 75SirT1 may be involved in regulation of apoptosis. May be involved in protecting chondrocytes from apoptotic death by associating with cytochrome C and interfering with apoptosome assembly.
Gene Name:
SIRT1
Uniprot ID:
Q96EB6
Molecular Weight:
81680.06 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC5050 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 27507
IC5090.4 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 27507
IC50100 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 27507
IC50250 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 27507
IC50520 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 27507
References
  1. Liu T, Lin Y, Wen X, Jorissen RN, Gilson MK: BindingDB: a web-accessible database of experimentally determined protein-ligand binding affinities. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007 Jan;35(Database issue):D198-201. Epub 2006 Dec 1. [17145705 ]
  2. Wu J, Li Y, Chen K, Jiang H, Xu MH, Liu D: Identification of benzofuran-3-yl(phenyl)methanones as novel SIRT1 inhibitors: binding mode, inhibitory mechanism and biological action. Eur J Med Chem. 2013 Feb;60:441-50. doi: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2012.12.026. Epub 2012 Dec 20. [23318905 ]
  3. Suzuki T, Asaba T, Imai E, Tsumoto H, Nakagawa H, Miyata N: Identification of a cell-active non-peptide sirtuin inhibitor containing N-thioacetyl lysine. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2009 Oct 1;19(19):5670-2. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2009.08.028. Epub 2009 Aug 12. [19700324 ]
  4. Sanders BD, Jackson B, Brent M, Taylor AM, Dang W, Berger SL, Schreiber SL, Howitz K, Marmorstein R: Identification and characterization of novel sirtuin inhibitor scaffolds. Bioorg Med Chem. 2009 Oct 1;17(19):7031-41. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2009.07.073. Epub 2009 Aug 3. [19734050 ]
  5. Fatkins DG, Monnot AD, Zheng W: Nepsilon-thioacetyl-lysine: a multi-facet functional probe for enzymatic protein lysine Nepsilon-deacetylation. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2006 Jul 15;16(14):3651-6. Epub 2006 May 12. [16697640 ]
  6. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  7. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
NAD-dependent protein deacetylase, which deacetylates internal lysines on histone and alpha-tubulin as well as many other proteins such as key transcription factors. Participates in the modulation of multiple and diverse biological processes such as cell cycle control, genomic integrity, microtubule dynamics, cell differentiation, metabolic networks, and autophagy. Plays a major role in the control of cell cycle progression and genomic stability. Functions in the antephase checkpoint preventing precocious mitotic entry in response to microtubule stress agents, and hence allowing proper inheritance of chromosomes. Positively regulates the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) ubiquitin ligase complex activity by deacetylating CDC20 and FZR1, then allowing progression through mitosis. Associates both with chromatin at transcriptional start sites (TSSs) and enhancers of active genes. Plays a role in cell cycle and chromatin compaction through epigenetic modulation of the regulation of histone H4 'Lys-20' methylation (H4K20me1) during early mitosis. Specifically deacetylates histone H4 at 'Lys-16' (H4K16ac) between the G2/M transition and metaphase enabling H4K20me1 deposition by SETD8 leading to ulterior levels of H4K20me2 and H4K20me3 deposition throughout cell cycle, and mitotic S-phase progression. Deacetylates SETD8 modulating SETD8 chromatin localization during the mitotic stress response. Deacetylates also histone H3 at 'Lys-57' (H3K56ac) during the mitotic G2/M transition. Upon bacterium Listeria monocytogenes infection, deacetylates 'Lys-18' of histone H3 in a receptor tyrosine kinase MET- and PI3K/Akt-dependent manner, thereby inhibiting transcriptional activity and promoting late stages of listeria infection. During oocyte meiosis progression, may deacetylate histone H4 at 'Lys-16' (H4K16ac) and alpha-tubulin, regulating spindle assembly and chromosome alignment by influencing microtubule dynamics and kinetochore function. Deacetylates alpha-tubulin at 'Lys-40' and hence controls neuronal motility, oligodendroglial cell arbor projection processes and proliferation of non-neuronal cells. Phosphorylation at Ser-368 by a G1/S-specific cyclin E-CDK2 complex inactivates SIRT2-mediated alpha-tubulin deacetylation, negatively regulating cell adhesion, cell migration and neurite outgrowth during neuronal differentiation. Deacetylates PARD3 and participates in the regulation of Schwann cell peripheral myelination formation during early postnatal development and during postinjury remyelination. Involved in several cellular metabolic pathways. Plays a role in the regulation of blood glucose homeostasis by deacetylating and stabilizing phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase PCK1 activity in response to low nutrient availability. Acts as a key regulator in the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) by deacetylating and activating the glucose-6-phosphate G6PD enzyme, and therefore, stimulates the production of cytosolic NADPH to counteract oxidative damage. Maintains energy homeostasis in response to nutrient deprivation as well as energy expenditure by inhibiting adipogenesis and promoting lipolysis. Attenuates adipocyte differentiation by deacetylating and promoting FOXO1 interaction to PPARG and subsequent repression of PPARG-dependent transcriptional activity. Plays a role in the regulation of lysosome-mediated degradation of protein aggregates by autophagy in neuronal cells. Deacetylates FOXO1 in response to oxidative stress or serum deprivation, thereby negatively regulating FOXO1-mediated autophagy. Deacetylates a broad range of transcription factors and co-regulators regulating target gene expression. Deacetylates transcriptional factor FOXO3 stimulating the ubiquitin ligase SCF(SKP2)-mediated FOXO3 ubiquitination and degradation. Deacetylates HIF1A and therefore promotes HIF1A degradation and inhibition of HIF1A transcriptional activity in tumor cells in response to hypoxia. Deacetylates RELA in the cytoplasm inhibiting NF-kappaB-dependent transcription activation upon TNF-alpha stimulation. Inhibits transcriptional activation by deacetylating p53/TP53 and EP300. Deacetylates also EIF5A. Functions as a negative regulator on oxidative stress-tolerance in response to anoxia-reoxygenation conditions. Plays a role as tumor suppressor.Isoform 1: Deacetylates EP300, alpha-tubulin and histone H3 and H4.Isoform 2: Deacetylates EP300, alpha-tubulin and histone H3 and H4.Isoform 5: Lacks deacetylation activity.
Gene Name:
SIRT2
Uniprot ID:
Q8IXJ6
Molecular Weight:
43181.7 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC501.2 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 27507
IC5011 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 27507
IC5032.3 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 27507
IC50100.5 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 27507
References
  1. Liu T, Lin Y, Wen X, Jorissen RN, Gilson MK: BindingDB: a web-accessible database of experimentally determined protein-ligand binding affinities. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007 Jan;35(Database issue):D198-201. Epub 2006 Dec 1. [17145705 ]
  2. Suzuki T, Asaba T, Imai E, Tsumoto H, Nakagawa H, Miyata N: Identification of a cell-active non-peptide sirtuin inhibitor containing N-thioacetyl lysine. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2009 Oct 1;19(19):5670-2. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2009.08.028. Epub 2009 Aug 12. [19700324 ]
  3. Trapp J, Jochum A, Meier R, Saunders L, Marshall B, Kunick C, Verdin E, Goekjian P, Sippl W, Jung M: Adenosine mimetics as inhibitors of NAD+-dependent histone deacetylases, from kinase to sirtuin inhibition. J Med Chem. 2006 Dec 14;49(25):7307-16. [17149860 ]
  4. Neugebauer RC, Uchiechowska U, Meier R, Hruby H, Valkov V, Verdin E, Sippl W, Jung M: Structure-activity studies on splitomicin derivatives as sirtuin inhibitors and computational prediction of binding mode. J Med Chem. 2008 Mar 13;51(5):1203-13. doi: 10.1021/jm700972e. Epub 2008 Feb 13. [18269226 ]
  5. Tervo AJ, Kyrylenko S, Niskanen P, Salminen A, Leppanen J, Nyronen TH, Jarvinen T, Poso A: An in silico approach to discovering novel inhibitors of human sirtuin type 2. J Med Chem. 2004 Dec 2;47(25):6292-8. [15566299 ]
  6. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  7. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Involved in the base excision repair (BER) pathway, by catalyzing the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of a limited number of acceptor proteins involved in chromatin architecture and in DNA metabolism. This modification follows DNA damages and appears as an obligatory step in a detection/signaling pathway leading to the reparation of DNA strand breaks. Mediates the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of APLF and CHFR. Positively regulates the transcription of MTUS1 and negatively regulates the transcription of MTUS2/TIP150. With EEF1A1 and TXK, forms a complex that acts as a T-helper 1 (Th1) cell-specific transcription factor and binds the promoter of IFN-gamma to directly regulate its transcription, and is thus involved importantly in Th1 cytokine production. Required for PARP9 and DTX3L recruitment to DNA damage sites. PARP1-dependent PARP9-DTX3L-mediated ubiquitination promotes the rapid and specific recruitment of 53BP1/TP53BP1, UIMC1/RAP80, and BRCA1 to DNA damage sites.
Gene Name:
PARP1
Uniprot ID:
P09874
Molecular Weight:
113082.945 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC5050.119 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 27507
IC50210 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 27507
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [11752352 ]
  2. Eltze T, Boer R, Wagner T, Weinbrenner S, McDonald MC, Thiemermann C, Burkle A, Klein T: Imidazoquinolinone, imidazopyridine, and isoquinolindione derivatives as novel and potent inhibitors of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP): a comparison with standard PARP inhibitors. Mol Pharmacol. 2008 Dec;74(6):1587-98. doi: 10.1124/mol.108.048751. Epub 2008 Sep 22. [18809672 ]
  3. Ferraris D, Ko YS, Pahutski T, Ficco RP, Serdyuk L, Alemu C, Bradford C, Chiou T, Hoover R, Huang S, Lautar S, Liang S, Lin Q, Lu MX, Mooney M, Morgan L, Qian Y, Tran S, Williams LR, Wu QY, Zhang J, Zou Y, Kalish V: Design and synthesis of poly ADP-ribose polymerase-1 inhibitors. 2. Biological evaluation of aza-5[H]-phenanthridin-6-ones as potent, aqueous-soluble compounds for the treatment of ischemic injuries. J Med Chem. 2003 Jul 3;46(14):3138-51. [12825952 ]
  4. Ferraris DV: Evolution of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) inhibitors. From concept to clinic. J Med Chem. 2010 Jun 24;53(12):4561-84. doi: 10.1021/jm100012m. [20364863 ]
  5. Zhu Q, Wang X, Chu Z, He G, Dong G, Xu Y: Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel imidazo[4,5-c]pyridinecarboxamide derivatives as PARP-1 inhibitors. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2013 Apr 1;23(7):1993-6. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2013.02.032. Epub 2013 Feb 16. [23481647 ]
  6. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  7. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
NAD-dependent lysine demalonylase, desuccinylase and deglutarylase that specifically removes malonyl, succinyl and glutaryl groups on target proteins (PubMed:21908771, PubMed:22076378, PubMed:24703693). Activates CPS1 and contributes to the regulation of blood ammonia levels during prolonged fasting: acts by mediating desuccinylation and deglutarylation of CPS1, thereby increasing CPS1 activity in response to elevated NAD levels during fasting (PubMed:22076378, PubMed:24703693). Activates SOD1 by mediating its desuccinylation, leading to reduced reactive oxygen species (PubMed:24140062). Modulates ketogenesis through the desuccinylation and activation of HMGCS2 (By similarity). Has weak NAD-dependent protein deacetylase activity; however this activity may not be physiologically relevant in vivo. Can deacetylate cytochrome c (CYCS) and a number of other proteins in vitro such as UOX.
Gene Name:
SIRT5
Uniprot ID:
Q9NXA8
Molecular Weight:
33880.605 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC5046.6 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 27507
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
  4. Liu T, Lin Y, Wen X, Jorissen RN, Gilson MK: BindingDB: a web-accessible database of experimentally determined protein-ligand binding affinities. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007 Jan;35(Database issue):D198-201. Epub 2006 Dec 1. [17145705 ]
  5. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  6. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
Nad binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
LDHA
Uniprot ID:
P00338
Molecular Weight:
36688.465 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
  4. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  5. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
Transferase activity
Specific Function:
Synthesizes the second messagers cyclic ADP-ribose and nicotinate-adenine dinucleotide phosphate, the former a second messenger that elicits calcium release from intracellular stores. May be involved in pre-B-cell growth.
Gene Name:
BST1
Uniprot ID:
Q10588
Molecular Weight:
35723.545 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  4. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
NAD-dependent protein deacetylase. Activates or deactivates mitochondrial target proteins by deacetylating key lysine residues. Known targets include ACSS1, IDH, GDH, SOD2, PDHA1, LCAD, SDHA and the ATP synthase subunit ATP5O. Contributes to the regulation of the cellular energy metabolism. Important for regulating tissue-specific ATP levels.
Gene Name:
SIRT3
Uniprot ID:
Q9NTG7
Molecular Weight:
43572.71 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC5014 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 27507
IC5030 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 27507
References
  1. Suzuki T, Asaba T, Imai E, Tsumoto H, Nakagawa H, Miyata N: Identification of a cell-active non-peptide sirtuin inhibitor containing N-thioacetyl lysine. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2009 Oct 1;19(19):5670-2. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2009.08.028. Epub 2009 Aug 12. [19700324 ]
  2. Liu T, Lin Y, Wen X, Jorissen RN, Gilson MK: BindingDB: a web-accessible database of experimentally determined protein-ligand binding affinities. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007 Jan;35(Database issue):D198-201. Epub 2006 Dec 1. [17145705 ]
  3. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  4. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
Vitamin d binding
Specific Function:
May have weak glycosidase activity towards glucuronylated steroids. However, it lacks essential active site Glu residues at positions 239 and 872, suggesting it may be inactive as a glycosidase in vivo. May be involved in the regulation of calcium and phosphorus homeostasis by inhibiting the synthesis of active vitamin D (By similarity). Essential factor for the specific interaction between FGF23 and FGFR1 (By similarity).The Klotho peptide generated by cleavage of the membrane-bound isoform may be an anti-aging circulating hormone which would extend life span by inhibiting insulin/IGF1 signaling.
Gene Name:
KL
Uniprot ID:
Q9UEF7
Molecular Weight:
116179.815 Da
References
  1. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  2. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
Superoxide-generating nadph oxidase activity
Specific Function:
Constitutive NADPH oxidase which generates superoxide intracellularly upon formation of a complex with CYBA/p22phox. Regulates signaling cascades probably through phosphatases inhibition. May function as an oxygen sensor regulating the KCNK3/TASK-1 potassium channel and HIF1A activity. May regulate insulin signaling cascade. May play a role in apoptosis, bone resorption and lipolysaccharide-mediated activation of NFKB. May produce superoxide in the nucleus and play a role in regulating gene expression upon cell stimulation. Isoform 3 is not functional. Isoform 5 and isoform 6 display reduced activity.Isoform 4: Involved in redox signaling in vascular cells. Constitutively and NADPH-dependently generates reactive oxygen species (ROS). Modulates the nuclear activation of ERK1/2 and the ELK1 transcription factor, and is capable of inducing nuclear DNA damage. Displays an increased activity relative to isoform 1.
Gene Name:
NOX4
Uniprot ID:
Q9NPH5
Molecular Weight:
66930.995 Da
References
  1. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  2. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Plays an important role in the excretion/detoxification of endogenous and exogenous organic anions, especially from the brain and kidney. Involved in the transport basolateral of steviol, fexofenadine. Transports benzylpenicillin (PCG), estrone-3-sulfate (E1S), cimetidine (CMD), 2,4-dichloro-phenoxyacetate (2,4-D), p-amino-hippurate (PAH), acyclovir (ACV) and ochratoxin (OTA).
Gene Name:
SLC22A8
Uniprot ID:
Q8TCC7
Molecular Weight:
59855.585 Da
References
  1. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  2. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]