Tmic
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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2014-09-11 05:20:52 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:26:59 UTC
Accession NumberT3D4886
Identification
Common NameBiochanin A
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionThe phytoestrogen biochanin A is an isoflavone derivative isolated from red clover Trifolium pratense with anticarcinogenic properties. Treating MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cells with biochanin A alone caused the accumulation of CYP1A1 mRNA and an increase in CYP1A1-specific 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity in a dose dependent manner. Biochanin A may be a natural ligand to bind on aryl hydrocarbon receptor acting as an antagonist/agonist of the pathway. (1). Biochanin A suppress nuclear factor-kappaB-driven interleukin-6 (IL6) expression. In addition to its physiologic immune function as an acute stress cytokine, sustained elevated expression levels of IL6 promote chronic inflammatory disorders, aging frailty, and tumorigenesis. (2). Biochanin A induces a decrease in invasive activity of U87MG cells in a dose-related manner. (3). Biochanin A activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) PPARalpha, PPARgamma, and adipocyte differentiation in vitro of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, suggesting potential value of isoflavones, especially biochanin A and their parent botanicals, as antidiabetic agents and for use in regulating lipid metabolism. (4).
Compound Type
  • Drug
  • Ester
  • Ether
  • Food Toxin
  • Metabolite
  • Natural Compound
  • Organic Compound
  • Plant Toxin
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
4'-Methylgenistein
5,7-Dihydroxy-3-p-methoxyphenyl-4H-chromen-4-one
5,7-Dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-Isoflavone
5,7-Dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-Isoflavone (8CI)
Biochanin
Biochanin a
Biochanine a
Genistein 4-methyl ether
Olmelin
Chemical FormulaC16H12O5
Average Molecular Mass284.264 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass284.068 g/mol
CAS Registry Number491-80-5
IUPAC Name5,7-dihydroxy-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4H-chromen-4-one
Traditional Namebiochanin
SMILESCOC1=CC=C(C=C1)C1=COC2=CC(O)=CC(O)=C2C1=O
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C16H12O5/c1-20-11-4-2-9(3-5-11)12-8-21-14-7-10(17)6-13(18)15(14)16(12)19/h2-8,17-18H,1H3
InChI KeyInChIKey=WUADCCWRTIWANL-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as 4'-o-methylisoflavones. These are isoflavones with methoxy groups attached to the C4' atom of the isoflavone backbone.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassPhenylpropanoids and polyketides
ClassIsoflavonoids
Sub ClassO-methylated isoflavonoids
Direct Parent4'-O-methylisoflavones
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • 4p-o-methylisoflavone
  • Isoflavone
  • Hydroxyisoflavonoid
  • Chromone
  • Benzopyran
  • 1-benzopyran
  • Anisole
  • Phenoxy compound
  • Phenol ether
  • Methoxybenzene
  • 1-hydroxy-4-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • Pyranone
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Benzenoid
  • Pyran
  • Vinylogous acid
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Ether
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Oxacycle
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting PointNot Available
Boiling PointNot Available
SolubilityNot Available
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.058 g/LALOGPS
logP3.44ALOGPS
logP3.22ChemAxon
logS-3.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)6.55ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4.7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area75.99 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity76.17 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability28.68 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-03di-2944800000-78e1196ce4a6b5cc510eView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-03di-2944800000-78e1196ce4a6b5cc510eView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-03di-1833900000-f09d96dccb297f00dcd5View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0a4i-0490000000-c605105233a09c99c287View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-03k9-3439600000-64fa3b3cc333606e4699View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 40V, Negativesplash10-014r-0190000000-7f6a864949fd18a14e8bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 50V, Negativesplash10-03yr-0790000000-5a2ccc494db05b9e19e7View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 30V, Negativesplash10-014i-0090000000-1469c7dc6efca44dce49View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF , Negativesplash10-001i-0090000000-ab7e811e30dd92aa8de3View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 20V, Negativesplash10-001i-0090000000-ab7e811e30dd92aa8de3View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 40V, Negativesplash10-014r-0190000000-7f6a864949fd18a14e8bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 50V, Negativesplash10-03yr-0790000000-5a2ccc494db05b9e19e7View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 30V, Negativesplash10-014i-0090000000-1469c7dc6efca44dce49View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF , Negativesplash10-001i-0090000000-ab7e811e30dd92aa8de3View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 20V, Negativesplash10-0159-0090000000-48950d676f0cb98a7321View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - DI-ESI-qTof , Positivesplash10-0w9c-0490000000-9f316916713e817996eeView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - DI-ESI-qTof , Positivesplash10-0a4i-0019000000-09139525e32bfa06cffdView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - DI-ESI-qTof , Negativesplash10-014i-0190000000-3d2d9ae76aea2ba8e0d4View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-000i-0090000000-47e7f5888047896fbeabView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-000i-0090000000-0d44debd7dc24705b82aView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0udi-4970000000-62cdcc296c60a0b9a572View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-000i-0090000000-47e7f5888047896fbeabView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-000i-0090000000-0d44debd7dc24705b82aView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0udi-4970000000-62cdcc296c60a0b9a572View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-001i-0090000000-57c90dbeeae680583b28View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-001i-0090000000-cfc655e2b327c5f14670View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0ue9-3890000000-4aefff84d287041c16e9View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-001i-0090000000-57c90dbeeae680583b28View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-001i-0090000000-cfc655e2b327c5f14670View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0ue9-3890000000-4aefff84d287041c16e9View in MoNA
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureNot Available
Mechanism of ToxicityNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesNot Available
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsNot Available
SymptomsNot Available
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDHMDB02338
PubChem Compound ID5280373
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL131921
ChemSpider ID4444068
KEGG IDC00814
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID17574
BioCyc IDBIOCHANIN-A
CTD IDC004541
Stitch IDNot Available
PDB IDQSO
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceGakhokidze, A. M. Synthesis of olmelin. Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii (Sankt-Peterburg, Russian Federation) (1950), 23 559-60.
MSDSLink
General References
  1. Han EH, Kim JY, Jeong HG: Effect of biochanin A on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and cytochrome P450 1A1 in MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cells. Arch Pharm Res. 2006 Jul;29(7):570-6. [16903077 ]
  2. Vanden Berghe W, Dijsselbloem N, Vermeulen L, Ndlovu MN, Boone E, Haegeman G: Attenuation of mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase-1-driven nuclear factor-kappaB gene expression by soy isoflavones does not require estrogenic activity. Cancer Res. 2006 May 1;66(9):4852-62. [16651441 ]
  3. Puli S, Lai JC, Bhushan A: Inhibition of matrix degrading enzymes and invasion in human glioblastoma (U87MG) cells by isoflavones. J Neurooncol. 2006 Sep;79(2):135-42. Epub 2006 Apr 6. [16598420 ]
  4. Shen P, Liu MH, Ng TY, Chan YH, Yong EL: Differential effects of isoflavones, from Astragalus membranaceus and Pueraria thomsonii, on the activation of PPARalpha, PPARgamma, and adipocyte differentiation in vitro. J Nutr. 2006 Apr;136(4):899-905. [16549448 ]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Ligand-dependent nuclear transactivation involves either direct homodimer binding to a palindromic estrogen response element (ERE) sequence or association with other DNA-binding transcription factors, such as AP-1/c-Jun, c-Fos, ATF-2, Sp1 and Sp3, to mediate ERE-independent signaling. Ligand binding induces a conformational change allowing subsequent or combinatorial association with multiprotein coactivator complexes through LXXLL motifs of their respective components. Mutual transrepression occurs between the estrogen receptor (ER) and NF-kappa-B in a cell-type specific manner. Decreases NF-kappa-B DNA-binding activity and inhibits NF-kappa-B-mediated transcription from the IL6 promoter and displace RELA/p65 and associated coregulators from the promoter. Recruited to the NF-kappa-B response element of the CCL2 and IL8 promoters and can displace CREBBP. Present with NF-kappa-B components RELA/p65 and NFKB1/p50 on ERE sequences. Can also act synergistically with NF-kappa-B to activate transcription involving respective recruitment adjacent response elements; the function involves CREBBP. Can activate the transcriptional activity of TFF1. Also mediates membrane-initiated estrogen signaling involving various kinase cascades. Isoform 3 is involved in activation of NOS3 and endothelial nitric oxide production. Isoforms lacking one or several functional domains are thought to modulate transcriptional activity by competitive ligand or DNA binding and/or heterodimerization with the full length receptor. Essential for MTA1-mediated transcriptional regulation of BRCA1 and BCAS3. Isoform 3 can bind to ERE and inhibit isoform 1.
Gene Name:
ESR1
Uniprot ID:
P03372
Molecular Weight:
66215.45 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC500.526 uMACEA_T47D_80hr_PositiveACEA Biosciences
AC502.27 uMATG_ERa_TRANSAttagene
AC500.627 uMATG_ERE_CISAttagene
AC500.652 uMNVS_NR_hERNovascreen
AC508.93 uMOT_ERa_EREGFP_0480Odyssey Thera
AC500.679 uMTox21_ERa_LUC_BG1_AgonistTox21/NCGC
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
  2. Overk CR, Yao P, Chadwick LR, Nikolic D, Sun Y, Cuendet MA, Deng Y, Hedayat AS, Pauli GF, Farnsworth NR, van Breemen RB, Bolton JL: Comparison of the in vitro estrogenic activities of compounds from hops (Humulus lupulus) and red clover (Trifolium pratense). J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Aug 10;53(16):6246-53. [16076101 ]
  3. Kuiper GG, Lemmen JG, Carlsson B, Corton JC, Safe SH, van der Saag PT, van der Burg B, Gustafsson JA: Interaction of estrogenic chemicals and phytoestrogens with estrogen receptor beta. Endocrinology. 1998 Oct;139(10):4252-63. [9751507 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. Binds estrogens with an affinity similar to that of ESR1, and activates expression of reporter genes containing estrogen response elements (ERE) in an estrogen-dependent manner (PubMed:20074560). Isoform beta-cx lacks ligand binding ability and has no or only very low ere binding activity resulting in the loss of ligand-dependent transactivation ability. DNA-binding by ESR1 and ESR2 is rapidly lost at 37 degrees Celsius in the absence of ligand while in the presence of 17 beta-estradiol and 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen loss in DNA-binding at elevated temperature is more gradual.
Gene Name:
ESR2
Uniprot ID:
Q92731
Molecular Weight:
59215.765 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC503.88 uMOT_ER_ERaERb_0480Odyssey Thera
AC506.26 uMOT_ER_ERaERb_1440Odyssey Thera
AC502.24 uMOT_ER_ERbERb_0480Odyssey Thera
AC502.54 uMOT_ER_ERbERb_1440Odyssey Thera
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
  2. Overk CR, Yao P, Chadwick LR, Nikolic D, Sun Y, Cuendet MA, Deng Y, Hedayat AS, Pauli GF, Farnsworth NR, van Breemen RB, Bolton JL: Comparison of the in vitro estrogenic activities of compounds from hops (Humulus lupulus) and red clover (Trifolium pratense). J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Aug 10;53(16):6246-53. [16076101 ]
  3. Kuiper GG, Lemmen JG, Carlsson B, Corton JC, Safe SH, van der Saag PT, van der Burg B, Gustafsson JA: Interaction of estrogenic chemicals and phytoestrogens with estrogen receptor beta. Endocrinology. 1998 Oct;139(10):4252-63. [9751507 ]
General Function:
Oxygen binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the formation of aromatic C18 estrogens from C19 androgens.
Gene Name:
CYP19A1
Uniprot ID:
P11511
Molecular Weight:
57882.48 Da
References
  1. Kao YC, Zhou C, Sherman M, Laughton CA, Chen S: Molecular basis of the inhibition of human aromatase (estrogen synthetase) by flavone and isoflavone phytoestrogens: A site-directed mutagenesis study. Environ Health Perspect. 1998 Feb;106(2):85-92. [9435150 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Binds to an ERR-alpha response element (ERRE) containing a single consensus half-site, 5'-TNAAGGTCA-3'. Can bind to the medium-chain acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase (MCAD) response element NRRE-1 and may act as an important regulator of MCAD promoter. Binds to the C1 region of the lactoferrin gene promoter. Requires dimerization and the coactivator, PGC-1A, for full activity. The ERRalpha/PGC1alpha complex is a regulator of energy metabolism. Induces the expression of PERM1 in the skeletal muscle.
Gene Name:
ESRRA
Uniprot ID:
P11474
Molecular Weight:
45509.11 Da
References
  1. Suetsugi M, Su L, Karlsberg K, Yuan YC, Chen S: Flavone and isoflavone phytoestrogens are agonists of estrogen-related receptors. Mol Cancer Res. 2003 Nov;1(13):981-91. [14638870 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear receptor, may regulate ESR1 transcriptional activity. Induces the expression of PERM1 in the skeletal muscle.
Gene Name:
ESRRB
Uniprot ID:
O95718
Molecular Weight:
56207.085 Da
References
  1. Suetsugi M, Su L, Karlsberg K, Yuan YC, Chen S: Flavone and isoflavone phytoestrogens are agonists of estrogen-related receptors. Mol Cancer Res. 2003 Nov;1(13):981-91. [14638870 ]
General Function:
Cholesterol binding
Specific Function:
Can bind protoporphyrin IX and may play a role in the transport of porphyrins and heme (By similarity). Promotes the transport of cholesterol across mitochondrial membranes and may play a role in lipid metabolism (PubMed:24814875), but its precise physiological role is controversial. It is apparently not required for steroid hormone biosynthesis. Was initially identified as peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor; can also bind isoquinoline carboxamides (PubMed:1847678).
Gene Name:
TSPO
Uniprot ID:
P30536
Molecular Weight:
18827.81 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC500.17 uMNVS_MP_hPBRNovascreen
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Steroid hormone receptors are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Transcription factor activity is modulated by bound coactivator and corepressor proteins. Transcription activation is down-regulated by NR0B2. Activated, but not phosphorylated, by HIPK3 and ZIPK/DAPK3.
Gene Name:
AR
Uniprot ID:
P10275
Molecular Weight:
98987.9 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC501.94 uMTox21_AR_LUC_MDAKB2_AgonistTox21/NCGC
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Atp binding
Specific Function:
Involved in DNA damage response. Involved in a RAD9A-related damage checkpoint, a pathway that is important in determining whether DNA damage is compatible with cell survival or whether it requires cell elimination by apoptosis. Modulates the RAD9A interaction with BCL2 and thereby induces DNA damages-induced apoptosis.
Gene Name:
ATAD5
Uniprot ID:
Q96QE3
Molecular Weight:
207568.185 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC502.08 uMTox21_ELG1_LUC_AgonistTox21/NCGC
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Transcription regulatory region dna binding
Specific Function:
Ligand-activated transcriptional activator. Binds to the XRE promoter region of genes it activates. Activates the expression of multiple phase I and II xenobiotic chemical metabolizing enzyme genes (such as the CYP1A1 gene). Mediates biochemical and toxic effects of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons. Involved in cell-cycle regulation. Likely to play an important role in the development and maturation of many tissues. Regulates the circadian clock by inhibiting the basal and circadian expression of the core circadian component PER1. Inhibits PER1 by repressing the CLOCK-ARNTL/BMAL1 heterodimer mediated transcriptional activation of PER1.
Gene Name:
AHR
Uniprot ID:
P35869
Molecular Weight:
96146.705 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC503.9 uMTox21_AhRTox21/NCGC
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Ligand-activated transcription factor. Key regulator of lipid metabolism. Activated by the endogenous ligand 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphocholine (16:0/18:1-GPC). Activated by oleylethanolamide, a naturally occurring lipid that regulates satiety. Receptor for peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Regulates the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway of fatty acids. Functions as transcription activator for the ACOX1 and P450 genes. Transactivation activity requires heterodimerization with RXRA and is antagonized by NR2C2. May be required for the propagation of clock information to metabolic pathways regulated by PER2.
Gene Name:
PPARA
Uniprot ID:
Q07869
Molecular Weight:
52224.595 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC507.77 uMATG_PPARa_TRANSAttagene
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Ligand-activated transcription factor. Receptor for bile acids such as chenodeoxycholic acid, lithocholic acid and deoxycholic acid. Represses the transcription of the cholesterol 7-alpha-hydroxylase gene (CYP7A1) through the induction of NR0B2 or FGF19 expression, via two distinct mechanisms. Activates the intestinal bile acid-binding protein (IBABP). Activates the transcription of bile salt export pump ABCB11 by directly recruiting histone methyltransferase CARM1 to this locus.
Gene Name:
NR1H4
Uniprot ID:
Q96RI1
Molecular Weight:
55913.915 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC509.2 uMOT_SRC1_SRC1FXR_1440Odyssey Thera
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Progesterone receptor isoform B (PRB) is involved activation of c-SRC/MAPK signaling on hormone stimulation.Isoform A: inactive in stimulating c-Src/MAPK signaling on hormone stimulation.Isoform 4: Increases mitochondrial membrane potential and cellular respiration upon stimulation by progesterone.
Gene Name:
PGR
Uniprot ID:
P06401
Molecular Weight:
98979.96 Da
References
  1. Scippo ML, Argiris C, Van De Weerdt C, Muller M, Willemsen P, Martial J, Maghuin-Rogister G: Recombinant human estrogen, androgen and progesterone receptors for detection of potential endocrine disruptors. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2004 Feb;378(3):664-9. Epub 2003 Oct 25. [14579009 ]