You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Toxin, Toxin Target Database.
Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-07-21 20:26:49 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:25:51 UTC
Accession NumberT3D2779
Identification
Common NameLoxapine
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionLoxapine is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. It is an antipsychotic agent used in schizophrenia. Loxapine is a dopamine antagonist, and also a serotonin 5-HT2 blocker. The exact mode of action of Loxapine has not been established, however changes in the level of excitability of subcortical inhibitory areas have been observed in several animal species in association with such manifestations of tranquilization as calming effects and suppression of aggressive behavior.
Compound Type
  • Amine
  • Antipsychotic Agent
  • Dopamine Antagonist
  • Drug
  • Ether
  • Metabolite
  • Organic Compound
  • Organochloride
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
2-Chloro-11-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)dibenz[b,f][1,4]oxazepine
Adasuve
Cloxazepine
Lopac
Losagen
Loxapac
Loxapina
Loxapinum
Loxitane
oxilapine
Rosup
Chemical FormulaC18H18ClN3O
Average Molecular Mass327.808 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass327.114 g/mol
CAS Registry Number1977-10-2
IUPAC Name13-chloro-10-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-2-oxa-9-azatricyclo[9.4.0.0³,⁸]pentadeca-1(11),3,5,7,9,12,14-heptaene
Traditional Nameloxapine
SMILESCN1CCN(CC1)C1=NC2=CC=CC=C2OC2=C1C=C(Cl)C=C2
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C18H18ClN3O/c1-21-8-10-22(11-9-21)18-14-12-13(19)6-7-16(14)23-17-5-3-2-4-15(17)20-18/h2-7,12H,8-11H2,1H3
InChI KeyInChIKey=XJGVXQDUIWGIRW-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as dibenzoxazepines. Dibenzoxazepines are compounds containing a dibenzoxazepine moiety, which consists of two benzene connected by an oxazepine ring.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassBenzoxazepines
Sub ClassDibenzoxazepines
Direct ParentDibenzoxazepines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Dibenzoxazepine
  • Diaryl ether
  • N-methylpiperazine
  • N-alkylpiperazine
  • Aryl chloride
  • Aryl halide
  • 1,4-diazinane
  • Piperazine
  • Benzenoid
  • Imidolactam
  • Tertiary amine
  • Tertiary aliphatic amine
  • Oxacycle
  • Azacycle
  • Carboxylic acid amidine
  • Organic 1,3-dipolar compound
  • Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound
  • Ether
  • Amidine
  • Amine
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Organochloride
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Applications
Biological Roles
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point109-111°C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility1.03e-01 g/L
LogP3.6
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.103 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.18ALOGPS
logP3.46ChemAxon
logS-3.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)7.18ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area28.07 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity95.11 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability34.99 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSsplash10-06r5-8094000000-3f11548f145e2cd0d2a5View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , Positivesplash10-00ai-0149000000-d463f8ddf4248264d132View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , Positivesplash10-01r6-0930000000-4798aec046d747300d80View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , positivesplash10-00ai-0149000000-d463f8ddf4248264d132View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , positivesplash10-01r6-0930000000-4798aec046d747300d80View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-004i-0009000000-13c7c5980fa375485ea6View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-004i-0029000000-ee11b761132aadb447f8View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0596-9250000000-cdb8e78cf5fd1fd059b9View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-0009000000-71d4c9395b89ad9fc22aView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-004i-0039000000-ca6576c997e0e1af0ab2View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-006y-3491000000-40caba03e0caacbf4b76View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0a4l-7590000000-118f30ca0699bf2b3d2eView in MoNA
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral, Intramuscular. Systemic bioavailability of the parent drug was only about one third that after an equivalent intramuscular dose (25 mg base) in male volunteers.
Mechanism of ToxicityLoxapine is a dopamine antagonist, and also a serotonin 5-HT2 blocker. The exact mode of action of Loxapine has not been established, however changes in the level of excitability of subcortical inhibitory areas have been observed in several animal species in association with such manifestations of tranquilization as calming effects and suppression of aggressive behavior.
MetabolismHepatic Route of Elimination: Metabolites are excreted in the urine in the form of conjugates and in the feces unconjugated. Half Life: Oral-4 hours
Toxicity ValuesLD50=65 mg/kg (Orally in mice)
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesFor the management of the manifestations of psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsNot Available
SymptomsLD50=65 mg/kg (Orally in mice)
TreatmentThe treatment of overdosage is essentially symptomatic and supportive. Early gastric lavage and extended dialysis might be expected to be beneficial. Centrally-acting emetics may have little effect because of the antiemetic action of loxapine. In addition, emesis should be avoided because of the possibility of aspiration of vomitus. Avoid analeptics, such as pentylenetetrazol, which may cause convulsions. Severe hypotension might be expected to respond to the administration of levarterenol or phenylephrine. Epinephrine should not be used since its use in a patient with partial adrenergic blockade may further lower the blood pressure. Severe extrapyramidal reactions should be treated with anticholinergic antiparkinson agents or diphenhydramine hydrochloride, and anticonvulsant therapy should be initiated as indicated. Additional measures include oxygen and intravenous fluids. (4)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB00408
HMDB IDHMDB14552
PubChem Compound ID3964
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL831
ChemSpider ID3827
KEGG IDC07104
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID50841
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDLoxapine
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkLoxapine
References
Synthesis Reference

U.S. Patents 3,412,193; 3,546,226.

MSDST3D2779.pdf
General References
  1. Glazer WM: Does loxapine have "atypical" properties? Clinical evidence. J Clin Psychiatry. 1999;60 Suppl 10:42-6. [10340686 ]
  2. Cheung SW, Tang SW, Remington G: Simultaneous quantitation of loxapine, amoxapine and their 7- and 8-hydroxy metabolites in plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr. 1991 Mar 8;564(1):213-21. [1860915 ]
  3. Drugs.com [Link]
  4. RxList: The Internet Drug Index (2009). [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Potassium channel regulator activity
Specific Function:
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name:
DRD2
Uniprot ID:
P14416
Molecular Weight:
50618.91 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.021 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 22871
IC500.054 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 22871
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [11752352 ]
  2. Lee T, Tang SW: Loxapine and clozapine decrease serotonin (S2) but do not elevate dopamine (D2) receptor numbers in the rat brain. Psychiatry Res. 1984 Aug;12(4):277-85. [6239298 ]
  3. Hjerde E, Dahl SG, Sylte I: Atypical and typical antipsychotic drug interactions with the dopamine D2 receptor. Eur J Med Chem. 2005 Feb;40(2):185-94. [15694653 ]
  4. Kalkman HO, Neumann V, Nozulak J, Tricklebank MD: Cataleptogenic effect of subtype selective 5-HT receptor antagonists in the rat. Eur J Pharmacol. 1998 Feb 19;343(2-3):201-7. [9570468 ]
  5. Froimowitz M, Cody V: Biologically active conformers of phenothiazines and thioxanthenes. Further evidence for a ligand model of dopamine D2 receptor antagonists. J Med Chem. 1993 Jul 23;36(15):2219-27. [8101879 ]
  6. Froimowitz M, Cody V: The incorporation of butyrophenones and related compounds into a pharmacophore for dopamine D2 antagonists. Drug Des Discov. 1997 Aug;15(2):63-81. [9342550 ]
  7. Liao Y, Venhuis BJ, Rodenhuis N, Timmerman W, Wikstrom H, Meier E, Bartoszyk GD, Bottcher H, Seyfried CA, Sundell S: New (sulfonyloxy)piperazinyldibenzazepines as potential atypical antipsychotics: chemistry and pharmacological evaluation. J Med Chem. 1999 Jun 17;42(12):2235-44. [10377229 ]
  8. Phillips ST, de Paulis T, Neergaard JR, Baron BM, Siegel BW, Seeman P, Van Tol HH, Guan HC, Smith HE: Binding of 5H-dibenzo[a,d]cycloheptene and dibenz[b,f]oxepin analogues of clozapine to dopamine and serotonin receptors. J Med Chem. 1995 Feb 17;38(4):708-14. [7861418 ]
  9. Phillips ST, de Paulis T, Baron BM, Siegel BW, Seeman P, Van Tol HH, Guan HC, Smith HE: Binding of 5H-dibenzo[b,e][1,4]diazepine and chiral 5H-dibenzo[a,d]cycloheptene analogues of clozapine to dopamine and serotonin receptors. J Med Chem. 1994 Aug 19;37(17):2686-96. [8064797 ]
General Function:
Sh3 domain binding
Specific Function:
Dopamine receptor responsible for neuronal signaling in the mesolimbic system of the brain, an area of the brain that regulates emotion and complex behavior. Its activity is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase. Modulates the circadian rhythm of contrast sensitivity by regulating the rhythmic expression of NPAS2 in the retinal ganglion cells (By similarity).
Gene Name:
DRD4
Uniprot ID:
P21917
Molecular Weight:
48359.86 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.0049 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 22871
Inhibitory0.009 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 22871
IC500.014 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 22871
References
  1. Liao Y, Venhuis BJ, Rodenhuis N, Timmerman W, Wikstrom H, Meier E, Bartoszyk GD, Bottcher H, Seyfried CA, Sundell S: New (sulfonyloxy)piperazinyldibenzazepines as potential atypical antipsychotics: chemistry and pharmacological evaluation. J Med Chem. 1999 Jun 17;42(12):2235-44. [10377229 ]
  2. Phillips ST, de Paulis T, Neergaard JR, Baron BM, Siegel BW, Seeman P, Van Tol HH, Guan HC, Smith HE: Binding of 5H-dibenzo[a,d]cycloheptene and dibenz[b,f]oxepin analogues of clozapine to dopamine and serotonin receptors. J Med Chem. 1995 Feb 17;38(4):708-14. [7861418 ]
  3. Phillips ST, de Paulis T, Baron BM, Siegel BW, Seeman P, Van Tol HH, Guan HC, Smith HE: Binding of 5H-dibenzo[b,e][1,4]diazepine and chiral 5H-dibenzo[a,d]cycloheptene analogues of clozapine to dopamine and serotonin receptors. J Med Chem. 1994 Aug 19;37(17):2686-96. [8064797 ]
  4. Liegeois JF, Deville M, Dilly S, Lamy C, Mangin F, Resimont M, Tarazi FI: New pyridobenzoxazepine derivatives derived from 5-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-8-chloro-pyrido[2,3-b][1,5]benzoxazepine (JL13): chemical synthesis and pharmacological evaluation. J Med Chem. 2012 Feb 23;55(4):1572-82. doi: 10.1021/jm2013419. Epub 2012 Feb 13. [22268448 ]
General Function:
Virus receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances, including mescaline, psilocybin, 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI) and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors. Beta-arrestin family members inhibit signaling via G proteins and mediate activation of alternative signaling pathways. Signaling activates phospholipase C and a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system that modulates the activity of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and promotes the release of Ca(2+) ions from intracellular stores. Affects neural activity, perception, cognition and mood. Plays a role in the regulation of behavior, including responses to anxiogenic situations and psychoactive substances. Plays a role in intestinal smooth muscle contraction, and may play a role in arterial vasoconstriction.(Microbial infection) Acts as a receptor for human JC polyomavirus/JCPyV.
Gene Name:
HTR2A
Uniprot ID:
P28223
Molecular Weight:
52602.58 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.002 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 22871
Inhibitory0.00242 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 22871
References
  1. Li Z, Ichikawa J, Meltzer HY: A comparison of the effects of loxapine with ziprasidone and thioridazine on the release of dopamine and acetylcholine in the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2003 May;167(3):315-23. Epub 2003 Mar 28. [12664192 ]
  2. Seeman P, Tallerico T: Antipsychotic drugs which elicit little or no parkinsonism bind more loosely than dopamine to brain D2 receptors, yet occupy high levels of these receptors. Mol Psychiatry. 1998 Mar;3(2):123-34. [9577836 ]
  3. Liegeois JF, Deville M, Dilly S, Lamy C, Mangin F, Resimont M, Tarazi FI: New pyridobenzoxazepine derivatives derived from 5-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-8-chloro-pyrido[2,3-b][1,5]benzoxazepine (JL13): chemical synthesis and pharmacological evaluation. J Med Chem. 2012 Feb 23;55(4):1572-82. doi: 10.1021/jm2013419. Epub 2012 Feb 13. [22268448 ]
General Function:
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function:
This is one of the several different receptors for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins that stimulate adenylate cyclase. It has a high affinity for tricyclic psychotropic drugs (By similarity). Controls pyramidal neurons migration during corticogenesis, through the regulation of CDK5 activity (By similarity). Is an activator of TOR signaling (PubMed:23027611).
Gene Name:
HTR6
Uniprot ID:
P50406
Molecular Weight:
46953.625 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.015 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 22871
Inhibitory0.027 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 22871
References
  1. Glennon RA: Higher-end serotonin receptors: 5-HT(5), 5-HT(6), and 5-HT(7). J Med Chem. 2003 Jul 3;46(14):2795-812. [12825922 ]
  2. Kohen R, Metcalf MA, Khan N, Druck T, Huebner K, Lachowicz JE, Meltzer HY, Sibley DR, Roth BL, Hamblin MW: Cloning, characterization, and chromosomal localization of a human 5-HT6 serotonin receptor. J Neurochem. 1996 Jan;66(1):47-56. [8522988 ]
General Function:
G-protein coupled acetylcholine receptor activity
Specific Function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is adenylate cyclase inhibition. Signaling promotes phospholipase C activity, leading to the release of inositol trisphosphate (IP3); this then triggers calcium ion release into the cytosol.
Gene Name:
CHRM2
Uniprot ID:
P08172
Molecular Weight:
51714.605 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.3 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 22871
Inhibitory0.45 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 22871
References
  1. Bolden C, Cusack B, Richelson E: Antagonism by antimuscarinic and neuroleptic compounds at the five cloned human muscarinic cholinergic receptors expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1992 Feb;260(2):576-80. [1346637 ]
  2. Richelson E, Nelson A: Antagonism by neuroleptics of neurotransmitter receptors of normal human brain in vitro. Eur J Pharmacol. 1984 Aug 17;103(3-4):197-204. [6149136 ]
General Function:
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances, including ergot alkaloid derivatives, 1-2,5,-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl-2-aminopropane (DOI) and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors. Beta-arrestin family members inhibit signaling via G proteins and mediate activation of alternative signaling pathways. Signaling activates a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system that modulates the activity of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and down-stream signaling cascades and promotes the release of Ca(2+) ions from intracellular stores. Regulates neuronal activity via the activation of short transient receptor potential calcium channels in the brain, and thereby modulates the activation of pro-opiomelacortin neurons and the release of CRH that then regulates the release of corticosterone. Plays a role in the regulation of appetite and eating behavior, responses to anxiogenic stimuli and stress. Plays a role in insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis.
Gene Name:
HTR2C
Uniprot ID:
P28335
Molecular Weight:
51820.705 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.017 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 22871
References
  1. Herrick-Davis K, Grinde E, Teitler M: Inverse agonist activity of atypical antipsychotic drugs at human 5-hydroxytryptamine2C receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2000 Oct;295(1):226-32. [10991983 ]
General Function:
Thioesterase binding
Specific Function:
Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The rank order of potency for agonists of this receptor is oxymetazoline > clonidine > epinephrine > norepinephrine > phenylephrine > dopamine > p-synephrine > p-tyramine > serotonin = p-octopamine. For antagonists, the rank order is yohimbine > phentolamine = mianserine > chlorpromazine = spiperone = prazosin > propanolol > alprenolol = pindolol.
Gene Name:
ADRA2A
Uniprot ID:
P08913
Molecular Weight:
48956.275 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory2.4 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 22871
References
  1. Richelson E, Nelson A: Antagonism by neuroleptics of neurotransmitter receptors of normal human brain in vitro. Eur J Pharmacol. 1984 Aug 17;103(3-4):197-204. [6149136 ]
General Function:
G-protein coupled amine receptor activity
Specific Function:
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name:
DRD1
Uniprot ID:
P21728
Molecular Weight:
49292.765 Da
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [11752352 ]
General Function:
G-protein coupled amine receptor activity
Specific Function:
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase. Promotes cell proliferation.
Gene Name:
DRD3
Uniprot ID:
P35462
Molecular Weight:
44224.335 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC500.022 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 22871
References
  1. Liao Y, Venhuis BJ, Rodenhuis N, Timmerman W, Wikstrom H, Meier E, Bartoszyk GD, Bottcher H, Seyfried CA, Sundell S: New (sulfonyloxy)piperazinyldibenzazepines as potential atypical antipsychotics: chemistry and pharmacological evaluation. J Med Chem. 1999 Jun 17;42(12):2235-44. [10377229 ]
General Function:
Histamine receptor activity
Specific Function:
In peripheral tissues, the H1 subclass of histamine receptors mediates the contraction of smooth muscles, increase in capillary permeability due to contraction of terminal venules, and catecholamine release from adrenal medulla, as well as mediating neurotransmission in the central nervous system.
Gene Name:
HRH1
Uniprot ID:
P35367
Molecular Weight:
55783.61 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.0049 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 22871
References
  1. Richelson E, Nelson A: Antagonism by neuroleptics of neurotransmitter receptors of normal human brain in vitro. Eur J Pharmacol. 1984 Aug 17;103(3-4):197-204. [6149136 ]
General Function:
Phosphatidylinositol phospholipase c activity
Specific Function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is Pi turnover.
Gene Name:
CHRM1
Uniprot ID:
P11229
Molecular Weight:
51420.375 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.0639 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 22871
References
  1. Bolden C, Cusack B, Richelson E: Antagonism by antimuscarinic and neuroleptic compounds at the five cloned human muscarinic cholinergic receptors expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1992 Feb;260(2):576-80. [1346637 ]
General Function:
Receptor activity
Specific Function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is Pi turnover.
Gene Name:
CHRM3
Uniprot ID:
P20309
Molecular Weight:
66127.445 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.39 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 22871
References
  1. Bolden C, Cusack B, Richelson E: Antagonism by antimuscarinic and neuroleptic compounds at the five cloned human muscarinic cholinergic receptors expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1992 Feb;260(2):576-80. [1346637 ]
General Function:
Guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity
Specific Function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is inhibition of adenylate cyclase.
Gene Name:
CHRM4
Uniprot ID:
P08173
Molecular Weight:
53048.65 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.3 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 22871
References
  1. Bolden C, Cusack B, Richelson E: Antagonism by antimuscarinic and neuroleptic compounds at the five cloned human muscarinic cholinergic receptors expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1992 Feb;260(2):576-80. [1346637 ]
General Function:
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors, such as adenylate cyclase. Beta-arrestin family members inhibit signaling via G proteins and mediate activation of alternative signaling pathways. Signaling inhibits adenylate cyclase activity and activates a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system that regulates the release of Ca(2+) ions from intracellular stores. Plays a role in the regulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine release and in the regulation of dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism. Plays a role in the regulation of dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine levels in the brain, and thereby affects neural activity, mood and behavior. Plays a role in the response to anxiogenic stimuli.
Gene Name:
HTR1A
Uniprot ID:
P08908
Molecular Weight:
46106.335 Da
General Function:
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for ergot alkaloid derivatives, various anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs and other psychoactive substances, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors, such as adenylate cyclase. Signaling inhibits adenylate cyclase activity. Arrestin family members inhibit signaling via G proteins and mediate activation of alternative signaling pathways. Regulates the release of 5-hydroxytryptamine, dopamine and acetylcholine in the brain, and thereby affects neural activity, nociceptive processing, pain perception, mood and behavior. Besides, plays a role in vasoconstriction of cerebral arteries.
Gene Name:
HTR1B
Uniprot ID:
P28222
Molecular Weight:
43567.535 Da
General Function:
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for ergot alkaloid derivatives, various anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs and other psychoactive substances. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors, such as adenylate cyclase. Signaling inhibits adenylate cyclase activity. Regulates the release of 5-hydroxytryptamine in the brain, and thereby affects neural activity. May also play a role in regulating the release of other neurotransmitters. May play a role in vasoconstriction.
Gene Name:
HTR1D
Uniprot ID:
P28221
Molecular Weight:
41906.38 Da
General Function:
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various alkaloids and psychoactive substances. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors, such as adenylate cyclase. Signaling inhibits adenylate cyclase activity.
Gene Name:
HTR1E
Uniprot ID:
P28566
Molecular Weight:
41681.57 Da
General Function:
Voltage-gated potassium channel activity
Specific Function:
This is one of the several different receptors for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. This receptor is a ligand-gated ion channel, which when activated causes fast, depolarizing responses in neurons. It is a cation-specific, but otherwise relatively nonselective, ion channel.
Gene Name:
HTR3A
Uniprot ID:
P46098
Molecular Weight:
55279.835 Da
General Function:
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function:
This is one of the several different receptors for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins.
Gene Name:
HTR5A
Uniprot ID:
P47898
Molecular Weight:
40254.69 Da
General Function:
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function:
This is one of the several different receptors for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins that stimulate adenylate cyclase.
Gene Name:
HTR7
Uniprot ID:
P34969
Molecular Weight:
53554.43 Da
General Function:
Protein heterodimerization activity
Specific Function:
This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. Its effect is mediated by G(q) and G(11) proteins. Nuclear ADRA1A-ADRA1B heterooligomers regulate phenylephrine(PE)-stimulated ERK signaling in cardiac myocytes.
Gene Name:
ADRA1A
Uniprot ID:
P35348
Molecular Weight:
51486.005 Da
General Function:
Protein heterodimerization activity
Specific Function:
This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. Its effect is mediated by G(q) and G(11) proteins. Nuclear ADRA1A-ADRA1B heterooligomers regulate phenylephrine (PE)-stimulated ERK signaling in cardiac myocytes.
Gene Name:
ADRA1B
Uniprot ID:
P35368
Molecular Weight:
56835.375 Da
General Function:
Epinephrine binding
Specific Function:
Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The rank order of potency for agonists of this receptor is clonidine > norepinephrine > epinephrine = oxymetazoline > dopamine > p-tyramine = phenylephrine > serotonin > p-synephrine / p-octopamine. For antagonists, the rank order is yohimbine > chlorpromazine > phentolamine > mianserine > spiperone > prazosin > alprenolol > propanolol > pindolol.
Gene Name:
ADRA2B
Uniprot ID:
P18089
Molecular Weight:
49565.8 Da
General Function:
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function:
Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins.
Gene Name:
ADRA2C
Uniprot ID:
P18825
Molecular Weight:
49521.585 Da
General Function:
Receptor signaling protein activity
Specific Function:
Beta-adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced activation of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. This receptor binds epinephrine and norepinephrine with approximately equal affinity. Mediates Ras activation through G(s)-alpha- and cAMP-mediated signaling.
Gene Name:
ADRB1
Uniprot ID:
P08588
Molecular Weight:
51322.1 Da
26. D(1) dopamine receptor (Protein Group)
General Function:
G-protein coupled amine receptor activity
Specific Function:
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase.
Included Proteins:
P21728 , P21918
General Function:
G-protein coupled amine receptor activity
Specific Function:
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name:
DRD5
Uniprot ID:
P21918
Molecular Weight:
52950.5 Da
General Function:
Histamine receptor activity
Specific Function:
The H2 subclass of histamine receptors mediates gastric acid secretion. Also appears to regulate gastrointestinal motility and intestinal secretion. Possible role in regulating cell growth and differentiation. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase and, through a separate G protein-dependent mechanism, the phosphoinositide/protein kinase (PKC) signaling pathway (By similarity).
Gene Name:
HRH2
Uniprot ID:
P25021
Molecular Weight:
40097.65 Da
General Function:
Histamine receptor activity
Specific Function:
The H4 subclass of histamine receptors could mediate the histamine signals in peripheral tissues. Displays a significant level of constitutive activity (spontaneous activity in the absence of agonist).
Gene Name:
HRH4
Uniprot ID:
Q9H3N8
Molecular Weight:
44495.375 Da
General Function:
Phosphatidylinositol phospholipase c activity
Specific Function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is Pi turnover.
Gene Name:
CHRM5
Uniprot ID:
P08912
Molecular Weight:
60073.205 Da
General Function:
Monoamine transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of dopamine by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name:
SLC6A3
Uniprot ID:
Q01959
Molecular Weight:
68494.255 Da
General Function:
Norepinephrine:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function:
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of noradrenaline by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name:
SLC6A2
Uniprot ID:
P23975
Molecular Weight:
69331.42 Da
General Function:
Serotonin:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function:
Serotonin transporter whose primary function in the central nervous system involves the regulation of serotonergic signaling via transport of serotonin molecules from the synaptic cleft back into the pre-synaptic terminal for re-utilization. Plays a key role in mediating regulation of the availability of serotonin to other receptors of serotonergic systems. Terminates the action of serotonin and recycles it in a sodium-dependent manner.
Gene Name:
SLC6A4
Uniprot ID:
P31645
Molecular Weight:
70324.165 Da