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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-07-23 18:26:15 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:25:58 UTC
Accession NumberT3D3097
Identification
Common NameTubocurarine
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionTubocurarine is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. It is a neuromuscular blocker and active ingredient in curare; plant based alkaloid of Menispermaceae. [PubChem]Tubocurarine, the chief alkaloid in tobacco products, binds stereo-selectively to nicotinic-cholinergic receptors at the autonomic ganglia, in the adrenal medulla, at neuromuscular junctions, and in the brain. Two types of central nervous system effects are believed to be the basis of Tubocurarine's positively reinforcing properties. A stimulating effect is exerted mainly in the cortex via the locus ceruleus and a reward effect is exerted in the limbic system. At low doses the stimulant effects predominate while at high doses the reward effects predominate. Intermittent intravenous administration of Tubocurarine activates neurohormonal pathways, releasing acetylcholine, norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, vasopressin, beta-endorphin, growth hormone, and ACTH.
Compound Type
  • Amine
  • Drug
  • Ether
  • Metabolite
  • Muscle Relaxant, Skeletal
  • Natural Compound
  • Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agent
  • Nicotinic Antagonist
  • Organic Compound
  • Plant Toxin
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
(+)-tubocurarine
7',12'-Dihydroxy-6,6'-dimethoxy-2,2',2'-trimethyltubocuraranium
D-Tubocurarine
D-Tubocurarine Chloride
Isoquinoline Alkaloid
Tubarine
Tubocurarin
Tubocurarine Chloride
Tubocurarinum
Chemical FormulaC37H41N2O6
Average Molecular Mass609.731 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass609.296 g/mol
CAS Registry Number6989-98-6
IUPAC Name(1S,16R)-9,21-dihydroxy-10,25-dimethoxy-15,15,30-trimethyl-7,23-dioxa-15,30-diazaheptacyclo[22.6.2.2³,⁶.1⁸,¹².1¹⁸,²².0²⁷,³¹.0¹⁶,³⁴]hexatriaconta-3,5,8(34),9,11,18(33),19,21,24,26,31,35-dodecaen-15-ium
Traditional Nametubocurarine
SMILES[H][C@@]12CC3=CC=C(OC4=C5C(CC[N+](C)(C)[C@]5([H])CC5=CC(OC6=C(OC)C=C(CCN1C)C2=C6)=C(O)C=C5)=CC(OC)=C4O)C=C3
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C37H40N2O6/c1-38-14-12-24-19-32(42-4)33-21-27(24)28(38)16-22-6-9-26(10-7-22)44-37-35-25(20-34(43-5)36(37)41)13-15-39(2,3)29(35)17-23-8-11-30(40)31(18-23)45-33/h6-11,18-21,28-29H,12-17H2,1-5H3,(H-,40,41)/p+1/t28-,29+/m0/s1
InChI KeyInChIKey=JFJZZMVDLULRGK-URLMMPGGSA-O
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as diarylethers. These are organic compounds containing the dialkyl ether functional group, with the formula ROR', where R and R' are aryl groups.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic oxygen compounds
ClassOrganooxygen compounds
Sub ClassEthers
Direct ParentDiarylethers
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Diaryl ether
  • Tetrahydroisoquinoline
  • Anisole
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • Aralkylamine
  • Benzenoid
  • Tetraalkylammonium salt
  • Quaternary ammonium salt
  • Tertiary amine
  • Tertiary aliphatic amine
  • Oxacycle
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Amine
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic salt
  • Organic cation
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Applications
Biological Roles
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting PointNot Available
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility3.23e-04 g/L
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00032 g/LALOGPS
logP3.12ALOGPS
logP3.14ChemAxon
logS-6.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)6.45ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)8.12ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area80.62 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity187.06 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability66.41 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings7ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-052f-0000091000-3781da48d16d597964ccJSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-01bi-0000009000-cf3870f9fb70af6daa94JSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TMS_1_2) - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TMS_2_1) - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TBDMS_1_1) - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TBDMS_1_2) - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TBDMS_2_1) - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS ("Tubocurarine,1TMS,#1" TMS) - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , positivesplash10-03di-0000090000-3b12a16109f25ee30930JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , positivesplash10-03di-0000090000-7ed720c5e8c5ce8facd3JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0a59-0000089000-ac5f8d663869b48af1f0JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0560-0000091000-b985ecd4a2b2ff4197d8JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0fk9-0000090000-ae66666801b8fb874ed4JSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureInjection (sting/bite) (2)
Mechanism of ToxicityTubocurarine is a cholinesterase or acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor. A cholinesterase inhibitor (or 'anticholinesterase') suppresses the action of acetylcholinesterase. Because of its essential function, chemicals that interfere with the action of acetylcholinesterase are potent neurotoxins, causing excessive salivation and eye-watering in low doses, followed by muscle spasms and ultimately death. Nerve gases and many substances used in insecticides have been shown to act by binding a serine in the active site of acetylcholine esterase, inhibiting the enzyme completely. Acetylcholine esterase breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which is released at nerve and muscle junctions, in order to allow the muscle or organ to relax. The result of acetylcholine esterase inhibition is that acetylcholine builds up and continues to act so that any nerve impulses are continually transmitted and muscle contractions do not stop. Among the most common acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are phosphorus-based compounds, which are designed to bind to the active site of the enzyme. The structural requirements are a phosphorus atom bearing two lipophilic groups, a leaving group (such as a halide or thiocyanate), and a terminal oxygen.
Metabolism Half Life: 1-2 hours
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesTubocurarine is a type of curare, a plant toxin known for its use as paralyzing arrow poison by South American indigenous people. It can be extracted from a variety of plants, including Strychnos toxifera and Chondrodendron tomentosum. (2)
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsAcute exposure to cholinesterase inhibitors can cause a cholinergic crisis characterized by severe nausea/vomiting, salivation, sweating, bradycardia, hypotension, collapse, and convulsions. Increasing muscle weakness is a possibility and may result in death if respiratory muscles are involved. Accumulation of ACh at motor nerves causes overstimulation of nicotinic expression at the neuromuscular junction. When this occurs symptoms such as muscle weakness, fatigue, muscle cramps, fasciculation, and paralysis can be seen. When there is an accumulation of ACh at autonomic ganglia this causes overstimulation of nicotinic expression in the sympathetic system. Symptoms associated with this are hypertension, and hypoglycemia. Overstimulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the central nervous system, due to accumulation of ACh, results in anxiety, headache, convulsions, ataxia, depression of respiration and circulation, tremor, general weakness, and potentially coma. When there is expression of muscarinic overstimulation due to excess acetylcholine at muscarinic acetylcholine receptors symptoms of visual disturbances, tightness in chest, wheezing due to bronchoconstriction, increased bronchial secretions, increased salivation, lacrimation, sweating, peristalsis, and urination can occur. Certain reproductive effects in fertility, growth, and development for males and females have been linked specifically to organophosphate pesticide exposure. Most of the research on reproductive effects has been conducted on farmers working with pesticides and insecticdes in rural areas. In females menstrual cycle disturbances, longer pregnancies, spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, and some developmental effects in offspring have been linked to organophosphate pesticide exposure. Prenatal exposure has been linked to impaired fetal growth and development. Neurotoxic effects have also been linked to poisoning with OP pesticides causing four neurotoxic effects in humans: cholinergic syndrome, intermediate syndrome, organophosphate-induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDP), and chronic organophosphate-induced neuropsychiatric disorder (COPIND). These syndromes result after acute and chronic exposure to OP pesticides.
SymptomsCurare is a muscle relaxant and thus causes paraylsis. (2)
TreatmentIf the compound has been ingested, rapid gastric lavage should be performed using 5% sodium bicarbonate. For skin contact, the skin should be washed with soap and water. If the compound has entered the eyes, they should be washed with large quantities of isotonic saline or water. In serious cases, atropine and/or pralidoxime should be administered. Anti-cholinergic drugs work to counteract the effects of excess acetylcholine and reactivate AChE. Atropine can be used as an antidote in conjunction with pralidoxime or other pyridinium oximes (such as trimedoxime or obidoxime), though the use of '-oximes' has been found to be of no benefit, or possibly harmful, in at least two meta-analyses. Atropine is a muscarinic antagonist, and thus blocks the action of acetylcholine peripherally.
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB01199
HMDB IDHMDB15330
PubChem Compound ID6000
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL1687
ChemSpider ID5778
KEGG IDC07547
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID9774
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDTubocurarine
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkTubocurarine
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDSLink
General References
  1. Youssef SA, Ramadan A, Afifi NA, Aziz MD: Influence of sodium taurocholate on the potency and duration of action of some neuromuscular blocking agents. Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 1991 Jun;98(6):213-6. [1889362 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Curare. Last Updated 9 June 2009. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated Genes
GeneGene SymbolGene IDInteractionChromosomeDetails
Down-Regulated Genes
GeneGene SymbolGene IDInteractionChromosomeDetails

Targets

General Function:
Voltage-gated potassium channel activity
Specific Function:
This is one of the several different receptors for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. This receptor is a ligand-gated ion channel, which when activated causes fast, depolarizing responses in neurons. It is a cation-specific, but otherwise relatively nonselective, ion channel.
Gene Name:
HTR3A
Uniprot ID:
P46098
Molecular Weight:
55279.835 Da
References
  1. Hefft S, Hulo S, Bertrand D, Muller D: Synaptic transmission at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in rat hippocampal organotypic cultures and slices. J Physiol. 1999 Mar 15;515 ( Pt 3):769-76. [10066903 ]
  2. Yan D, White MM: Interaction of d-tubocurarine analogs with mutant 5-HT(3) receptors. Neuropharmacology. 2002 Sep;43(3):367-73. [12243766 ]
  3. Yan D, Meyer JK, White MM: Mapping residues in the ligand-binding domain of the 5-HT(3) receptor onto d-tubocurarine structure. Mol Pharmacol. 2006 Aug;70(2):571-8. Epub 2006 May 24. [16723497 ]
  4. Peters JA, Malone HM, Lambert JJ: Antagonism of 5-HT3 receptor mediated currents in murine N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells by (+)-tubocurarine. Neurosci Lett. 1990 Mar 2;110(1-2):107-12. [1691468 ]
  5. Emerit MB, Riad M, Fattaccini CM, Hamon M: Characteristics of [14C]guanidinium accumulation in NG 108-15 cells exposed to serotonin 5-HT3 receptor ligands and substance P. J Neurochem. 1993 Jun;60(6):2059-67. [7684066 ]
General Function:
Serine hydrolase activity
Specific Function:
Terminates signal transduction at the neuromuscular junction by rapid hydrolysis of the acetylcholine released into the synaptic cleft. Role in neuronal apoptosis.
Gene Name:
ACHE
Uniprot ID:
P22303
Molecular Weight:
67795.525 Da
References
  1. Radic Z, Taylor P: The influence of peripheral site ligands on the reaction of symmetric and chiral organophosphates with wildtype and mutant acetylcholinesterases. Chem Biol Interact. 1999 May 14;119-120:111-7. [10421444 ]
  2. Golicnik M, Fournier D, Stojan J: Acceleration of Drosophila melanogaster acetylcholinesterase methanesulfonylation: peripheral ligand D-tubocurarine enhances the affinity for small methanesulfonylfluoride. Chem Biol Interact. 2002 Feb 20;139(2):145-57. [11823003 ]
  3. Radic Z, Taylor P: Peripheral site ligands accelerate inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by neutral organophosphates. J Appl Toxicol. 2001 Dec;21 Suppl 1:S13-4. [11920914 ]
  4. Gupta RC, Dettbarn WD: Potential of memantine, D-tubocurarine, and atropine in preventing acute toxic myopathy induced by organophosphate nerve agents: soman, sarin, tabun and VX. Neurotoxicology. 1992 Fall;13(3):649-61. [1475066 ]
  5. Bianchi DA, Hirschmann GS, Theoduloz C, Bracca AB, Kaufman TS: Synthesis of tricyclic analogs of stephaoxocanidine and their evaluation as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2005 Jun 2;15(11):2711-5. [15878275 ]
General Function:
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane. The channel is blocked by alpha-bungarotoxin.
Gene Name:
CHRNA7
Uniprot ID:
P36544
Molecular Weight:
56448.925 Da
References
  1. Briggs CA, McKenna DG, Monteggia LM, Touma E, Roch JM, Arneric SP, Gopalakrishnan M, Sullivan JP: Gain of function mutation of the alpha7 nicotinic receptor: distinct pharmacology of the human alpha7V274T variant. Eur J Pharmacol. 1999 Feb 5;366(2-3):301-8. [10082212 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Curare. Last Updated 9 June 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Ion channel activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name:
CHRNA1
Uniprot ID:
P02708
Molecular Weight:
54545.235 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Curare. Last Updated 9 June 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name:
CHRNB1
Uniprot ID:
P11230
Molecular Weight:
56697.9 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Curare. Last Updated 9 June 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Acetylcholine-activated cation-selective channel activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name:
CHRND
Uniprot ID:
Q07001
Molecular Weight:
58894.55 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Curare. Last Updated 9 June 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Cation transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name:
CHRNE
Uniprot ID:
Q04844
Molecular Weight:
54696.54 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Curare. Last Updated 9 June 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Channel activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name:
CHRNG
Uniprot ID:
P07510
Molecular Weight:
57882.8 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Curare. Last Updated 9 June 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Monovalent cation:proton antiporter activity
Specific Function:
Solute transporter for tetraethylammonium (TEA), 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), cimetidine, N-methylnicotinamide (NMN), metformin, creatinine, guanidine, procainamide, topotecan, estrone sulfate, acyclovir, ganciclovir and also the zwitterionic cephalosporin, cephalexin and cephradin. Seems to also play a role in the uptake of oxaliplatin (a new platinum anticancer agent). Able to transport paraquat (PQ or N,N-dimethyl-4-4'-bipiridinium); a widely used herbicid. Responsible for the secretion of cationic drugs across the brush border membranes.
Gene Name:
SLC47A1
Uniprot ID:
Q96FL8
Molecular Weight:
61921.585 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC509.4 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50424714
References
  1. Wittwer MB, Zur AA, Khuri N, Kido Y, Kosaka A, Zhang X, Morrissey KM, Sali A, Huang Y, Giacomini KM: Discovery of potent, selective multidrug and toxin extrusion transporter 1 (MATE1, SLC47A1) inhibitors through prescription drug profiling and computational modeling. J Med Chem. 2013 Feb 14;56(3):781-95. doi: 10.1021/jm301302s. Epub 2013 Jan 22. [23241029 ]
General Function:
Drug transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Solute transporter for tetraethylammonium (TEA), 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), cimetidine, N-methylnicotinamide, metformin, creatinine, guanidine, procainamide, topotecan, estrone sulfate, acyclovir, and ganciclovir. Responsible for the secretion of cationic drugs across the brush border membranes.
Gene Name:
SLC47A2
Uniprot ID:
Q86VL8
Molecular Weight:
65083.915 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC5055.5 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50424714
References
  1. Wittwer MB, Zur AA, Khuri N, Kido Y, Kosaka A, Zhang X, Morrissey KM, Sali A, Huang Y, Giacomini KM: Discovery of potent, selective multidrug and toxin extrusion transporter 1 (MATE1, SLC47A1) inhibitors through prescription drug profiling and computational modeling. J Med Chem. 2013 Feb 14;56(3):781-95. doi: 10.1021/jm301302s. Epub 2013 Jan 22. [23241029 ]
General Function:
Receptor binding
Specific Function:
Ionotropic receptor with a probable role in the modulation of auditory stimuli. Agonist binding may induce an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane. The channel is permeable to a range of divalent cations including calcium, the influx of which may activate a potassium current which hyperpolarizes the cell membrane. In the ear, this may lead to a reduction in basilar membrane motion, altering the activity of auditory nerve fibers and reducing the range of dynamic hearing. This may protect against acoustic trauma.
Gene Name:
CHRNA10
Uniprot ID:
Q9GZZ6
Molecular Weight:
49704.295 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Curare. Last Updated 9 June 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Drug binding
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name:
CHRNA2
Uniprot ID:
Q15822
Molecular Weight:
59764.82 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Curare. Last Updated 9 June 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name:
CHRNA3
Uniprot ID:
P32297
Molecular Weight:
57479.54 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Curare. Last Updated 9 June 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane permeable to sodium ions.
Gene Name:
CHRNA4
Uniprot ID:
P43681
Molecular Weight:
69956.47 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Curare. Last Updated 9 June 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name:
CHRNA5
Uniprot ID:
P30532
Molecular Weight:
53053.965 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Curare. Last Updated 9 June 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Acetylcholine-activated cation-selective channel activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name:
CHRNA6
Uniprot ID:
Q15825
Molecular Weight:
56897.745 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Curare. Last Updated 9 June 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Ionotropic receptor with a probable role in the modulation of auditory stimuli. Agonist binding induces a conformation change that leads to the opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane (PubMed:11752216, PubMed:25282151). The channel is permeable to a range of divalent cations including calcium, the influx of which may activate a potassium current which hyperpolarizes the cell membrane (PubMed:11752216, PubMed:25282151). In the ear, this may lead to a reduction in basilar membrane motion, altering the activity of auditory nerve fibers and reducing the range of dynamic hearing. This may protect against acoustic trauma. May also regulate keratinocyte adhesion (PubMed:11021840).
Gene Name:
CHRNA9
Uniprot ID:
Q9UGM1
Molecular Weight:
54806.63 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Curare. Last Updated 9 June 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane permeable to sodiun ions.
Gene Name:
CHRNB2
Uniprot ID:
P17787
Molecular Weight:
57018.575 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Curare. Last Updated 9 June 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Drug binding
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name:
CHRNB3
Uniprot ID:
Q05901
Molecular Weight:
52728.215 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Curare. Last Updated 9 June 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name:
CHRNB4
Uniprot ID:
P30926
Molecular Weight:
56378.985 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Curare. Last Updated 9 June 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Quaternary ammonium group transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates tubular uptake of organic compounds from circulation. Mediates the influx of agmatine, dopamine, noradrenaline (norepinephrine), serotonin, choline, famotidine, ranitidine, histamin, creatinine, amantadine, memantine, acriflavine, 4-[4-(dimethylamino)-styryl]-N-methylpyridinium ASP, amiloride, metformin, N-1-methylnicotinamide (NMN), tetraethylammonium (TEA), 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), cimetidine, cisplatin and oxaliplatin. Cisplatin may develop a nephrotoxic action. Transport of creatinine is inhibited by fluoroquinolones such as DX-619 and LVFX. This transporter is a major determinant of the anticancer activity of oxaliplatin and may contribute to antitumor specificity.
Gene Name:
SLC22A2
Uniprot ID:
O15244
Molecular Weight:
62579.99 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC5078.8 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50424714
References
  1. Wittwer MB, Zur AA, Khuri N, Kido Y, Kosaka A, Zhang X, Morrissey KM, Sali A, Huang Y, Giacomini KM: Discovery of potent, selective multidrug and toxin extrusion transporter 1 (MATE1, SLC47A1) inhibitors through prescription drug profiling and computational modeling. J Med Chem. 2013 Feb 14;56(3):781-95. doi: 10.1021/jm301302s. Epub 2013 Jan 22. [23241029 ]