Tmic
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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-12-22 23:09:04 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:26:19 UTC
Accession NumberT3D3665
Identification
Common Name(S,E)-Zearalenone
ClassSmall Molecule
Descriptioncis-Zearalenone is a metabolite of Fusarium species.
Compound Type
  • Ester
  • Ether
  • Food Toxin
  • Fungal Toxin
  • Metabolite
  • Mycotoxin
  • Natural Compound
  • Organic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
(S,e)-Zearalenone
Zearalenone
Chemical FormulaC18H22O5
Average Molecular Mass318.364 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass318.147 g/mol
CAS Registry Number17924-92-4
IUPAC Name14,16-dihydroxy-3-methyl-3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10-octahydro-1H-2-benzoxacyclotetradecine-1,7-dione
Traditional Namezearalenone
SMILES[H]\C1=C([H])/C2=CC(O)=CC(O)=C2C(=O)OC(C)CCCC(=O)CCC1
InChI IdentifierInChI=1/C18H22O5/c1-12-6-5-9-14(19)8-4-2-3-7-13-10-15(20)11-16(21)17(13)18(22)23-12/h3,7,10-12,20-21H,2,4-6,8-9H2,1H3/b7-3+
InChI KeyInChIKey=MBMQEIFVQACCCH-XVNBXDOJNA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as zearalenones. These are macrolides which contains a fourteen-member lactone fused to 1,3-dihydroxybenzene.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassPhenylpropanoids and polyketides
ClassMacrolides and analogues
Sub ClassZearalenones
Direct ParentZearalenones
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Zearalenone-skeleton
  • Dihydroxybenzoic acid
  • 1-hydroxy-4-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • Benzenoid
  • Vinylogous acid
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Ketone
  • Lactone
  • Cyclic ketone
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological Roles
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite crystalline solid.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point164 - 165°C
Boiling PointNot Available
SolubilityNot Available
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.12 g/LALOGPS
logP3.04ALOGPS
logP4.37ChemAxon
logS-3.4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)8.54ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area83.83 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity88.34 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability33.61 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0gb9-0079000000-cf44e7bb4ee64f0d3896View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0002-3309400000-ce2bcf4d245aeb4d31c6View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-014i-0119000000-48d711133498a6faf23fView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0gb9-6895000000-f3d9bc525746ba2954cfView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0kcs-9620000000-783b8e8c5d4ee960a711View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-014i-0019000000-03d83983a9b52c36a2a3View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-014i-0249000000-ff5f3e61569739257ebdView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-014i-3290000000-c2a1bce9e404b58870eaView in MoNA
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral, dermal, inhalation, and parenteral (contaminated drugs). (3)
Mechanism of ToxicityZearalenone's genotoxicity results from it's ability to cause DNA fragmentation, chromosome aberrations, and DNA adduct formation. It exerts cytotoxic effects by enhancing lipid peroxidation, increasing oxidative stress, and inducing apoptosis. Zearalenone also has significant estrogenic activity, causing severe reproductive problems in animals. In humans, Zearalenone has been shown to cause an earlier onset of puberty in children, endometrial adenocarcinomas, hyperplasia and breast cancer in women. Mycotoxins are often able to enter the liver and kidney by human organic anion transporters (hOATs) and human organic cation transporters (hOCTs). They can also inhibit uptake of anions and cations by these transporters, interefering with the secretion of endogenous metabolites, drugs, and xenobiotics including themselves. This results in increased cellular accumulation of toxic compounds causing nephro- and hepatotoxicity. (1, 2)
MetabolismZearalenone is rapidly absorbed after oral administration. In humans, most of the zearalenone absorbed is not metabolized. The main metabolites include alpha- and beta-zeralenol, and the glucuronide conjugates of both the parent compound and its metabolites. Zearalenone and its metabolites are excreted mainly in the bile. (4, 9)
Toxicity ValuesLD50: >2000 mg/kg (Oral, Mouse) (9) LD50: >500 mg/kg (Intraperitoneal, Mouse) (9)
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)3, not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans. (8)
Uses/SourcesZearalenone (ZEA), also known as RAL and F-2 mycotoxin, is a potent estrogenic metabolite produced by some Giberella species. Several Fusarium species also produce zearalenone as their primary toxin. It can be found worldwide in a number of cereal crops, such as maize, barley, oats, wheat, rice, and sorghum, and also in bread. (10)
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsZearalenone is a reproductive toxin and has been shown to cause infertility, abortion or other breeding problems in livestock. In humans it can cause earlier onset of puberty in children, endometrial adenocarcinomas, hyperplasia, and breast cancer in women. Zearalenone is also immunotoxic, genotoxic, and can cause kidney and liver damage. (10, 1)
SymptomsNot Available
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDHMDB31752
PubChem Compound ID5375083
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider ID4524664
KEGG IDC09981
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNot Available
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkZearalenone
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D3665.pdf
General References
  1. Ben Salah-Abbes J, Abbes S, Abdel-Wahhab MA, Oueslati R: Raphanus sativus extract protects against Zearalenone induced reproductive toxicity, oxidative stress and mutagenic alterations in male Balb/c mice. Toxicon. 2009 Apr;53(5):525-33. [19673099 ]
  2. Tachampa K, Takeda M, Khamdang S, Noshiro-Kofuji R, Tsuda M, Jariyawat S, Fukutomi T, Sophasan S, Anzai N, Endou H: Interactions of organic anion transporters and organic cation transporters with mycotoxins. J Pharmacol Sci. 2008 Mar;106(3):435-43. Epub 2008 Mar 5. [18319568 ]
  3. Peraica M, Domijan AM: Contamination of food with mycotoxins and human health. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol. 2001 Mar;52(1):23-35. [11370295 ]
  4. Listos J, Malec D, Fidecka S: Adenosine receptor antagonists intensify the benzodiazepine withdrawal signs in mice. Pharmacol Rep. 2006 Sep-Oct;58(5):643-51. [17085856 ]
  5. Olsen M, Pettersson H, Kiessling KH: Reduction of zearalenone to zearalenol in female rat liver by 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Acta Pharmacol Toxicol (Copenh). 1981 Feb;48(2):157-61. [6455043 ]
  6. BUR VET MED, FDA, CONF MYCOTOXINS ANIM FEED GRAINS ANIM HEALTH; PB-300 300, (1979)
  7. Yannai, Shmuel. (2004) Dictionary of food compounds with CD-ROM: Additives, flavors, and ingredients. Boca Raton: Chapman & Hall/CRC.
  8. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2014). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
  9. International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) INCHEM (2000). Safety Evaluation of Certain Food Additives and Contaminants. Zearalenone. [Link]
  10. Wikipedia. Zearalenone. Last Updated 1 April 2010. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated Genes
GeneGene SymbolGene IDInteractionChromosomeDetails
Down-Regulated Genes
GeneGene SymbolGene IDInteractionChromosomeDetails

Targets

General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Ligand-dependent nuclear transactivation involves either direct homodimer binding to a palindromic estrogen response element (ERE) sequence or association with other DNA-binding transcription factors, such as AP-1/c-Jun, c-Fos, ATF-2, Sp1 and Sp3, to mediate ERE-independent signaling. Ligand binding induces a conformational change allowing subsequent or combinatorial association with multiprotein coactivator complexes through LXXLL motifs of their respective components. Mutual transrepression occurs between the estrogen receptor (ER) and NF-kappa-B in a cell-type specific manner. Decreases NF-kappa-B DNA-binding activity and inhibits NF-kappa-B-mediated transcription from the IL6 promoter and displace RELA/p65 and associated coregulators from the promoter. Recruited to the NF-kappa-B response element of the CCL2 and IL8 promoters and can displace CREBBP. Present with NF-kappa-B components RELA/p65 and NFKB1/p50 on ERE sequences. Can also act synergistically with NF-kappa-B to activate transcription involving respective recruitment adjacent response elements; the function involves CREBBP. Can activate the transcriptional activity of TFF1. Also mediates membrane-initiated estrogen signaling involving various kinase cascades. Isoform 3 is involved in activation of NOS3 and endothelial nitric oxide production. Isoforms lacking one or several functional domains are thought to modulate transcriptional activity by competitive ligand or DNA binding and/or heterodimerization with the full length receptor. Essential for MTA1-mediated transcriptional regulation of BRCA1 and BCAS3. Isoform 3 can bind to ERE and inhibit isoform 1.
Gene Name:
ESR1
Uniprot ID:
P03372
Molecular Weight:
66215.45 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC500.00 uMACEA_T47D_80hr_PositiveACEA Biosciences
AC500.03 uMATG_ERa_TRANSAttagene
AC500.01 uMATG_ERE_CISAttagene
AC500.00 uMNVS_NR_hERNovascreen
AC500.79 uMOT_ER_ERaERa_0480Odyssey Thera
AC501.03 uMOT_ER_ERaERa_1440Odyssey Thera
AC500.21 uMOT_ERa_EREGFP_0120Odyssey Thera
AC500.28 uMOT_ERa_EREGFP_0480Odyssey Thera
AC500.13 uMTox21_ERa_BLA_Agonist_ratioTox21/NCGC
AC508.23 uMTox21_ERa_BLA_Antagonist_ratioTox21/NCGC
AC500.00 uMTox21_ERa_LUC_BG1_AgonistTox21/NCGC
References
  1. Fitzpatrick DW, Picken CA, Murphy LC, Buhr MM: Measurement of the relative binding affinity of zearalenone, alpha-zearalenol and beta-zearalenol for uterine and oviduct estrogen receptors in swine, rats and chickens: an indicator of estrogenic potencies. Comp Biochem Physiol C. 1989;94(2):691-4. [2576797 ]
  2. Takemura H, Shim JY, Sayama K, Tsubura A, Zhu BT, Shimoi K: Characterization of the estrogenic activities of zearalenone and zeranol in vivo and in vitro. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2007 Feb;103(2):170-7. Epub 2006 Nov 9. [17097287 ]
  3. Wober J, Weisswange I, Vollmer G: Stimulation of alkaline phosphatase activity in Ishikawa cells induced by various phytoestrogens and synthetic estrogens. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2002 Dec;83(1-5):227-33. [12650720 ]
  4. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. Binds estrogens with an affinity similar to that of ESR1, and activates expression of reporter genes containing estrogen response elements (ERE) in an estrogen-dependent manner (PubMed:20074560). Isoform beta-cx lacks ligand binding ability and has no or only very low ere binding activity resulting in the loss of ligand-dependent transactivation ability. DNA-binding by ESR1 and ESR2 is rapidly lost at 37 degrees Celsius in the absence of ligand while in the presence of 17 beta-estradiol and 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen loss in DNA-binding at elevated temperature is more gradual.
Gene Name:
ESR2
Uniprot ID:
Q92731
Molecular Weight:
59215.765 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC500.18 uMOT_ER_ERaERb_0480Odyssey Thera
AC500.52 uMOT_ER_ERaERb_1440Odyssey Thera
AC500.23 uMOT_ER_ERbERb_0480Odyssey Thera
AC500.10 uMOT_ER_ERbERb_1440Odyssey Thera
References
  1. Takemura H, Shim JY, Sayama K, Tsubura A, Zhu BT, Shimoi K: Characterization of the estrogenic activities of zearalenone and zeranol in vivo and in vitro. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2007 Feb;103(2):170-7. Epub 2006 Nov 9. [17097287 ]
  2. Mueller SO, Simon S, Chae K, Metzler M, Korach KS: Phytoestrogens and their human metabolites show distinct agonistic and antagonistic properties on estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) and ERbeta in human cells. Toxicol Sci. 2004 Jul;80(1):14-25. Epub 2004 Apr 14. [15084758 ]
  3. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Steroid hormone binding
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled estrogen receptor that binds to 17-beta-estradiol (E2) with high affinity, leading to rapid and transient activation of numerous intracellular signaling pathways. Stimulates cAMP production, calcium mobilization and tyrosine kinase Src inducing the release of heparin-bound epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF) and subsequent transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), activating downstream signaling pathways such as PI3K/Akt and ERK/MAPK. Mediates pleiotropic functions among others in the cardiovascular, endocrine, reproductive, immune and central nervous systems. Has a role in cardioprotection by reducing cardiac hypertrophy and perivascular fibrosis in a RAMP3-dependent manner. Regulates arterial blood pressure by stimulating vasodilation and reducing vascular smooth muscle and microvascular endothelial cell proliferation. Plays a role in blood glucose homeostasis contributing to the insulin secretion response by pancreatic beta cells. Triggers mitochondrial apoptosis during pachytene spermatocyte differentiation. Stimulates uterine epithelial cell proliferation. Enhances uterine contractility in response to oxytocin. Contributes to thymic atrophy by inducing apoptosis. Attenuates TNF-mediated endothelial expression of leukocyte adhesion molecules. Promotes neuritogenesis in developing hippocampal neurons. Plays a role in acute neuroprotection against NMDA-induced excitotoxic neuronal death. Increases firing activity and intracellular calcium oscillations in luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) neurons. Inhibits early osteoblast proliferation at growth plate during skeletal development. Inhibits mature adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation. Involved in the recruitment of beta-arrestin 2 ARRB2 at the plasma membrane in epithelial cells. Functions also as a receptor for aldosterone mediating rapid regulation of vascular contractibility through the PI3K/ERK signaling pathway. Involved in cancer progression regulation. Stimulates cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF) proliferation by a rapid genomic response through the EGFR/ERK transduction pathway. Associated with EGFR, may act as a transcription factor activating growth regulatory genes (c-fos, cyclin D1). Promotes integrin alpha-5/beta-1 and fibronectin (FN) matrix assembly in breast cancer cells.
Gene Name:
GPER1
Uniprot ID:
Q99527
Molecular Weight:
42247.12 Da
References
  1. Thomas P, Dong J: Binding and activation of the seven-transmembrane estrogen receptor GPR30 by environmental estrogens: a potential novel mechanism of endocrine disruption. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2006 Dec;102(1-5):175-9. Epub 2006 Nov 7. [17088055 ]
General Function:
Secondary active organic cation transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Translocates a broad array of organic cations with various structures and molecular weights including the model compounds 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), tetraethylammonium (TEA), N-1-methylnicotinamide (NMN), 4-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)-N-methylpyridinium (ASP), the endogenous compounds choline, guanidine, histamine, epinephrine, adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine, and the drugs quinine, and metformin. The transport of organic cations is inhibited by a broad array of compounds like tetramethylammonium (TMA), cocaine, lidocaine, NMDA receptor antagonists, atropine, prazosin, cimetidine, TEA and NMN, guanidine, cimetidine, choline, procainamide, quinine, tetrabutylammonium, and tetrapentylammonium. Translocates organic cations in an electrogenic and pH-independent manner. Translocates organic cations across the plasma membrane in both directions. Transports the polyamines spermine and spermidine. Transports pramipexole across the basolateral membrane of the proximal tubular epithelial cells. The choline transport is activated by MMTS. Regulated by various intracellular signaling pathways including inhibition by protein kinase A activation, and endogenously activation by the calmodulin complex, the calmodulin-dependent kinase II and LCK tyrosine kinase.
Gene Name:
SLC22A1
Uniprot ID:
O15245
Molecular Weight:
61153.345 Da
References
  1. Tachampa K, Takeda M, Khamdang S, Noshiro-Kofuji R, Tsuda M, Jariyawat S, Fukutomi T, Sophasan S, Anzai N, Endou H: Interactions of organic anion transporters and organic cation transporters with mycotoxins. J Pharmacol Sci. 2008 Mar;106(3):435-43. Epub 2008 Mar 5. [18319568 ]
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates saturable uptake of estrone sulfate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and related compounds.
Gene Name:
SLC22A11
Uniprot ID:
Q9NSA0
Molecular Weight:
59970.945 Da
References
  1. Tachampa K, Takeda M, Khamdang S, Noshiro-Kofuji R, Tsuda M, Jariyawat S, Fukutomi T, Sophasan S, Anzai N, Endou H: Interactions of organic anion transporters and organic cation transporters with mycotoxins. J Pharmacol Sci. 2008 Mar;106(3):435-43. Epub 2008 Mar 5. [18319568 ]
General Function:
Quaternary ammonium group transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates tubular uptake of organic compounds from circulation. Mediates the influx of agmatine, dopamine, noradrenaline (norepinephrine), serotonin, choline, famotidine, ranitidine, histamin, creatinine, amantadine, memantine, acriflavine, 4-[4-(dimethylamino)-styryl]-N-methylpyridinium ASP, amiloride, metformin, N-1-methylnicotinamide (NMN), tetraethylammonium (TEA), 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), cimetidine, cisplatin and oxaliplatin. Cisplatin may develop a nephrotoxic action. Transport of creatinine is inhibited by fluoroquinolones such as DX-619 and LVFX. This transporter is a major determinant of the anticancer activity of oxaliplatin and may contribute to antitumor specificity.
Gene Name:
SLC22A2
Uniprot ID:
O15244
Molecular Weight:
62579.99 Da
References
  1. Tachampa K, Takeda M, Khamdang S, Noshiro-Kofuji R, Tsuda M, Jariyawat S, Fukutomi T, Sophasan S, Anzai N, Endou H: Interactions of organic anion transporters and organic cation transporters with mycotoxins. J Pharmacol Sci. 2008 Mar;106(3):435-43. Epub 2008 Mar 5. [18319568 ]
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Involved in the renal elimination of endogenous and exogenous organic anions. Functions as organic anion exchanger when the uptake of one molecule of organic anion is coupled with an efflux of one molecule of endogenous dicarboxylic acid (glutarate, ketoglutarate, etc). Mediates the sodium-independent uptake of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (DMPS) (By similarity). Mediates the sodium-independent uptake of p-aminohippurate (PAH), ochratoxin (OTA), acyclovir (ACV), 3'-azido-3-'deoxythymidine (AZT), cimetidine (CMD), 2,4-dichloro-phenoxyacetate (2,4-D), hippurate (HA), indoleacetate (IA), indoxyl sulfate (IS) and 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropionate (CMPF), cidofovir, adefovir, 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl) guanine (PMEG), 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl) diaminopurine (PMEDAP) and edaravone sulfate. PAH uptake is inhibited by p-chloromercuribenzenesulphonate (PCMBS), diethyl pyrocarbonate (DEPC), sulindac, diclofenac, carprofen, glutarate and okadaic acid (By similarity). PAH uptake is inhibited by benzothiazolylcysteine (BTC), S-chlorotrifluoroethylcysteine (CTFC), cysteine S-conjugates S-dichlorovinylcysteine (DCVC), furosemide, steviol, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), calcium ionophore A23187, benzylpenicillin, furosemide, indomethacin, bumetamide, losartan, probenecid, phenol red, urate, and alpha-ketoglutarate.
Gene Name:
SLC22A6
Uniprot ID:
Q4U2R8
Molecular Weight:
61815.78 Da
References
  1. Tachampa K, Takeda M, Khamdang S, Noshiro-Kofuji R, Tsuda M, Jariyawat S, Fukutomi T, Sophasan S, Anzai N, Endou H: Interactions of organic anion transporters and organic cation transporters with mycotoxins. J Pharmacol Sci. 2008 Mar;106(3):435-43. Epub 2008 Mar 5. [18319568 ]
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates sodium-independent multispecific organic anion transport. Transport of prostaglandin E2, prostaglandin F2, tetracycline, bumetanide, estrone sulfate, glutarate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, allopurinol, 5-fluorouracil, paclitaxel, L-ascorbic acid, salicylate, ethotrexate, and alpha-ketoglutarate.
Gene Name:
SLC22A7
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y694
Molecular Weight:
60025.025 Da
References
  1. Tachampa K, Takeda M, Khamdang S, Noshiro-Kofuji R, Tsuda M, Jariyawat S, Fukutomi T, Sophasan S, Anzai N, Endou H: Interactions of organic anion transporters and organic cation transporters with mycotoxins. J Pharmacol Sci. 2008 Mar;106(3):435-43. Epub 2008 Mar 5. [18319568 ]
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Plays an important role in the excretion/detoxification of endogenous and exogenous organic anions, especially from the brain and kidney. Involved in the transport basolateral of steviol, fexofenadine. Transports benzylpenicillin (PCG), estrone-3-sulfate (E1S), cimetidine (CMD), 2,4-dichloro-phenoxyacetate (2,4-D), p-amino-hippurate (PAH), acyclovir (ACV) and ochratoxin (OTA).
Gene Name:
SLC22A8
Uniprot ID:
Q8TCC7
Molecular Weight:
59855.585 Da
References
  1. Tachampa K, Takeda M, Khamdang S, Noshiro-Kofuji R, Tsuda M, Jariyawat S, Fukutomi T, Sophasan S, Anzai N, Endou H: Interactions of organic anion transporters and organic cation transporters with mycotoxins. J Pharmacol Sci. 2008 Mar;106(3):435-43. Epub 2008 Mar 5. [18319568 ]
General Function:
Oxygen binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the formation of aromatic C18 estrogens from C19 androgens.
Gene Name:
CYP19A1
Uniprot ID:
P11511
Molecular Weight:
57882.48 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC500.08 uMTox21_Aromatase_InhibitionTox21/NCGC
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear receptor that binds and is activated by variety of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. Transcription factor that activates the transcription of multiple genes involved in the metabolism and secretion of potentially harmful xenobiotics, drugs and endogenous compounds. Activated by the antibiotic rifampicin and various plant metabolites, such as hyperforin, guggulipid, colupulone, and isoflavones. Response to specific ligands is species-specific. Activated by naturally occurring steroids, such as pregnenolone and progesterone. Binds to a response element in the promoters of the CYP3A4 and ABCB1/MDR1 genes.
Gene Name:
NR1I2
Uniprot ID:
O75469
Molecular Weight:
49761.245 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC500.47 uMATG_PXR_TRANSAttagene
AC501.90 uMATG_PXRE_CISAttagene
AC500.63 uMNVS_NR_hPXRNovascreen
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. Transcription factor that mediates the action of vitamin D3 by controlling the expression of hormone sensitive genes. Recruited to promoters via its interaction with BAZ1B/WSTF which mediates the interaction with acetylated histones, an essential step for VDR-promoter association. Plays a central role in calcium homeostasis.
Gene Name:
VDR
Uniprot ID:
P11473
Molecular Weight:
48288.64 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC505.59 uMATG_VDRE_CISAttagene
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Steroid hormone receptors are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Transcription factor activity is modulated by bound coactivator and corepressor proteins. Transcription activation is down-regulated by NR0B2. Activated, but not phosphorylated, by HIPK3 and ZIPK/DAPK3.
Gene Name:
AR
Uniprot ID:
P10275
Molecular Weight:
98987.9 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC506.72 uMNVS_NR_hARNovascreen
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear receptor that binds peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Once activated by a ligand, the nuclear receptor binds to DNA specific PPAR response elements (PPRE) and modulates the transcription of its target genes, such as acyl-CoA oxidase. It therefore controls the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway of fatty acids. Key regulator of adipocyte differentiation and glucose homeostasis. ARF6 acts as a key regulator of the tissue-specific adipocyte P2 (aP2) enhancer. Acts as a critical regulator of gut homeostasis by suppressing NF-kappa-B-mediated proinflammatory responses. Plays a role in the regulation of cardiovascular circadian rhythms by regulating the transcription of ARNTL/BMAL1 in the blood vessels (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PPARG
Uniprot ID:
P37231
Molecular Weight:
57619.58 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC509.06 uMATG_PPARg_TRANSAttagene
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]