Tmic
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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-07-21 20:27:45 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:25:53 UTC
Accession NumberT3D2903
Identification
Common NameDiazepam
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionDiazepam is a benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of gamma-aminobutyric acid activity. It is used in the treatment of severe anxiety disorders, as a hypnotic in the short-term management of insomnia, as a sedative and premedicant, as an anticonvulsant, and in the management of alcohol withdrawal syndrome. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p589).
Compound Type
  • Adjuvant, Anesthesia
  • Amide
  • Amine
  • Anesthetic, Intravenous
  • Anti-Anxiety Agent
  • Anticonvulsant
  • Antiemetic
  • Drug
  • Food Toxin
  • GABA Modulator
  • Hypnotic and Sedative
  • Metabolite
  • Muscle Relaxant, Central
  • Organic Compound
  • Organochloride
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
7-chloro-1,3-dihydro-1-methyl-5-phenyl-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one
Diapam
Diastat
Diazemuls
Methyl diazepinone
Methyldiazepinone
Nervium
Relanium
Valium
Chemical FormulaC16H13ClN2O
Average Molecular Mass284.740 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass284.072 g/mol
CAS Registry Number439-14-5
IUPAC Name7-chloro-1-methyl-5-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one
Traditional Namediazepam
SMILESCN1C2=C(C=C(Cl)C=C2)C(=NCC1=O)C1=CC=CC=C1
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C16H13ClN2O/c1-19-14-8-7-12(17)9-13(14)16(18-10-15(19)20)11-5-3-2-4-6-11/h2-9H,10H2,1H3
InChI KeyInChIKey=AAOVKJBEBIDNHE-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as 1,4-benzodiazepines. These are organic compounds containing a benzene ring fused to a 1,4-azepine.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassBenzodiazepines
Sub Class1,4-benzodiazepines
Direct Parent1,4-benzodiazepines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • 1,4-benzodiazepine
  • Alpha-amino acid or derivatives
  • Aryl chloride
  • Aryl halide
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Benzenoid
  • Tertiary carboxylic acid amide
  • Carboxamide group
  • Ketimine
  • Lactam
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Azacycle
  • Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound
  • Organic 1,3-dipolar compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organochloride
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Imine
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic oxide
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Applications
Biological Roles
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point125-126°C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility50 mg/L (at 25°C)
LogP2.82
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.012 g/LALOGPS
logP2.63ALOGPS
logP3.08ChemAxon
logS-4.4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)2.92ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area32.67 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity79.81 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability29.39 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - CI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-000i-0090000000-413ec5151b3a9fd41c47View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a4i-3690000000-3c601fed832ff090653aView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a59-1290000000-da27f63bddb3263e0063View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - CI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-000i-0090000000-413ec5151b3a9fd41c47View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a4i-3690000000-3c601fed832ff090653aView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a59-1290000000-da27f63bddb3263e0063View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-05r0-1290000000-3f7c85c012a85c7146deView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-000i-0090000000-bece36773a183e23bfffView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-000i-0490000000-fbdfb84836374f27ffc7View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-0006-0950000000-75d9ab376c968b83f255View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-0006-0940000000-c585bcb21e1b3008adc1View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0a4i-0590000000-2c33d4fd40c36c20a4a6View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-000i-0090000000-695f91d3d5f2e1902be3View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-000i-0090000000-15d8ced2d42d3e292bb1View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-000i-0290000000-dfdaecb8b27bc1ad2c9eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0fdx-0890000000-b77eb07ad61e288eeb19View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0006-0940000000-fb79dac6c46f730fb465View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0006-1930000000-a6412a87698303834034View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-000i-0090000000-31830c983339c0e0d918View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-000i-0090000000-1028986b8e3b82b4bf96View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-000i-0290000000-0c2338f41998da54e8c5View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0fdx-0890000000-48e88a1c67f0fc25384fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0f6x-0940000000-ce56b132903858bd3b6bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0006-1930000000-b61e92cac5094920cf32View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0a4i-0590000000-e26e1398541d17b6632eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0f7c-0590000000-541488ae806b0dbd97cbView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-000i-0090000000-a82533f29e9cb01fa7fbView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-000i-0090000000-79bbd4209063f20101f8View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0006-8970000000-5c77f50a4816eecfef04View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-001i-0090000000-5a624d4584e17376f63cView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-001i-0090000000-31d6bb00202f2493ec8dView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0pb9-9070000000-364b9c313a672f653207View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0a59-2490000000-41352db33c43d0b96876View in MoNA
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureParenteral (intramuscular); oral; enteral(rectal).Essentially complete, with a bioavailability of 93%.
Mechanism of ToxicityBenzodiazepines bind nonspecifically to benzodiazepine receptors which mediate sleep, affects muscle relaxation, anticonvulsant activity, motor coordination, and memory. As benzodiazepine receptors are thought to be coupled to gamma-aminobutyric acid-A (GABAA) receptors, this enhances the effects of GABA by increasing GABA affinity for the GABA receptor. Binding of GABA to the site opens the chloride channel, resulting in a hyperpolarized cell membrane that prevents further excitation of the cell.
MetabolismHepatic via the Cytochrome P450 enzyme system. The main active metabolite is desmethyldiazepam, in addition to minor active metabolites including temazepam and oxazepam. Route of Elimination: Diazepam and its metabolites are excreted mainly in the urine, predominantly as their glucuronide conjugates. Half Life: Biphasic 1-2 days and 2-5 days, active metabolites with long half lives.
Toxicity ValuesLD50: 1200 mg/kg (oral, rat) (7) LD50: 1000 mg/kg (oral, dog) (7) LD50: 700 mg/kg (oral, mice) (7)
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)3, not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans. (9)
Uses/SourcesUsed in the treatment of severe anxiety disorders, as a hypnotic in the short-term management of insomnia, as a sedative and premedicant, as an anticonvulsant, and in the management of alcohol withdrawal syndrome.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsThey cause slurred speech, disorientation and "drunken" behavior. They are physically and psychologically addictive. May cause a potentially dangerous rash that may develop into Stevens Johnson syndrome, an extremely rare but potentially fatal skin disease.
SymptomsSymptoms of overdose include somnolence, confusion, coma, and diminished reflexes. Respiration, pulse and blood pressure should be monitored.
TreatmentGeneral supportive measures should be employed, along with intravenous fluids, and an adequate airway maintained. Hypotension may be combated by the use of norepinephrine or metaraminol. Dialysis is of limited value. Flumazenil, a specific benzodiazepine receptor antagonist, is indicated for the complete or partial reversal of the sedative effects of benzodiazepines and may be used in situations when an overdose with a benzodiazepine is known or suspected. (8)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB00829
HMDB IDHMDB14967
PubChem Compound ID3016
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL12
ChemSpider ID2908
KEGG IDC06948
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID49575
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDDiazepam
PDB IDDZP
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkDiazepam
References
Synthesis Reference

Chase, G.; U.S. Patent 3,102,116; August 27, 1963; assigned to Hoffmann-La Roche Inc. Reeder, E. and Sternbach, L.H.; U.S. Patent 3,109,843; November 5, 1963; assigned to
Hoffmann-La Roche lnc.
Reeder, E. and Sternbach, L.H.; U.S. Patent 3,136,815; June 9, 1964; assigned to Hoffmann-
La Roche Inc.
Reeder, E. and Sternbach, L.H.; US. Patent 3,371,085; February 27, 1968; assigned to
Hoffmann-La Roche Inc.

MSDSLink
General References
  1. Mant A, Whicker SD, McManus P, Birkett DJ, Edmonds D, Dumbrell D: Benzodiazepine utilisation in Australia: report from a new pharmacoepidemiological database. Aust J Public Health. 1993 Dec;17(4):345-9. [7911332 ]
  2. Oishi R, Nishibori M, Itoh Y, Saeki K: Diazepam-induced decrease in histamine turnover in mouse brain. Eur J Pharmacol. 1986 May 27;124(3):337-42. [3089825 ]
  3. Earley JV, Fryer RI, Ning RY: Quinazolines and 1,4-benzodiazepines. LXXXIX: Haptens useful in benzodiazepine immunoassay development. J Pharm Sci. 1979 Jul;68(7):845-50. [458601 ]
  4. Usami N, Yamamoto T, Shintani S, Ishikura S, Higaki Y, Katagiri Y, Hara A: Substrate specificity of human 3(20)alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase for neurosteroids and its inhibition by benzodiazepines. Biol Pharm Bull. 2002 Apr;25(4):441-5. [11995921 ]
  5. McLean MJ, Macdonald RL: Benzodiazepines, but not beta carbolines, limit high frequency repetitive firing of action potentials of spinal cord neurons in cell culture. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1988 Feb;244(2):789-95. [2450203 ]
  6. Drugs.com [Link]
  7. IPCS Inchem monograph for Diazepam [Link]
  8. RxList: The Internet Drug Index (2009). [Link]
  9. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2014). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated Genes
GeneGene SymbolGene IDInteractionChromosomeDetails
Down-Regulated Genes
GeneGene SymbolGene IDInteractionChromosomeDetails

Targets

General Function:
Gaba-gated chloride ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRB3
Uniprot ID:
P28472
Molecular Weight:
54115.04 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.011 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50000766
Inhibitory0.0112 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50000766
Inhibitory0.013 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50000766
Inhibitory0.014 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50000766
Inhibitory0.0143 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50000766
Inhibitory0.015 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50000766
Inhibitory0.033 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50000766
IC500.017 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50000766
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [11752090 ]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [18384456 ]
  3. Bagal SK, Brown AD, Cox PJ, Omoto K, Owen RM, Pryde DC, Sidders B, Skerratt SE, Stevens EB, Storer RI, Swain NA: Ion channels as therapeutic targets: a drug discovery perspective. J Med Chem. 2013 Feb 14;56(3):593-624. doi: 10.1021/jm3011433. Epub 2012 Nov 29. [23121096 ]
  4. Huang Q, He X, Ma C, Liu R, Yu S, Dayer CA, Wenger GR, McKernan R, Cook JM: Pharmacophore/receptor models for GABA(A)/BzR subtypes (alpha1beta3gamma2, alpha5beta3gamma2, and alpha6beta3gamma2) via a comprehensive ligand-mapping approach. J Med Chem. 2000 Jan 13;43(1):71-95. [10633039 ]
  5. Carling RW, Moore KW, Street LJ, Wild D, Isted C, Leeson PD, Thomas S, O'Connor D, McKernan RM, Quirk K, Cook SM, Atack JR, Wafford KA, Thompson SA, Dawson GR, Ferris P, Castro JL: 3-phenyl-6-(2-pyridyl)methyloxy-1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-a]phthalazines and analogues: high-affinity gamma-aminobutyric acid-A benzodiazepine receptor ligands with alpha 2, alpha 3, and alpha 5-subtype binding selectivity over alpha 1. J Med Chem. 2004 Mar 25;47(7):1807-22. [15027873 ]
  6. Russell MG, Carling RW, Atack JR, Bromidge FA, Cook SM, Hunt P, Isted C, Lucas M, McKernan RM, Mitchinson A, Moore KW, Narquizian R, Macaulay AJ, Thomas D, Thompson SA, Wafford KA, Castro JL: Discovery of functionally selective 7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-7,10-ethano-1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-a]phthalazines as GABA A receptor agonists at the alpha3 subunit. J Med Chem. 2005 Mar 10;48(5):1367-83. [15743180 ]
  7. Goodacre SC, Street LJ, Hallett DJ, Crawforth JM, Kelly S, Owens AP, Blackaby WP, Lewis RT, Stanley J, Smith AJ, Ferris P, Sohal B, Cook SM, Pike A, Brown N, Wafford KA, Marshall G, Castro JL, Atack JR: Imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidines as functionally selective and orally bioavailable GABA(A)alpha2/alpha3 binding site agonists for the treatment of anxiety disorders. J Med Chem. 2006 Jan 12;49(1):35-8. [16392789 ]
  8. Street LJ, Sternfeld F, Jelley RA, Reeve AJ, Carling RW, Moore KW, McKernan RM, Sohal B, Cook S, Pike A, Dawson GR, Bromidge FA, Wafford KA, Seabrook GR, Thompson SA, Marshall G, Pillai GV, Castro JL, Atack JR, MacLeod AM: Synthesis and biological evaluation of 3-heterocyclyl-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-(7,10-ethano)-1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-a]phthalazine s and analogues as subtype-selective inverse agonists for the GABA(A)alpha5 benzodiazepine binding site. J Med Chem. 2004 Jul 1;47(14):3642-57. [15214791 ]
  9. Russell MG, Carling RW, Street LJ, Hallett DJ, Goodacre S, Mezzogori E, Reader M, Cook SM, Bromidge FA, Newman R, Smith AJ, Wafford KA, Marshall GR, Reynolds DS, Dias R, Ferris P, Stanley J, Lincoln R, Tye SJ, Sheppard WF, Sohal B, Pike A, Dominguez M, Atack JR, Castro JL: Discovery of imidazo[1,2-b][1,2,4]triazines as GABA(A) alpha2/3 subtype selective agonists for the treatment of anxiety. J Med Chem. 2006 Feb 23;49(4):1235-8. [16480260 ]
  10. Carling RW, Madin A, Guiblin A, Russell MG, Moore KW, Mitchinson A, Sohal B, Pike A, Cook SM, Ragan IC, McKernan RM, Quirk K, Ferris P, Marshall G, Thompson SA, Wafford KA, Dawson GR, Atack JR, Harrison T, Castro JL, Street LJ: 7-(1,1-Dimethylethyl)-6-(2-ethyl-2H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylmethoxy)-3-(2-fluorophenyl) -1,2,4-triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazine: a functionally selective gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) (GABA(A)) alpha2/alpha3-subtype selective agonist that exhibits potent anxiolytic activity but is not sedating in animal models. J Med Chem. 2005 Nov 17;48(23):7089-92. [16279764 ]
  11. Iorio LC, Barnett A, Billard W: Selective affinity of 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for cerebellar type 1 receptor sites. Life Sci. 1984 Jul 2;35(1):105-13. [6738302 ]
  12. Wamsley JK, Golden JS, Yamamura HI, Barnett A: Autoradiographic demonstration of the selectivity of two 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for the BZD-1 receptors in the rat brain. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1985 Dec;23(6):973-8. [2867566 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA2
Uniprot ID:
P47869
Molecular Weight:
51325.85 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.0066 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50000766
Inhibitory0.02 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50000766
Inhibitory0.0262 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50000766
Inhibitory0.033 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50000766
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [11752352 ]
  2. Collins I, Davey WB, Rowley M, Quirk K, Bromidge FA, McKernan RM, Thompson SA, Wafford KA: N-(indol-3-ylglyoxylyl)piperidines: high affinity agonists of human GABA-A receptors containing the alpha1 subunit. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2000 Jun 19;10(12):1381-4. [10890169 ]
  3. Russell MG, Carling RW, Atack JR, Bromidge FA, Cook SM, Hunt P, Isted C, Lucas M, McKernan RM, Mitchinson A, Moore KW, Narquizian R, Macaulay AJ, Thomas D, Thompson SA, Wafford KA, Castro JL: Discovery of functionally selective 7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-7,10-ethano-1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-a]phthalazines as GABA A receptor agonists at the alpha3 subunit. J Med Chem. 2005 Mar 10;48(5):1367-83. [15743180 ]
  4. Goodacre SC, Street LJ, Hallett DJ, Crawforth JM, Kelly S, Owens AP, Blackaby WP, Lewis RT, Stanley J, Smith AJ, Ferris P, Sohal B, Cook SM, Pike A, Brown N, Wafford KA, Marshall G, Castro JL, Atack JR: Imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidines as functionally selective and orally bioavailable GABA(A)alpha2/alpha3 binding site agonists for the treatment of anxiety disorders. J Med Chem. 2006 Jan 12;49(1):35-8. [16392789 ]
  5. Huang Q, He X, Ma C, Liu R, Yu S, Dayer CA, Wenger GR, McKernan R, Cook JM: Pharmacophore/receptor models for GABA(A)/BzR subtypes (alpha1beta3gamma2, alpha5beta3gamma2, and alpha6beta3gamma2) via a comprehensive ligand-mapping approach. J Med Chem. 2000 Jan 13;43(1):71-95. [10633039 ]
  6. Carling RW, Moore KW, Street LJ, Wild D, Isted C, Leeson PD, Thomas S, O'Connor D, McKernan RM, Quirk K, Cook SM, Atack JR, Wafford KA, Thompson SA, Dawson GR, Ferris P, Castro JL: 3-phenyl-6-(2-pyridyl)methyloxy-1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-a]phthalazines and analogues: high-affinity gamma-aminobutyric acid-A benzodiazepine receptor ligands with alpha 2, alpha 3, and alpha 5-subtype binding selectivity over alpha 1. J Med Chem. 2004 Mar 25;47(7):1807-22. [15027873 ]
  7. Carling RW, Madin A, Guiblin A, Russell MG, Moore KW, Mitchinson A, Sohal B, Pike A, Cook SM, Ragan IC, McKernan RM, Quirk K, Ferris P, Marshall G, Thompson SA, Wafford KA, Dawson GR, Atack JR, Harrison T, Castro JL, Street LJ: 7-(1,1-Dimethylethyl)-6-(2-ethyl-2H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylmethoxy)-3-(2-fluorophenyl) -1,2,4-triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazine: a functionally selective gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) (GABA(A)) alpha2/alpha3-subtype selective agonist that exhibits potent anxiolytic activity but is not sedating in animal models. J Med Chem. 2005 Nov 17;48(23):7089-92. [16279764 ]
  8. Street LJ, Sternfeld F, Jelley RA, Reeve AJ, Carling RW, Moore KW, McKernan RM, Sohal B, Cook S, Pike A, Dawson GR, Bromidge FA, Wafford KA, Seabrook GR, Thompson SA, Marshall G, Pillai GV, Castro JL, Atack JR, MacLeod AM: Synthesis and biological evaluation of 3-heterocyclyl-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-(7,10-ethano)-1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-a]phthalazine s and analogues as subtype-selective inverse agonists for the GABA(A)alpha5 benzodiazepine binding site. J Med Chem. 2004 Jul 1;47(14):3642-57. [15214791 ]
  9. Russell MG, Carling RW, Street LJ, Hallett DJ, Goodacre S, Mezzogori E, Reader M, Cook SM, Bromidge FA, Newman R, Smith AJ, Wafford KA, Marshall GR, Reynolds DS, Dias R, Ferris P, Stanley J, Lincoln R, Tye SJ, Sheppard WF, Sohal B, Pike A, Dominguez M, Atack JR, Castro JL: Discovery of imidazo[1,2-b][1,2,4]triazines as GABA(A) alpha2/3 subtype selective agonists for the treatment of anxiety. J Med Chem. 2006 Feb 23;49(4):1235-8. [16480260 ]
  10. Iorio LC, Barnett A, Billard W: Selective affinity of 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for cerebellar type 1 receptor sites. Life Sci. 1984 Jul 2;35(1):105-13. [6738302 ]
  11. Wamsley JK, Golden JS, Yamamura HI, Barnett A: Autoradiographic demonstration of the selectivity of two 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for the BZD-1 receptors in the rat brain. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1985 Dec;23(6):973-8. [2867566 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA3
Uniprot ID:
P34903
Molecular Weight:
55164.055 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.01 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50000766
Inhibitory0.014 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50000766
Inhibitory0.015 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50000766
Inhibitory0.0237 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50000766
Inhibitory0.033 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50000766
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [11752352 ]
  2. Jacobsen EJ, TenBrink RE, Stelzer LS, Belonga KL, Carter DB, Im HK, Im WB, Sethy VH, Tang AH, VonVoigtlander PF, Petke JD: High-affinity partial agonist imidazo[1,5-a]quinoxaline amides, carbamates, and ureas at the gamma-aminobutyric acid A/benzodiazepine receptor complex. J Med Chem. 1996 Jan 5;39(1):158-75. [8568803 ]
  3. Lager E, Andersson P, Nilsson J, Pettersson I, Nielsen EO, Nielsen M, Sterner O, Liljefors T: 4-quinolone derivatives: high-affinity ligands at the benzodiazepine site of brain GABA A receptors. synthesis, pharmacology, and pharmacophore modeling. J Med Chem. 2006 Apr 20;49(8):2526-33. [16610795 ]
  4. Carling RW, Moore KW, Street LJ, Wild D, Isted C, Leeson PD, Thomas S, O'Connor D, McKernan RM, Quirk K, Cook SM, Atack JR, Wafford KA, Thompson SA, Dawson GR, Ferris P, Castro JL: 3-phenyl-6-(2-pyridyl)methyloxy-1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-a]phthalazines and analogues: high-affinity gamma-aminobutyric acid-A benzodiazepine receptor ligands with alpha 2, alpha 3, and alpha 5-subtype binding selectivity over alpha 1. J Med Chem. 2004 Mar 25;47(7):1807-22. [15027873 ]
  5. Carling RW, Madin A, Guiblin A, Russell MG, Moore KW, Mitchinson A, Sohal B, Pike A, Cook SM, Ragan IC, McKernan RM, Quirk K, Ferris P, Marshall G, Thompson SA, Wafford KA, Dawson GR, Atack JR, Harrison T, Castro JL, Street LJ: 7-(1,1-Dimethylethyl)-6-(2-ethyl-2H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylmethoxy)-3-(2-fluorophenyl) -1,2,4-triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazine: a functionally selective gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) (GABA(A)) alpha2/alpha3-subtype selective agonist that exhibits potent anxiolytic activity but is not sedating in animal models. J Med Chem. 2005 Nov 17;48(23):7089-92. [16279764 ]
  6. Street LJ, Sternfeld F, Jelley RA, Reeve AJ, Carling RW, Moore KW, McKernan RM, Sohal B, Cook S, Pike A, Dawson GR, Bromidge FA, Wafford KA, Seabrook GR, Thompson SA, Marshall G, Pillai GV, Castro JL, Atack JR, MacLeod AM: Synthesis and biological evaluation of 3-heterocyclyl-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-(7,10-ethano)-1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-a]phthalazine s and analogues as subtype-selective inverse agonists for the GABA(A)alpha5 benzodiazepine binding site. J Med Chem. 2004 Jul 1;47(14):3642-57. [15214791 ]
  7. Collins I, Davey WB, Rowley M, Quirk K, Bromidge FA, McKernan RM, Thompson SA, Wafford KA: N-(indol-3-ylglyoxylyl)piperidines: high affinity agonists of human GABA-A receptors containing the alpha1 subunit. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2000 Jun 19;10(12):1381-4. [10890169 ]
  8. Russell MG, Carling RW, Atack JR, Bromidge FA, Cook SM, Hunt P, Isted C, Lucas M, McKernan RM, Mitchinson A, Moore KW, Narquizian R, Macaulay AJ, Thomas D, Thompson SA, Wafford KA, Castro JL: Discovery of functionally selective 7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-7,10-ethano-1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-a]phthalazines as GABA A receptor agonists at the alpha3 subunit. J Med Chem. 2005 Mar 10;48(5):1367-83. [15743180 ]
  9. Iorio LC, Barnett A, Billard W: Selective affinity of 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for cerebellar type 1 receptor sites. Life Sci. 1984 Jul 2;35(1):105-13. [6738302 ]
  10. Wamsley JK, Golden JS, Yamamura HI, Barnett A: Autoradiographic demonstration of the selectivity of two 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for the BZD-1 receptors in the rat brain. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1985 Dec;23(6):973-8. [2867566 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GABRA1
Uniprot ID:
P14867
Molecular Weight:
51801.395 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.0168 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50000766
Dissociation0.036 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50000766
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Harris D, Clayton T, Cook J, Sahbaie P, Halliwell RF, Furtmuller R, Huck S, Sieghart W, DeLorey TM: Selective influence on contextual memory: physiochemical properties associated with selectivity of benzodiazepine ligands at GABAA receptors containing the alpha5 subunit. J Med Chem. 2008 Jul 10;51(13):3788-803. doi: 10.1021/jm701433b. Epub 2008 Jun 7. [18537233 ]
  4. Hadingham KL, Garrett EM, Wafford KA, Bain C, Heavens RP, Sirinathsinghji DJ, Whiting PJ: Cloning of cDNAs encoding the human gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor alpha 6 subunit and characterization of the pharmacology of alpha 6-containing receptors. Mol Pharmacol. 1996 Feb;49(2):253-9. [8632757 ]
General Function:
Cholesterol binding
Specific Function:
Can bind protoporphyrin IX and may play a role in the transport of porphyrins and heme (By similarity). Promotes the transport of cholesterol across mitochondrial membranes and may play a role in lipid metabolism (PubMed:24814875), but its precise physiological role is controversial. It is apparently not required for steroid hormone biosynthesis. Was initially identified as peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor; can also bind isoquinoline carboxamides (PubMed:1847678).
Gene Name:
TSPO
Uniprot ID:
P30536
Molecular Weight:
18827.81 Da
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [11752352 ]
  2. Falchi AM, Battetta B, Sanna F, Piludu M, Sogos V, Serra M, Melis M, Putzolu M, Diaz G: Intracellular cholesterol changes induced by translocator protein (18 kDa) TSPO/PBR ligands. Neuropharmacology. 2007 Aug;53(2):318-29. Epub 2007 Jun 2. [17631921 ]
  3. Han WQ, Wang LJ, Sun XY, Li JS: Treatment of bactericide wastewater by combined process chemical coagulation, electrochemical oxidation and membrane bioreactor. J Hazard Mater. 2008 Mar 1;151(2-3):306-15. Epub 2007 Jun 7. [17662522 ]
  4. Chen Z, Kong X: Study of Candida albicans vaginitis model in Kunming mice. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2007 Jun;27(3):307-10. [17641849 ]
  5. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  6. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA5
Uniprot ID:
P31644
Molecular Weight:
52145.645 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [11752090 ]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [18384456 ]
  3. Derry JM, Dunn SM, Davies M: Identification of a residue in the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor alpha subunit that differentially affects diazepam-sensitive and -insensitive benzodiazepine site binding. J Neurochem. 2004 Mar;88(6):1431-8. [15009644 ]
  4. Iorio LC, Barnett A, Billard W: Selective affinity of 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for cerebellar type 1 receptor sites. Life Sci. 1984 Jul 2;35(1):105-13. [6738302 ]
  5. Wamsley JK, Golden JS, Yamamura HI, Barnett A: Autoradiographic demonstration of the selectivity of two 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for the BZD-1 receptors in the rat brain. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1985 Dec;23(6):973-8. [2867566 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA6
Uniprot ID:
Q16445
Molecular Weight:
51023.69 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory>10 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50000766
Inhibitory>7 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50000766
References
  1. Hadingham KL, Garrett EM, Wafford KA, Bain C, Heavens RP, Sirinathsinghji DJ, Whiting PJ: Cloning of cDNAs encoding the human gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor alpha 6 subunit and characterization of the pharmacology of alpha 6-containing receptors. Mol Pharmacol. 1996 Feb;49(2):253-9. [8632757 ]
  2. TenBrink RE, Im WB, Sethy VH, Tang AH, Carter DB: Antagonist, partial agonist, and full agonist imidazo[1,5-a]quinoxaline amides and carbamates acting through the GABAA/benzodiazepine receptor. J Med Chem. 1994 Mar 18;37(6):758-68. [8145225 ]
  3. Jacobsen EJ, TenBrink RE, Stelzer LS, Belonga KL, Carter DB, Im HK, Im WB, Sethy VH, Tang AH, VonVoigtlander PF, Petke JD: High-affinity partial agonist imidazo[1,5-a]quinoxaline amides, carbamates, and ureas at the gamma-aminobutyric acid A/benzodiazepine receptor complex. J Med Chem. 1996 Jan 5;39(1):158-75. [8568803 ]
General Function:
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GABRB1
Uniprot ID:
P18505
Molecular Weight:
54234.085 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [11752090 ]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [18384456 ]
  3. Iorio LC, Barnett A, Billard W: Selective affinity of 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for cerebellar type 1 receptor sites. Life Sci. 1984 Jul 2;35(1):105-13. [6738302 ]
  4. Wamsley JK, Golden JS, Yamamura HI, Barnett A: Autoradiographic demonstration of the selectivity of two 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for the BZD-1 receptors in the rat brain. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1985 Dec;23(6):973-8. [2867566 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRB2
Uniprot ID:
P47870
Molecular Weight:
59149.895 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [11752090 ]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [18384456 ]
  3. Iorio LC, Barnett A, Billard W: Selective affinity of 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for cerebellar type 1 receptor sites. Life Sci. 1984 Jul 2;35(1):105-13. [6738302 ]
  4. Wamsley JK, Golden JS, Yamamura HI, Barnett A: Autoradiographic demonstration of the selectivity of two 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for the BZD-1 receptors in the rat brain. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1985 Dec;23(6):973-8. [2867566 ]
General Function:
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRD
Uniprot ID:
O14764
Molecular Weight:
50707.835 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [11752090 ]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [18384456 ]
  3. Iorio LC, Barnett A, Billard W: Selective affinity of 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for cerebellar type 1 receptor sites. Life Sci. 1984 Jul 2;35(1):105-13. [6738302 ]
  4. Wamsley JK, Golden JS, Yamamura HI, Barnett A: Autoradiographic demonstration of the selectivity of two 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for the BZD-1 receptors in the rat brain. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1985 Dec;23(6):973-8. [2867566 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRE
Uniprot ID:
P78334
Molecular Weight:
57971.175 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [11752090 ]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [18384456 ]
  3. Iorio LC, Barnett A, Billard W: Selective affinity of 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for cerebellar type 1 receptor sites. Life Sci. 1984 Jul 2;35(1):105-13. [6738302 ]
  4. Wamsley JK, Golden JS, Yamamura HI, Barnett A: Autoradiographic demonstration of the selectivity of two 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for the BZD-1 receptors in the rat brain. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1985 Dec;23(6):973-8. [2867566 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRG1
Uniprot ID:
Q8N1C3
Molecular Weight:
53594.49 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [11752090 ]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [18384456 ]
  3. Iorio LC, Barnett A, Billard W: Selective affinity of 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for cerebellar type 1 receptor sites. Life Sci. 1984 Jul 2;35(1):105-13. [6738302 ]
  4. Wamsley JK, Golden JS, Yamamura HI, Barnett A: Autoradiographic demonstration of the selectivity of two 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for the BZD-1 receptors in the rat brain. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1985 Dec;23(6):973-8. [2867566 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRG2
Uniprot ID:
P18507
Molecular Weight:
54161.78 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [11752090 ]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [18384456 ]
  3. Iorio LC, Barnett A, Billard W: Selective affinity of 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for cerebellar type 1 receptor sites. Life Sci. 1984 Jul 2;35(1):105-13. [6738302 ]
  4. Wamsley JK, Golden JS, Yamamura HI, Barnett A: Autoradiographic demonstration of the selectivity of two 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for the BZD-1 receptors in the rat brain. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1985 Dec;23(6):973-8. [2867566 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRG3
Uniprot ID:
Q99928
Molecular Weight:
54288.16 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [11752090 ]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [18384456 ]
  3. Iorio LC, Barnett A, Billard W: Selective affinity of 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for cerebellar type 1 receptor sites. Life Sci. 1984 Jul 2;35(1):105-13. [6738302 ]
  4. Wamsley JK, Golden JS, Yamamura HI, Barnett A: Autoradiographic demonstration of the selectivity of two 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for the BZD-1 receptors in the rat brain. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1985 Dec;23(6):973-8. [2867566 ]
General Function:
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. In the uterus, the function of the receptor appears to be related to tissue contractility. The binding of this pI subunit with other GABA(A) receptor subunits alters the sensitivity of recombinant receptors to modulatory agents such as pregnanolone.
Gene Name:
GABRP
Uniprot ID:
O00591
Molecular Weight:
50639.735 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [11752090 ]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [18384456 ]
  3. Iorio LC, Barnett A, Billard W: Selective affinity of 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for cerebellar type 1 receptor sites. Life Sci. 1984 Jul 2;35(1):105-13. [6738302 ]
  4. Wamsley JK, Golden JS, Yamamura HI, Barnett A: Autoradiographic demonstration of the selectivity of two 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for the BZD-1 receptors in the rat brain. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1985 Dec;23(6):973-8. [2867566 ]
General Function:
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. Rho-1 GABA receptor could play a role in retinal neurotransmission.
Gene Name:
GABRR1
Uniprot ID:
P24046
Molecular Weight:
55882.91 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [11752090 ]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [18384456 ]
  3. Iorio LC, Barnett A, Billard W: Selective affinity of 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for cerebellar type 1 receptor sites. Life Sci. 1984 Jul 2;35(1):105-13. [6738302 ]
  4. Wamsley JK, Golden JS, Yamamura HI, Barnett A: Autoradiographic demonstration of the selectivity of two 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for the BZD-1 receptors in the rat brain. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1985 Dec;23(6):973-8. [2867566 ]
General Function:
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. Rho-2 GABA receptor could play a role in retinal neurotransmission.
Gene Name:
GABRR2
Uniprot ID:
P28476
Molecular Weight:
54150.41 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [11752090 ]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [18384456 ]
  3. Iorio LC, Barnett A, Billard W: Selective affinity of 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for cerebellar type 1 receptor sites. Life Sci. 1984 Jul 2;35(1):105-13. [6738302 ]
  4. Wamsley JK, Golden JS, Yamamura HI, Barnett A: Autoradiographic demonstration of the selectivity of two 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for the BZD-1 receptors in the rat brain. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1985 Dec;23(6):973-8. [2867566 ]
General Function:
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRR3
Uniprot ID:
A8MPY1
Molecular Weight:
54271.1 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [11752090 ]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [18384456 ]
  3. Iorio LC, Barnett A, Billard W: Selective affinity of 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for cerebellar type 1 receptor sites. Life Sci. 1984 Jul 2;35(1):105-13. [6738302 ]
  4. Wamsley JK, Golden JS, Yamamura HI, Barnett A: Autoradiographic demonstration of the selectivity of two 1-N-trifluoroethyl benzodiazepines for the BZD-1 receptors in the rat brain. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1985 Dec;23(6):973-8. [2867566 ]
General Function:
Transmembrane signaling receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRQ
Uniprot ID:
Q9UN88
Molecular Weight:
72020.875 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [11752090 ]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [18384456 ]
General Function:
G-protein coupled adenosine receptor activity
Specific Function:
Receptor for adenosine. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which inhibits adenylyl cyclase. Possible role in reproduction.
Gene Name:
ADORA3
Uniprot ID:
P0DMS8
Molecular Weight:
36184.175 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC500.012 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50000766
References
  1. Minetti P, Tinti MO, Carminati P, Castorina M, Di Cesare MA, Di Serio S, Gallo G, Ghirardi O, Giorgi F, Giorgi L, Piersanti G, Bartoccini F, Tarzia G: 2-n-Butyl-9-methyl-8-[1,2,3]triazol-2-yl-9H-purin-6-ylamine and analogues as A2A adenosine receptor antagonists. Design, synthesis, and pharmacological characterization. J Med Chem. 2005 Nov 3;48(22):6887-96. [16250647 ]
General Function:
Peptide binding
Specific Function:
Receptor for cholecystokinin. Mediates pancreatic growth and enzyme secretion, smooth muscle contraction of the gall bladder and stomach. Has a 1000-fold higher affinity for CCK rather than for gastrin. It modulates feeding and dopamine-induced behavior in the central and peripheral nervous system. This receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system.
Gene Name:
CCKAR
Uniprot ID:
P32238
Molecular Weight:
47840.645 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC50>100 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50000766
References
  1. Evans BE, Rittle KE, Bock MG, DiPardo RM, Freidinger RM, Whitter WL, Gould NP, Lundell GF, Homnick CF, Veber DF, et al.: Design of nonpeptidal ligands for a peptide receptor: cholecystokinin antagonists. J Med Chem. 1987 Jul;30(7):1229-39. [2885419 ]
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
Keratin-binding protein required for epithelial cell polarization. Involved in apical junction complex (AJC) assembly via its interaction with PARD3. Required for ciliogenesis.
Gene Name:
FBF1
Uniprot ID:
Q8TES7
Molecular Weight:
125445.19 Da
References
  1. Yoo MJ, Hage DS: Use of peak decay analysis and affinity microcolumns containing silica monoliths for rapid determination of drug-protein dissociation rates. J Chromatogr A. 2011 Apr 15;1218(15):2072-8. doi: 10.1016/j.chroma.2010.09.070. Epub 2010 Oct 16. [20956006 ]
General Function:
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function:
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloidal osmotic pressure of blood. Major zinc transporter in plasma, typically binds about 80% of all plasma zinc.
Gene Name:
ALB
Uniprot ID:
P02768
Molecular Weight:
69365.94 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Dissociation24.547 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50000766
References
  1. Lazaro E, Lowe PJ, Briand X, Faller B: New approach to measure protein binding based on a parallel artificial membrane assay and human serum albumin. J Med Chem. 2008 Apr 10;51(7):2009-17. doi: 10.1021/jm7012826. Epub 2008 Mar 19. [18348514 ]
24. GABA-A receptor (anion channel) (Protein Group)
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel (By similarity).
Included Proteins:
P14867 , P47869 , P34903 , P48169 , P31644 , Q16445 , P18505 , P47870 , P28472 , O14764 , P78334 , Q8N1C3 , P18507 , Q99928 , O00591 , Q9UN88