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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-03-22 21:40:18 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:22:32 UTC
Accession NumberT3D0677
Identification
Common NameHydroxocobalamin
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionHydroxocobalamin is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug.It is an injectable form of vitamin B 12 that has been used therapeutically to treat vitamin B 12 deficiency. [PubChem]
Compound Type
  • Amide
  • Amine
  • Anti-Anemic Agent
  • Cobalt Compound
  • Drug
  • Ether
  • Food Toxin
  • Hematinic
  • Metabolite
  • Natural Compound
  • Nutritional Supplement
  • Nutritional Support
  • Organic Compound
  • Pollutant
  • Vitamin B Complex
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
Alpha-Redisol
Cyanokit
Hydrocobamine
Hydroxomin
Hydroxycobalamin
OH-Cbl
Vitamin B-12b
Chemical FormulaC62H89CoN13O15P
Average Molecular Mass1346.355 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass1345.567 g/mol
CAS Registry Number13422-51-0
IUPAC Name(10S,12R,13S,17R,23R,24R,25R,30S,35S,36S,40S,41S,42R,46R)-30,35,40-tris(2-carbamoylethyl)-24,36,41-tris(carbamoylmethyl)-1,46-dihydroxy-12-(hydroxymethyl)-5,6,17,23,28,31,31,36,38,41,42-undecamethyl-15,20-dioxo-11,14,16-trioxa-2lambda5,9,19,26,43lambda5,44lambda5,45lambda5-heptaaza-15lambda5-phospha-1-cobaltadodecacyclo[27.14.1.1^{1,34}.1^{2,9}.1^{10,13}.0^{1,26}.0^{3,8}.0^{23,27}.0^{25,42}.0^{32,44}.0^{39,43}.0^{37,45}]heptatetraconta-2(47),3,5,7,27,29(44),32,34(45),37,39(43)-decaene-2,43,44,45-tetrakis(ylium)-1,1,1-triuid-15-olate
Traditional Name(10S,12R,13S,17R,23R,24R,25R,30S,35S,36S,40S,41S,42R,46R)-30,35,40-tris(2-carbamoylethyl)-24,36,41-tris(carbamoylmethyl)-1,46-dihydroxy-12-(hydroxymethyl)-5,6,17,23,28,31,31,36,38,41,42-undecamethyl-15,20-dioxo-11,14,16-trioxa-2lambda5,9,19,26,43lambda5,44lambda5,45lambda5-heptaaza-15lambda5-phospha-1-cobaltadodecacyclo[27.14.1.1^{1,34}.1^{2,9}.1^{10,13}.0^{1,26}.0^{3,8}.0^{23,27}.0^{25,42}.0^{32,44}.0^{39,43}.0^{37,45}]heptatetraconta-2(47),3,5,7,27,29(44),32,34(45),37,39(43)-decaene-2,43,44,45-tetrakis(ylium)-1,1,1-triuid-15-olate
SMILESO.[Co+3].[H][C@@](C)(CN=C(O)CC[C@@]1(C)C2=N[C@]([H])([C@]1([H])CC([O-])=N)[C@]1(C)NC(=C(C)C3=NC(=CC4=NC(=C2C)[C@@]([H])(CCC([O-])=N)C4(C)C)[C@@]([H])(CCC([O-])=N)[C@]3(C)CC(O)=N)[C@@]([H])(CCC([O-])=N)[C@]1(C)CC(O)=N)OP(O)(=O)O[C@]1([H])[C@@]([H])(CO)O[C@]([H])([N+]2=CNC3=C2C=C(C)C(C)=C3)[C@]1([H])O
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C62H90N13O14P.Co.H2O/c1-29-20-39-40(21-30(29)2)75(28-70-39)57-52(84)53(41(27-76)87-57)89-90(85,86)88-31(3)26-69-49(83)18-19-59(8)37(22-46(66)80)56-62(11)61(10,25-48(68)82)36(14-17-45(65)79)51(74-62)33(5)55-60(9,24-47(67)81)34(12-15-43(63)77)38(71-55)23-42-58(6,7)35(13-16-44(64)78)50(72-42)32(4)54(59)73-56;;/h20-21,23,28,31,34-37,41,52-53,56-57,76,84H,12-19,22,24-27H2,1-11H3,(H15,63,64,65,66,67,68,69,71,72,73,74,77,78,79,80,81,82,83,85,86);;1H2/q;+3;/p-3/t31-,34-,35-,36-,37+,41-,52-,53-,56-,57+,59-,60+,61+,62+;;/m1../s1
InChI KeyInChIKey=YOZNUFWCRFCGIH-WZHZPDAFSA-K
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as cobalamin derivatives. These are organic compounds containing a corrin ring, a cobalt atom, an a nucleotide moiety. Cobalamin Derivatives are actually derived from vitamin B12.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassTetrapyrroles and derivatives
Sub ClassCorrinoids
Direct ParentCobalamin derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Cobalamin
  • Metallotetrapyrrole skeleton
  • 1-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole
  • Pentose phosphate
  • Glycosyl compound
  • N-glycosyl compound
  • Pentose monosaccharide
  • Monosaccharide phosphate
  • Benzimidazole
  • Phosphoethanolamine
  • Dialkyl phosphate
  • Fatty acyl
  • N-substituted imidazole
  • Organic phosphoric acid derivative
  • Benzenoid
  • Fatty amide
  • Alkyl phosphate
  • Phosphoric acid ester
  • Monosaccharide
  • Imidazole
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Pyrrolidine
  • Tetrahydrofuran
  • Azole
  • Pyrroline
  • Carboxamide group
  • Ketimine
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Primary carboxylic acid amide
  • Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Oxacycle
  • Organic 1,3-dipolar compound
  • Azacycle
  • Organic metal salt
  • Organic transition metal salt
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic cobalt salt
  • Imine
  • Organic salt
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Alcohol
  • Organic zwitterion
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Primary alcohol
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginEndogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceRed crystals.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting PointNot Available
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility1.46e-02 g/L
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-14ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.82ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-0.55ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count14ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count10ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area437.23 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count16ChemAxon
Refractivity340.03 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability135.56 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings12ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-000i-2120000009-a1a6c934c09c0655b549JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0f79-4240000029-c4f23872a45ca99d454cJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0f79-5240000139-aa3cc38ae6fc78c5c9d7JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0002-1404000009-d95c227e0c2a01a825adJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0002-2902000005-61bd391f47e0b9c2ba4bJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0002-3930000015-9f00c742a0c9e52997c4JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-000e-2509000000-5c630ca334aea70d2a2dJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0002-1900000000-be3cf15d7ba2b2a92d24JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0002-1900000000-545dabccb8cd6ce30e09JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureInhalation (3) ; oral (3) ; dermal (3) Readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, except in malabsorption syndromes. Vitamin B12 is absorbed in the lower half of the ileum.
Mechanism of ToxicityVitamin B12 exists in four major forms referred to collectively as cobalamins; deoxyadenosylcobalamin, methylcobalamin, hydroxocobalamin, and cyanocobalamin. Two of these, methylcobalamin and 5-deoxyadenosyl cobalamin, are primarily used by the body. Methionine synthase needs methylcobalamin as a cofactor. This enzyme is involved in the conversion of the amino acid homocysteine into methionine. Methionine in turn is required for DNA methylation. 5-Deoxyadenosyl cobalamin is a cofactor needed by the enzyme that converts L-methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA. This conversion is an important step in the extraction of energy from proteins and fats. Furthermore, succinyl CoA is necessary for the production of hemoglobin, the substances that carries oxygen in red blood cells.
MetabolismPrimarily hepatic. Cobalamins are absorbed in the ileum and stored in the liver. They continuously undergo enterohepatic recycling via secretion in the bile. Part of a dose is excreted in the urine, most of it in the first 8 hours. Cobalt is absorbed though the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and skin. Since it is a component of the vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin), it is distributed to most tissues of the body. It is transported in the blood, often bound to albumin, with the highest levels being found in the liver and kidney. Cobalt is excreted mainly in the urine and faeces. (3) Route of Elimination: Each hydroxocobalamin molecule can bind one cyanide ion by substituting it for the hydroxo ligand linked to the trivalent cobalt ion, to form cyanocobalamin, which is then excreted in the urine. Half Life: Approximately 6 days (peak plasma concentration after 8-12 hours from oral administration)
Toxicity ValuesLD50: >50mL/kg (i.v., mice) (10)
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)2B, possibly carcinogenic to humans. (6)
Uses/SourcesHydroxocobalamin is a form of vitamin B12, used to treat vitamin B12 deficiency. (7) It is used for treatment of pernicious anemia and the prevention and treatment of vitamin B12 deficiency arising from alcoholism, malabsorption, tapeworm infestation, celiac, hyperthyroidism, hepatic-biliary tract disease, persistent diarrhea, ileal resection, pancreatic cancer, renal disease, prolonged stress, vegan diets, macrobiotic diets or other restrictive diets. Also for the treatment of known or suspected cyanide poisoning.
Minimum Risk LevelChronic Inhalation: 0.0001 mg/m3 (5) Intermediate Oral: 0.01 mg/kg/day (5)
Health EffectsExposure to high amount of cobalt can cause heart, lung, kidney, and liver damage. Skin contact is known to result in contact dermatitis. Cobalt may also have mutagenic and carcinogenic effects. (3, 4)
SymptomsCobalt inhalation can cause asthma-like breathing problems. Skin contact is known to result in contact dermatitis, which is characterized by irritation and rashes. Ingesting large amounts of cobalt may cause nausea and vomiting. (11)
TreatmentTreatment of cobalt poisoning is symptomatic. (3)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB00200
HMDB IDHMDB14345
PubChem Compound ID44475014
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL2103737
ChemSpider ID21403074
KEGG IDC08230
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID236270 , 275350
ChEBI ID27786
BioCyc IDCPD0-1256
CTD IDD006879
Stitch IDHydroxocobalamin
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkHydroxocobalamin
References
Synthesis Reference

Takayuki Hirayama, Takashi Kiyota, “Process for production of hydroxocobalamin.” U.S. Patent US5338418, issued June, 1982.

MSDSLink
General References
  1. Amirtharaj GJ, Natarajan SK, Mukhopadhya A, Zachariah UG, Hegde SK, Kurian G, Balasubramanian KA, Ramachandran A: Fatty acids influence binding of cobalt to serum albumin in patients with fatty liver. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008 May;1782(5):349-54. doi: 10.1016/j.bbadis.2008.02.006. Epub 2008 Feb 29. [18346470 ]
  2. Seetharam B, Yammani RR: Cobalamin transport proteins and their cell-surface receptors. Expert Rev Mol Med. 2003 Jun 13;5(18):1-18. [14585166 ]
  3. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2004). Toxicological profile for cobalt. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  4. Wikipedia. Cobalt. Last Updated 21 March 2009. [Link]
  5. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2001). Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs) for Hazardous Substances. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  6. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2014). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
  7. Wikipedia. Vitamin B12. Last Updated 3 June 2009. [Link]
  8. Drugs.com [Link]
  9. MEDSAFE: New Zealand Medicines and Medical Devices Health Authority (2005). Neo-Cytamen. [Link]
  10. Medpedia. Hydroxocobalamin [Link]
  11. U.S. National Library of Medicine, MedlinePlus: Cobalt poisoning. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from methyl-cobalamin to homocysteine, yielding enzyme-bound cob(I)alamin and methionine. Subsequently, remethylates the cofactor using methyltetrahydrofolate (By similarity).
Gene Name:
MTR
Uniprot ID:
Q99707
Molecular Weight:
140525.91 Da
References
  1. Tkachuck RD, Weinstein PP, Mueller JF: Metabolic fate of cyanocobalamin taken up by Spirometra mansonoides spargana. J Parasitol. 1977 Aug;63(4):694-700. [18565 ]
  2. Quadros EV, Jacobsen DW: The dynamics of cobalamin utilization in L-1210 mouse leukemia cells: a model of cellular cobalamin metabolism. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1995 Jun 9;1244(2-3):395-403. [7599160 ]
  3. Kolhouse JF, Utley C, Stabler SP, Allen RH: Mechanism of conversion of human apo- to holomethionine synthase by various forms of cobalamin. J Biol Chem. 1991 Dec 5;266(34):23010-5. [1744096 ]
  4. Ogier de Baulny H, Gerard M, Saudubray JM, Zittoun J: Remethylation defects: guidelines for clinical diagnosis and treatment. Eur J Pediatr. 1998 Apr;157 Suppl 2:S77-83. [9587031 ]
  5. Rosenblatt DS, Thomas IT, Watkins D, Cooper BA, Erbe RW: Vitamin B12 responsive homocystinuria and megaloblastic anemia: heterogeneity in methylcobalamin deficiency. Am J Med Genet. 1987 Feb;26(2):377-83. [3812589 ]
General Function:
Modified amino acid binding
Specific Function:
Involved in the degradation of several amino acids, odd-chain fatty acids and cholesterol via propionyl-CoA to the tricarboxylic acid cycle. MCM has different functions in other species.
Gene Name:
MUT
Uniprot ID:
P22033
Molecular Weight:
83133.755 Da
References
  1. Willard HF, Rosenberg LE: Inborn errors of cobalamin metabolism: effect of cobalamin supplementation in culture on methylmalonyl CoA mutase activity in normal and mutant human fibroblasts. Biochem Genet. 1979 Feb;17(1-2):57-75. [36882 ]
  2. Dayem LC, Carney JR, Santi DV, Pfeifer BA, Khosla C, Kealey JT: Metabolic engineering of a methylmalonyl-CoA mutase-epimerase pathway for complex polyketide biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. Biochemistry. 2002 Apr 23;41(16):5193-201. [11955068 ]
  3. Mayatepek E, Hoffmann GF, Baumgartner R, Schulze A, Jakobs C, Trefz FK, Bremer HJ: Atypical vitamin B12-unresponsive methylmalonic aciduria in sibship with severe progressive encephalomyelopathy: a new genetic disease? Eur J Pediatr. 1996 May;155(5):398-403. [8741039 ]
  4. Tkachuck RD, Weinstein PP, Mueller JF: Metabolic fate of cyanocobalamin taken up by Spirometra mansonoides spargana. J Parasitol. 1977 Aug;63(4):694-700. [18565 ]
  5. Quadros EV, Jacobsen DW: The dynamics of cobalamin utilization in L-1210 mouse leukemia cells: a model of cellular cobalamin metabolism. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1995 Jun 9;1244(2-3):395-403. [7599160 ]
General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
Primary vitamin B12-binding and transport protein. Delivers cobalamin to cells.
Gene Name:
TCN2
Uniprot ID:
P20062
Molecular Weight:
47534.54 Da
References
  1. Begley JA, Colligan PD, Chu RC: Transcobalamin II mediated delivery of albumin-bound hydroxocobalamin to human liver cells. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1993 Nov;204(2):206-10. [8415778 ]
  2. Skouby AP, Hippe E, Olesen H: Antibody to transcobalamin II and B12 binding capacity in patients treated with hydroxocobalamin. Blood. 1971 Dec;38(6):769-74. [5126165 ]
  3. Hippe E, Olesen H, Skouby A: [Occurrence of antibodies against transcobalamin II in relation to the number of and the intervals between depot therapy with hydroxocobalamin]. Nord Med. 1970 Dec 3;84(49):1570. [5488577 ]
  4. Brown KL, Marques HM, Jacobsen DW: Heteronuclear NMR studies of cobalamins. 31P NMR observations of cobalamins bound to a haptocorrin from chicken serum. J Biol Chem. 1988 Feb 5;263(4):1872-7. [3338997 ]
  5. Chu RC, Begley JA, Colligan PD, Hall CA: The methylcobalamin metabolism of cultured human fibroblasts. Metabolism. 1993 Mar;42(3):315-9. [8487649 ]
General Function:
Cobalamin binding
Specific Function:
May be involved in the binding and intracellular trafficking of cobalamin (vitamin B12).
Gene Name:
MMACHC
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y4U1
Molecular Weight:
31728.095 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Froese DS, Zhang J, Healy S, Gravel RA: Mechanism of vitamin B12-responsiveness in cblC methylmalonic aciduria with homocystinuria. Mol Genet Metab. 2009 Dec;98(4):338-43. doi: 10.1016/j.ymgme.2009.07.014. Epub 2009 Aug 3. [19700356 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrates cyanamide to urea.
Gene Name:
CA1
Uniprot ID:
P00915
Molecular Weight:
28870.0 Da
References
  1. Ekinci D, Beydemir S, Kufrevioglu OI: In vitro inhibitory effects of some heavy metals on human erythrocyte carbonic anhydrases. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2007 Dec;22(6):745-50. doi: 10.1080/14756360601176048 . [18237030 ]
  2. Ul-Hassan M, Scozzafava A, Chohan ZH, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: metal complexes of a sulfanilamide derived Schiff base and their interaction with isozymes I, II and IV. J Enzyme Inhib. 2001 Dec;16(6):499-505. [12164389 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye. Contributes to intracellular pH regulation in the duodenal upper villous epithelium during proton-coupled peptide absorption. Stimulates the chloride-bicarbonate exchange activity of SLC26A6.
Gene Name:
CA2
Uniprot ID:
P00918
Molecular Weight:
29245.895 Da
References
  1. Ekinci D, Beydemir S, Kufrevioglu OI: In vitro inhibitory effects of some heavy metals on human erythrocyte carbonic anhydrases. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2007 Dec;22(6):745-50. doi: 10.1080/14756360601176048 . [18237030 ]
  2. Ul-Hassan M, Scozzafava A, Chohan ZH, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: metal complexes of a sulfanilamide derived Schiff base and their interaction with isozymes I, II and IV. J Enzyme Inhib. 2001 Dec;16(6):499-505. [12164389 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. May stimulate the sodium/bicarbonate transporter activity of SLC4A4 that acts in pH homeostasis. It is essential for acid overload removal from the retina and retina epithelium, and acid release in the choriocapillaris in the choroid.
Gene Name:
CA4
Uniprot ID:
P22748
Molecular Weight:
35032.075 Da
References
  1. Ekinci D, Beydemir S, Kufrevioglu OI: In vitro inhibitory effects of some heavy metals on human erythrocyte carbonic anhydrases. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2007 Dec;22(6):745-50. doi: 10.1080/14756360601176048 . [18237030 ]
  2. Ul-Hassan M, Scozzafava A, Chohan ZH, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: metal complexes of a sulfanilamide derived Schiff base and their interaction with isozymes I, II and IV. J Enzyme Inhib. 2001 Dec;16(6):499-505. [12164389 ]
General Function:
Cob(i)yrinic acid a,c-diamide adenosyltransferase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
MMAB
Uniprot ID:
Q96EY8
Molecular Weight:
27387.975 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Cotransporter which plays a role in lipoprotein, vitamin and iron metabolism, by facilitating their uptake. Binds to ALB, MB, Kappa and lambda-light chains, TF, hemoglobin, GC, SCGB1A1, APOA1, high density lipoprotein, and the GIF-cobalamin complex. The binding of all ligands requires calcium. Serves as important transporter in several absorptive epithelia, including intestine, renal proximal tubules and embryonic yolk sac. Interaction with LRP2 mediates its trafficking throughout vesicles and facilitates the uptake of specific ligands like GC, hemoglobin, ALB, TF and SCGB1A1. Interaction with AMN controls its trafficking to the plasma membrane and facilitates endocytosis of ligands. May play an important role in the development of the peri-implantation embryo through internalization of APOA1 and cholesterol. Binds to LGALS3 at the maternal-fetal interface.
Gene Name:
CUBN
Uniprot ID:
O60494
Molecular Weight:
398732.93 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, oxidizing metal ions, nad or nadp as acceptor
Specific Function:
Involved in the reductive regeneration of cob(I)alamin (vitamin B12) cofactor required for the maintenance of methionine synthase in a functional state. Necessary for utilization of methylgroups from the folate cycle, thereby affecting transgenerational epigenetic inheritance. Folate pathway donates methyl groups necessary for cellular methylation and affects different pathways such as DNA methylation, possibly explaining the transgenerational epigenetic inheritance effects.
Gene Name:
MTRR
Uniprot ID:
Q9UBK8
Molecular Weight:
80409.22 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Hydrolase activity
Specific Function:
Probable GTPase. May function as chaperone. May be involved in the transport of cobalamin (Cbl) into mitochondria for the final steps of adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl) synthesis.
Gene Name:
MMAA
Uniprot ID:
Q8IVH4
Molecular Weight:
46537.865 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Receptor binding
Specific Function:
Necessary for efficient absorption of vitamin B12. May direct the production of trunk mesoderm during development by modulating a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway in the underlying visceral endoderm (By similarity).
Gene Name:
AMN
Uniprot ID:
Q9BXJ7
Molecular Weight:
47753.91 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Cobalamin binding
Specific Function:
Binds vitamin B12 with femtomolar affinity and protects it from the acidic environment of the stomach.
Gene Name:
TCN1
Uniprot ID:
P20061
Molecular Weight:
48206.32 Da
References
  1. MacDonald CM, Farquharson J, Bessent RG, Adams JF: The forms of vitamin B12 on the transcobalamins. Clin Sci Mol Med. 1977 Feb;52(2):215-8. [844253 ]
  2. Rothenberg SP, Marcoullis GP, Schwarz S, Lader E: Measurement of cyanocobalamin in serum by a specific radioimmunoassay. J Lab Clin Med. 1984 Jun;103(6):959-72. [6726060 ]
General Function:
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ALAS2
Uniprot ID:
P22557
Molecular Weight:
64632.86 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Mercury poisoning. Last Updated 8 March 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ALAS1
Uniprot ID:
P13196
Molecular Weight:
70580.325 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Mercury poisoning. Last Updated 8 March 2009. [Link]
16. DNA
General Function:
Used for biological information storage.
Specific Function:
DNA contains the instructions needed for an organism to develop, survive and reproduce.
Molecular Weight:
2.15 x 1012 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2004). Toxicological profile for cobalt. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function:
Involved in DNA excision repair. Initiates repair by binding to damaged sites with various affinities, depending on the photoproduct and the transcriptional state of the region. Required for UV-induced CHEK1 phosphorylation and the recruitment of CEP164 to cyclobutane pyrimidine dimmers (CPD), sites of DNA damage after UV irradiation.
Gene Name:
XPA
Uniprot ID:
P23025
Molecular Weight:
31367.71 Da
References
  1. Hartwig A, Asmuss M, Ehleben I, Herzer U, Kostelac D, Pelzer A, Schwerdtle T, Burkle A: Interference by toxic metal ions with DNA repair processes and cell cycle control: molecular mechanisms. Environ Health Perspect. 2002 Oct;110 Suppl 5:797-9. [12426134 ]
General Function:
Antigen binding
Specific Function:
Ig alpha is the major immunoglobulin class in body secretions. It may serve both to defend against local infection and to prevent access of foreign antigens to the general immunologic system.
Gene Name:
IGHA1
Uniprot ID:
P01876
Molecular Weight:
37654.29 Da
References
  1. Bencko V, Wagner V, Wagnerova M, Reichrtova E: Immuno-biochemical findings in groups of individuals occupationally and non-occupationally exposed to emissions containing nickel and cobalt. J Hyg Epidemiol Microbiol Immunol. 1983;27(4):387-94. [6663071 ]
General Function:
Antigen binding
Specific Function:
Ig alpha is the major immunoglobulin class in body secretions. It may serve both to defend against local infection and to prevent access of foreign antigens to the general immunologic system.
Gene Name:
IGHA2
Uniprot ID:
P01877
Molecular Weight:
36526.005 Da
References
  1. Bencko V, Wagner V, Wagnerova M, Reichrtova E: Immuno-biochemical findings in groups of individuals occupationally and non-occupationally exposed to emissions containing nickel and cobalt. J Hyg Epidemiol Microbiol Immunol. 1983;27(4):387-94. [6663071 ]
General Function:
Immunoglobulin receptor binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
IGHE
Uniprot ID:
P01854
Molecular Weight:
47018.665 Da
References
  1. Shirakawa T, Kusaka Y, Fujimura N, Goto S, Morimoto K: The existence of specific antibodies to cobalt in hard metal asthma. Clin Allergy. 1988 Sep;18(5):451-60. [3233723 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Involved in the base excision repair (BER) pathway, by catalyzing the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of a limited number of acceptor proteins involved in chromatin architecture and in DNA metabolism. This modification follows DNA damages and appears as an obligatory step in a detection/signaling pathway leading to the reparation of DNA strand breaks. Mediates the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of APLF and CHFR. Positively regulates the transcription of MTUS1 and negatively regulates the transcription of MTUS2/TIP150. With EEF1A1 and TXK, forms a complex that acts as a T-helper 1 (Th1) cell-specific transcription factor and binds the promoter of IFN-gamma to directly regulate its transcription, and is thus involved importantly in Th1 cytokine production. Required for PARP9 and DTX3L recruitment to DNA damage sites. PARP1-dependent PARP9-DTX3L-mediated ubiquitination promotes the rapid and specific recruitment of 53BP1/TP53BP1, UIMC1/RAP80, and BRCA1 to DNA damage sites.
Gene Name:
PARP1
Uniprot ID:
P09874
Molecular Weight:
113082.945 Da
References
  1. Hartwig A, Asmuss M, Ehleben I, Herzer U, Kostelac D, Pelzer A, Schwerdtle T, Burkle A: Interference by toxic metal ions with DNA repair processes and cell cycle control: molecular mechanisms. Environ Health Perspect. 2002 Oct;110 Suppl 5:797-9. [12426134 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. The isoform alpha-1C gives rise to L-type calcium currents. Long-lasting (L-type) calcium channels belong to the 'high-voltage activated' (HVA) group. They are blocked by dihydropyridines (DHP), phenylalkylamines, benzothiazepines, and by omega-agatoxin-IIIA (omega-Aga-IIIA). They are however insensitive to omega-conotoxin-GVIA (omega-CTx-GVIA) and omega-agatoxin-IVA (omega-Aga-IVA). Calcium channels containing the alpha-1C subunit play an important role in excitation-contraction coupling in the heart. The various isoforms display marked differences in the sensitivity to DHP compounds. Binding of calmodulin or CABP1 at the same regulatory sites results in an opposit effects on the channel function.
Gene Name:
CACNA1C
Uniprot ID:
Q13936
Molecular Weight:
248974.1 Da
References
  1. Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity involved sa node cell action potential
Specific Function:
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. The isoform alpha-1D gives rise to L-type calcium currents. Long-lasting (L-type) calcium channels belong to the 'high-voltage activated' (HVA) group. They are blocked by dihydropyridines (DHP), phenylalkylamines, benzothiazepines, and by omega-agatoxin-IIIA (omega-Aga-IIIA). They are however insensitive to omega-conotoxin-GVIA (omega-CTx-GVIA) and omega-agatoxin-IVA (omega-Aga-IVA).
Gene Name:
CACNA1D
Uniprot ID:
Q01668
Molecular Weight:
245138.75 Da
References
  1. Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. The isoform alpha-1F gives rise to L-type calcium currents. Long-lasting (L-type) calcium channels belong to the 'high-voltage activated' (HVA) group. They are blocked by dihydropyridines (DHP), phenylalkylamines, benzothiazepines, and by omega-agatoxin-IIIA (omega-Aga-IIIA). They are however insensitive to omega-conotoxin-GVIA (omega-CTx-GVIA) and omega-agatoxin-IVA (omega-Aga-IVA).
Gene Name:
CACNA1F
Uniprot ID:
O60840
Molecular Weight:
220675.9 Da
References
  1. Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. The isoform alpha-1S gives rise to L-type calcium currents. Long-lasting (L-type) calcium channels belong to the 'high-voltage activated' (HVA) group. They are blocked by dihydropyridines (DHP), phenylalkylamines, benzothiazepines, and by omega-agatoxin-IIIA (omega-Aga-IIIA). They are however insensitive to omega-conotoxin-GVIA (omega-CTx-GVIA) and omega-agatoxin-IVA (omega-Aga-IVA). Calcium channels containing the alpha-1S subunit play an important role in excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle.
Gene Name:
CACNA1S
Uniprot ID:
Q13698
Molecular Weight:
212348.1 Da
References
  1. Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
The beta subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels contributes to the function of the calcium channel by increasing peak calcium current, shifting the voltage dependencies of activation and inactivation, modulating G protein inhibition and controlling the alpha-1 subunit membrane targeting.
Gene Name:
CACNB1
Uniprot ID:
Q02641
Molecular Weight:
65712.995 Da
References
  1. Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
The beta subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels contributes to the function of the calcium channel by increasing peak calcium current, shifting the voltage dependencies of activation and inactivation, modulating G protein inhibition and controlling the alpha-1 subunit membrane targeting.
Gene Name:
CACNB2
Uniprot ID:
Q08289
Molecular Weight:
73579.925 Da
References
  1. Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
The beta subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels contributes to the function of the calcium channel by increasing peak calcium current, shifting the voltage dependencies of activation and inactivation, modulating G protein inhibition and controlling the alpha-1 subunit membrane targeting.
Gene Name:
CACNB3
Uniprot ID:
P54284
Molecular Weight:
54531.425 Da
References
  1. Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
The beta subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels contributes to the function of the calcium channel by increasing peak calcium current, shifting the voltage dependencies of activation and inactivation, modulating G protein inhibition and controlling the alpha-1 subunit membrane targeting.
Gene Name:
CACNB4
Uniprot ID:
O00305
Molecular Weight:
58168.625 Da
References
  1. Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. The isoform alpha-1B gives rise to N-type calcium currents. N-type calcium channels belong to the 'high-voltage activated' (HVA) group and are blocked by omega-conotoxin-GVIA (omega-CTx-GVIA) and by omega-agatoxin-IIIA (omega-Aga-IIIA). They are however insensitive to dihydropyridines (DHP), and omega-agatoxin-IVA (omega-Aga-IVA). Calcium channels containing alpha-1B subunit may play a role in directed migration of immature neurons.
Gene Name:
CACNA1B
Uniprot ID:
Q00975
Molecular Weight:
262493.84 Da
References
  1. Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. The isoform alpha-1A gives rise to P and/or Q-type calcium currents. P/Q-type calcium channels belong to the 'high-voltage activated' (HVA) group and are blocked by the funnel toxin (Ftx) and by the omega-agatoxin-IVA (omega-Aga-IVA). They are however insensitive to dihydropyridines (DHP), and omega-conotoxin-GVIA (omega-CTx-GVIA).
Gene Name:
CACNA1A
Uniprot ID:
O00555
Molecular Weight:
282362.39 Da
References
  1. Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. The isoform alpha-1E gives rise to R-type calcium currents. R-type calcium channels belong to the 'high-voltage activated' (HVA) group and are blocked by nickel, and partially by omega-agatoxin-IIIA (omega-Aga-IIIA). They are however insensitive to dihydropyridines (DHP), omega-conotoxin-GVIA (omega-CTx-GVIA), and omega-agatoxin-IVA (omega-Aga-IVA). Calcium channels containing alpha-1E subunit could be involved in the modulation of firing patterns of neurons which is important for information processing.
Gene Name:
CACNA1E
Uniprot ID:
Q15878
Molecular Weight:
261729.05 Da
References
  1. Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
This protein is a subunit of the dihydropyridine (DHP) sensitive calcium channel. Plays a role in excitation-contraction coupling. The skeletal muscle DHP-sensitive Ca(2+) channel may function only as a multiple subunit complex.
Gene Name:
CACNG1
Uniprot ID:
Q06432
Molecular Weight:
25028.105 Da
References
  1. Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Regulates the trafficking and gating properties of AMPA-selective glutamate receptors (AMPARs). Promotes their targeting to the cell membrane and synapses and modulates their gating properties by slowing their rates of activation, deactivation and desensitization. Does not show subunit-specific AMPA receptor regulation and regulates all AMPAR subunits. Thought to stabilize the calcium channel in an inactivated (closed) state.
Gene Name:
CACNG2
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y698
Molecular Weight:
35965.44 Da
References
  1. Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Regulates the trafficking and gating properties of AMPA-selective glutamate receptors (AMPARs). Promotes their targeting to the cell membrane and synapses and modulates their gating properties by slowing their rates of activation, deactivation and desensitization. Does not show subunit-specific AMPA receptor regulation and regulates all AMPAR subunits. Thought to stabilize the calcium channel in an inactivated (closed) state (By similarity).
Gene Name:
CACNG3
Uniprot ID:
O60359
Molecular Weight:
35548.14 Da
References
  1. Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Regulates the trafficking and gating properties of AMPA-selective glutamate receptors (AMPARs). Promotes their targeting to the cell membrane and synapses and modulates their gating properties by slowing their rates of activation, deactivation and desensitization and by mediating their resensitization. Does not show subunit-specific AMPA receptor regulation and regulates all AMPAR subunits. Thought to stabilize the calcium channel in an inactivated (closed) state.
Gene Name:
CACNG4
Uniprot ID:
Q9UBN1
Molecular Weight:
36578.39 Da
References
  1. Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Regulates the gating properties of AMPA-selective glutamate receptors (AMPARs). Modulates their gating properties by accelerating their rates of activation, deactivation and desensitization. Displays subunit-specific AMPA receptor regulation. Shows specificity for GRIA1, GRIA4 and the long isoform of GRIA2. Thought to stabilize the calcium channel in an inactivated (closed) state (By similarity).
Gene Name:
CACNG5
Uniprot ID:
Q9UF02
Molecular Weight:
30902.44 Da
References
  1. Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Thought to stabilize the calcium channel in an inactivated (closed) state.
Gene Name:
CACNG6
Uniprot ID:
Q9BXT2
Molecular Weight:
28128.745 Da
References
  1. Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Regulates the trafficking and gating properties of AMPA-selective glutamate receptors (AMPARs). Promotes their targeting to the cell membrane and synapses and modulates their gating properties by slowing their rates of activation, deactivation and desensitization and by mediating their resensitization. Displays subunit-specific AMPA receptor regulation. Shows specificity only for GRIA1 and GRIA2. Thought to stabilize the calcium channel in an inactivated (closed) state.
Gene Name:
CACNG7
Uniprot ID:
P62955
Molecular Weight:
31002.29 Da
References
  1. Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Regulates the trafficking and gating properties of AMPA-selective glutamate receptors (AMPARs). Promotes their targeting to the cell membrane and synapses and modulates their gating properties by slowing their rates of activation, deactivation and desensitization and by mediating their resensitization. Does not show subunit-specific AMPA receptor regulation and regulates all AMPAR subunits. Thought to stabilize the calcium channel in an inactivated (closed) state.
Gene Name:
CACNG8
Uniprot ID:
Q8WXS5
Molecular Weight:
43312.44 Da
References
  1. Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Thought to stabilize the calcium channel in an inactivated (closed) state. Modulates calcium current when coexpressed with CACNA1G (By similarity).
Gene Name:
TMEM37
Uniprot ID:
Q8WXS4
Molecular Weight:
20931.565 Da
References
  1. Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
The alpha-2/delta subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels regulates calcium current density and activation/inactivation kinetics of the calcium channel. Plays an important role in excitation-contraction coupling (By similarity).
Gene Name:
CACNA2D1
Uniprot ID:
P54289
Molecular Weight:
124566.93 Da
References
  1. Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
The alpha-2/delta subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels regulates calcium current density and activation/inactivation kinetics of the calcium channel. Acts as a regulatory subunit for P/Q-type calcium channel (CACNA1A), N-type (CACNA1B), L-type (CACNA1C OR CACNA1D) and possibly T-type (CACNA1G). Overexpression induces apoptosis.
Gene Name:
CACNA2D2
Uniprot ID:
Q9NY47
Molecular Weight:
129816.095 Da
References
  1. Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
The alpha-2/delta subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels regulates calcium current density and activation/inactivation kinetics of the calcium channel. Acts as a regulatory subunit for P/Q-type calcium channel (CACNA1A), N-type (CACNA1B), L-type (CACNA1C OR CACNA1D) but not T-type (CACNA1G) (By similarity).
Gene Name:
CACNA2D3
Uniprot ID:
Q8IZS8
Molecular Weight:
123010.22 Da
References
  1. Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
The alpha-2/delta subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels regulates calcium current density and activation/inactivation kinetics of the calcium channel.
Gene Name:
CACNA2D4
Uniprot ID:
Q7Z3S7
Molecular Weight:
127936.93 Da
References
  1. Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]