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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2014-08-29 06:33:43 UTC
Update Date2015-06-05 21:10:43 UTC
Accession NumberT3D4356
Identification
Common NameD-Glucose
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionGlucose is a monosaccharide containing six carbon atoms and an aldehyde group and is therefore referred to as an aldohexose. The glucose molecule can exist in an open-chain (acyclic) and ring (cyclic) form, the latter being the result of an intramolecular reaction between the aldehyde C atom and the C-5 hydroxyl group to form an intramolecular hemiacetal. In water solution both forms are in equilibrium and at pH 7 the cyclic one is the predominant. Glucose is a primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. In animals glucose arises from the breakdown of glycogen in a process known as glycogenolysis. Glucose is synthesized in the liver and kidneys from non-carbohydrate intermediates, such as pyruvate and glycerol, by a process known as gluconeogenesis.
Compound Type
  • Animal Toxin
  • Food Toxin
  • Household Toxin
  • Metabolite
  • Natural Compound
  • Organic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
(+)-Glucose
Anhydrous dextrose
Cerelose
Cerelose 2001
Clearsweet 95
Clintose L
Corn sugar
CPC hydrate
D(+)-Glucose
Dextropur
Dextrose
Dextrosol
Glucodin
Glucolin
Glucose
Goldsugar
Grape sugar
Meritose
Roferose st
Staleydex 111
Staleydex 95M
Tabfine 097(HS)
Vadex
Chemical FormulaC6H12O6
Average Molecular Mass180.156 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass180.063 g/mol
CAS Registry Number50-99-7
IUPAC Name(3R,4S,5S,6R)-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxane-2,3,4,5-tetrol
Traditional Nameglucose
SMILES[H]C1(O)O[C@]([H])(CO)[C@@]([H])(O)[C@]([H])(O)[C@@]1([H])O
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C6H12O6/c7-1-2-3(8)4(9)5(10)6(11)12-2/h2-11H,1H2/t2-,3-,4+,5-,6?/m1/s1
InChI KeyInChIKey=WQZGKKKJIJFFOK-GASJEMHNSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as hexoses. These are monosaccharides in which the sugar unit is a is a six-carbon containing moeity.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic oxygen compounds
ClassOrganooxygen compounds
Sub ClassCarbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates
Direct ParentHexoses
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Hexose monosaccharide
  • Oxane
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Hemiacetal
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Polyol
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary alcohol
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginEndogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Extracellular
  • Golgi apparatus
  • Lysosome
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue Locations
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Adrenal Cortex
  • Adrenal Gland
  • Adrenal Medulla
  • Beta Cell
  • Bladder
  • Brain
  • Brain Plaques
  • Epidermis
  • Eye Lens
  • Fetus
  • Fibroblasts
  • Gonads
  • Gut
  • Intestine
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Lung
  • Mouth
  • Muscle
  • Myelin
  • Nerve Cells
  • Neuron
  • Pancreas
  • Placenta
  • Prostate
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Galactose MetabolismSMP00043 map00052
GluconeogenesisSMP00128 Not Available
Glucose-Alanine CycleSMP00127 Not Available
GlycolysisSMP00040 Not Available
Lactose DegradationSMP00457 Not Available
Lactose SynthesisSMP00444 Not Available
Transfer of Acetyl Groups into MitochondriaSMP00466 Not Available
Glucose Transporter Defect (SGLT2)SMP00245 Not Available
Isovaleric AciduriaSMP00238 Not Available
Pyruvate Carboxylase DeficiencySMP00350 Not Available
Renal GlucosuriaSMP00184 Not Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological Roles
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point146 - 150°C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility1200.0 mg/mL
LogP-3.24
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility782 g/LALOGPS
logP-2.6ALOGPS
logP-2.9ChemAxon
logS0.64ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)11.3ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count5ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area110.38 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity35.92 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability16.37 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (5 TMS)splash10-00kb-1931000000-ec21c3af97621f7bf95aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (5 TMS)splash10-0fr2-1920000000-f53c5f0d5ad84d32679fJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (5 TMS; 1 MEOX)splash10-00di-9821000000-dbc697213e3b7cc9d4feJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (5 TMS; 1 MEOX)splash10-00di-9621000000-9d1d8057758d3da8cacaJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (4 TMS)splash10-014i-2490000000-3ed4c4fd34c05bad95f7JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 MEOX; 5 TMS)splash10-066r-1952000000-3378cb724e551e8b0267JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (5 TMS)splash10-0udl-0690000000-c8fda4276ff69235f30dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 MEOX; 5 TMS)splash10-0ldi-1942000000-5d531ed23a4e82023d1cJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (5 TMS)splash10-0udi-0790000000-7ebe75cd633c58d761faJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00kb-1931000000-ec21c3af97621f7bf95aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0fr2-1920000000-f53c5f0d5ad84d32679fJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-9821000000-dbc697213e3b7cc9d4feJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-9621000000-9d1d8057758d3da8cacaJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-014i-2490000000-3ed4c4fd34c05bad95f7JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-066r-1952000000-3378cb724e551e8b0267JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0udl-0690000000-c8fda4276ff69235f30dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0ldi-1942000000-5d531ed23a4e82023d1cJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0udi-0790000000-7ebe75cd633c58d761faJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0np0-9700000000-e8d638dc817e46b97d7bJSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (5 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-004i-6122690000-eaf6f7adf34ccd0c667bJSpectraViewer
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, N/A (Annotated)splash10-0002-9300000000-839f41cf94a071fcdb37JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, N/A (Annotated)splash10-0002-9000000000-807f75d14f3d0b66f5bdJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, N/A (Annotated)splash10-000t-9000000000-b89668f86992a8363664JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-000i-7900000000-9a673c2e4b82ca397421JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-0a4r-9100000000-b70415588e768ddce5efJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-73dc84dd88d8ae69fe02JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-ba39d4ed9431a1d01eabJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-a61efd1469735758b317JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-000i-7900000000-9a673c2e4b82ca397421JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0a4r-9100000000-9c25b149885d8a48aab5JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-76d92ea96364c24ecfb0JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-ba39d4ed9431a1d01eabJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-a61efd1469735758b317JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-01q9-0900000000-b0bc47623e7b2ca31c02JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-03ea-3900000000-648e1637af29cf2a3518JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0007-9200000000-9e6f46a1cbf52d6e347aJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-2900000000-a4ec4f0b1e29e360a952JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-01t9-6900000000-7b3ea9c64ecc8d4ac867JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-052f-9100000000-ec2bf4918640a0a36398JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureNot Available
Mechanism of ToxicityVery high serum levels of glucose are found in untreated diabetic (type I or type II) patients. Glucose in chronic excess causes toxic effects on the structure and function of many cells and organs, including the pancreas and pancreatic islet cells. Multiple biochemical pathways and mechanisms of action for glucose toxicity have been suggested. These include glyceraldehyde auto-oxidation, protein kinase C activation, methylglyoxal formation and glycation, hexosamine metabolism, sorbitol formation, and oxidative phosphorylation. All these pathways have in common the formation of reactive oxygen species that, in excess and over time, cause chronic oxidative stress, which in turn causes defective insulin gene expression and insulin secretion as well as increased apoptosis. Exposure of endothelial cells to high glucose causes GAPDH inhibition through reactive oxygen species-activated poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of GAPDH by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Three products from glucose metabolism (glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and 3-deoxyglucosone) form advanced glycation end products (AGEs) by reacting with amino groups on intracellular and extracellular proteins. AGEs play important roles in the pathogenesis of secondary complications of diabetes, especially with regard to microvascular disease in the retina, nerves, and kidney and likely islets. Glycated hemoglobin is a particularly important AGE. A 1% increase in absolute concentrations of glycated hemoglobin is associated with about 10-20% increase in cardiovascular disease risk.
MetabolismNot Available
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesNot Available
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsHigh blood glucose (>7 mM) produces the symptoms of frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger. Chronic exposure to high blood glucose (i.e. untreated diabetes) can cause many complications. Acute complications include diabetic ketoacidosis (characterized by nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain, the smell of acetone on the breath) and nonketotic hyperosmolar coma. Serious long-term complications include heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, foot ulcers and damage to the eyes. The major long-term complications relate to damage to blood vessels. Diabetes doubles the risk of cardiovascular disease and about 75% of deaths in diabetics are due to coronary artery disease. Other "macrovascular" diseases are stroke, and peripheral vascular disease. The primary microvascular complications of diabetes include damage to the eyes, kidneys, and nerves. Damage to the eyes, known as diabetic retinopathy, is caused by damage to the blood vessels in the retina of the eye, and can result in gradual vision loss and potentially blindness. Damage to the kidneys, known as diabetic nephropathy, can lead to tissue scarring, urine protein loss, and eventually chronic kidney disease, sometimes requiring dialysis or kidney transplant. Damage to the nerves of the body, known as diabetic neuropathy, is the most common complication of diabetes. The symptoms can include numbness, tingling, pain, and altered pain sensation, which can lead to damage to the skin. Diabetes-related foot problems (such as diabetic foot ulcers) may occur, and can be difficult to treat, occasionally requiring amputation. Gestational diabetes can damage the health of the fetus or mother. Risks to the baby include macrosomia (high birth weight), congenital cardiac and central nervous system anomalies, and skeletal muscle malformations. Increased fetal insulin may inhibit fetal surfactant production and cause respiratory distress syndrome. Hyperbilirubinemia may result from red blood cell destruction.
SymptomsNot Available
TreatmentTreatment involves a healthy diet, physical exercise, not using tobacco, and being a normal body weight. Blood pressure control and proper foot care are also important for people with the disease. Type 1 diabetes must be managed with insulin injections. Type 2 diabetes may be treated with medications with or without insulin.
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB02379
HMDB IDHMDB00122
PubChem Compound ID5793
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL1222250
ChemSpider ID5589
KEGG IDC00031
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID4167
BioCyc IDGLC
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNot Available
PDB IDBGC
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkDextrose
References
Synthesis Reference

Chen Gong, “Method for preparation of 2’-deoxy-2’, 2’-difluoro-beta-cytidine or pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof by using 1,6-anhydro-beta-D-glucose as raw material.” U.S. Patent US20060003963, issued January 05, 2006.

MSDST3D4356.pdf
General References
  1. Badiee P, Kordbacheh P, Alborzi A, Zeini F, Mirhendy H, Mahmoody M: Fungal infections in solid organ recipients. Exp Clin Transplant. 2005 Dec;3(2):385-9. [16417449 ]
  2. Surdacki A, Nowicki M, Sandmann J, Tsikas D, Boeger RH, Bode-Boeger SM, Kruszelnicka-Kwiatkowska O, Kokot F, Dubiel JS, Froelich JC: Reduced urinary excretion of nitric oxide metabolites and increased plasma levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine in men with essential hypertension. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1999 Apr;33(4):652-8. [10218738 ]
  3. Zhao J, Wu LF: [Study of the causes of fetal growth restriction with unclear etiologies]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi. 2004 May;39(5):329-33. [15196417 ]
  4. Flynn DM, Fairney A, Jackson D, Clayton BE: Hormonal changes in thalassaemia major. Arch Dis Child. 1976 Nov;51(11):828-36. [1008588 ]
  5. Sokup A, Swiatkowski M, Tyloch M, Skublicki S, Szymanski W, Goralczyk K: [Insulin secretion at the diagnosis of gestational diabetes is lower in multiparas than in primiparas]. Ginekol Pol. 2006 Jan;77(1):4-9. [16736954 ]
  6. Subramanian A, Gupta A, Saxena S, Gupta A, Kumar R, Nigam A, Kumar R, Mandal SK, Roy R: Proton MR CSF analysis and a new software as predictors for the differentiation of meningitis in children. NMR Biomed. 2005 Jun;18(4):213-25. [15627241 ]
  7. Roberts E: The importance of being dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (in the blood of primates): a longer and healthier life? Biochem Pharmacol. 1999 Feb 15;57(4):329-46. [9933021 ]
  8. Redjems-Bennani N, Jeandel C, Lefebvre E, Blain H, Vidailhet M, Gueant JL: Abnormal substrate levels that depend upon mitochondrial function in cerebrospinal fluid from Alzheimer patients. Gerontology. 1998;44(5):300-4. [9693263 ]
  9. Kodama H, Okada S, Inui K, Yutaka T, Yabuuchi H: Studies on alpha-ketoglutaric aciduria in type I glycogenosis. Tohoku J Exp Med. 1980 Aug;131(4):347-53. [6936873 ]
  10. Gollan JL, Huang SN, Billing B, Sherlock S: Prolonged survival in three brothers with severe type 2 Crigler-Najjar syndrome. Ultrastructural and metabolic studies. Gastroenterology. 1975 Jun;68(6):1543-55. [805737 ]
  11. Hourd P, Edge JA, Dunger DB, Dalton N, Edwards R: Urinary growth hormone excretion during puberty in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Diabet Med. 1991 Apr;8(3):237-42. [1828739 ]
  12. Zebrower ME, Kieras FJ, Brown WT: Analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography of hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfates. Anal Biochem. 1986 Aug 15;157(1):93-9. [3094400 ]
  13. Commodari F, Arnold DL, Sanctuary BC, Shoubridge EA: 1H NMR characterization of normal human cerebrospinal fluid and the detection of methylmalonic acid in a vitamin B12 deficient patient. NMR Biomed. 1991 Aug;4(4):192-200. [1931558 ]
  14. Sakai T, Suzuki J, Marumo F, Kikawada R: A case of Fanconi syndrome with type 1 renal tubular acidosis. Jpn Circ J. 1981 Oct;45(10):1164-9. [7299995 ]
  15. Rohdewald VP, Rehder J, Mollmann H, Barth J, Derendorf H: [Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of prednisolone following extremely high dosage as prednisolone hemisuccinate]. Arzneimittelforschung. 1987 Feb;37(2):194-8. [3580023 ]
  16. Hoppel CL, Genuth SM: Urinary excretion of acetylcarnitine during human diabetic and fasting ketosis. Am J Physiol. 1982 Aug;243(2):E168-72. [6810706 ]
  17. Brodehl J, Oemar BS, Hoyer PF: Renal glucosuria. Pediatr Nephrol. 1987 Jul;1(3):502-8. [3153324 ]
  18. KASER H, COTTIER P, ANTENER I: Glucoglycinuria, a new familial syndrome. J Pediatr. 1962 Sep;61:386-94. [14454131 ]
  19. Bales JR, Higham DP, Howe I, Nicholson JK, Sadler PJ: Use of high-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for rapid multi-component analysis of urine. Clin Chem. 1984 Mar;30(3):426-32. [6321058 ]
  20. Harada H, Shimizu H, Maeiwa M: 1H-NMR of human saliva. An application of NMR spectroscopy in forensic science. Forensic Sci Int. 1987 Jul;34(3):189-95. [3666622 ]
  21. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07762. [19212411 ]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
Alpha-amylase activity
Gene Name:
AMY2B
Uniprot ID:
P19961
Molecular Weight:
57709.49 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General Function:
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function:
Phosphorylase is an important allosteric enzyme in carbohydrate metabolism. Enzymes from different sources differ in their regulatory mechanisms and in their natural substrates. However, all known phosphorylases share catalytic and structural properties.
Gene Name:
PYGB
Uniprot ID:
P11216
Molecular Weight:
96695.18 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory1700 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 34103
Inhibitory7400 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 34103
References
  1. Pastor M, Cruciani G, Clementi S: Smart region definition: a new way to improve the predictive ability and interpretability of three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships. J Med Chem. 1997 May 9;40(10):1455-64. [9154968 ]
  2. Somsak L, Kovacs L, Toth M, Osz E, Szilagyi L, Gyorgydeak Z, Dinya Z, Docsa T, Toth B, Gergely P: Synthesis of and a comparative study on the inhibition of muscle and liver glycogen phosphorylases by epimeric pairs of d-gluco- and d-xylopyranosylidene-spiro-(thio)hydantoins and N-(d-glucopyranosyl) amides. J Med Chem. 2001 Aug 16;44(17):2843-8. [11495595 ]
  3. Pan D, Liu J, Senese C, Hopfinger AJ, Tseng Y: Characterization of a ligand-receptor binding event using receptor-dependent four-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis. J Med Chem. 2004 Jun 3;47(12):3075-88. [15163189 ]
General Function:
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function:
Phosphorylase is an important allosteric enzyme in carbohydrate metabolism. Enzymes from different sources differ in their regulatory mechanisms and in their natural substrates. However, all known phosphorylases share catalytic and structural properties.
Gene Name:
PYGM
Uniprot ID:
P11217
Molecular Weight:
97091.265 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General Function:
Transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GLT6D1
Uniprot ID:
Q7Z4J2
Molecular Weight:
36273.575 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General Function:
Hydrolase activity, hydrolyzing o-glycosyl compounds
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
LCTL
Uniprot ID:
Q6UWM7
Molecular Weight:
65087.84 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General Function:
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function:
Serves as a reserve supply of oxygen and facilitates the movement of oxygen within muscles.
Gene Name:
MB
Uniprot ID:
P02144
Molecular Weight:
17183.725 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General Function:
Hyaluronic acid binding
Specific Function:
May modulate neuronal adhesion and neurite growth during development by binding to neural cell adhesion molecules (NG-CAM and N-CAM). Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan; binds to hyaluronic acid.
Gene Name:
NCAN
Uniprot ID:
O14594
Molecular Weight:
143092.14 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General Function:
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific Function:
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Involved in the constitutive production of prostanoids in particular in the stomach and platelets. In gastric epithelial cells, it is a key step in the generation of prostaglandins, such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which plays an important role in cytoprotection. In platelets, it is involved in the generation of thromboxane A2 (TXA2), which promotes platelet activation and aggregation, vasoconstriction and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells.
Gene Name:
PTGS1
Uniprot ID:
P23219
Molecular Weight:
68685.82 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General Function:
Helicase activity
Specific Function:
Helicase that possesses intrinsic ATP-dependent nucleosome-remodeling activity. Complexes containing SMARCA5 are capable of forming ordered nucleosome arrays on chromatin; this may require intact histone H4 tails. Also required for replication of pericentric heterochromatin in S-phase specifically in conjunction with BAZ1A. Probably plays a role in repression of polI dependent transcription of the rDNA locus, through the recruitment of the SIN3/HDAC1 corepressor complex to the rDNA promoter. Essential component of the WICH complex, a chromatin remodeling complex that mobilizes nucleosomes and reconfigures irregular chromatin to a regular nucleosomal array structure. The WICH complex regulates the transcription of various genes, has a role in RNA polymerase I and RNA polymerase III transcription, mediates the histone H2AX phosphorylation at 'Tyr-142', and is involved in the maintenance of chromatin structures during DNA replication processes. Essential component of the NoRC (nucleolar remodeling complex) complex, a complex that mediates silencing of a fraction of rDNA by recruiting histone-modifying enzymes and DNA methyltransferases, leading to heterochromatin formation and transcriptional silencing.
Gene Name:
SMARCA5
Uniprot ID:
O60264
Molecular Weight:
121904.335 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General Function:
Adp-sugar diphosphatase activity
Specific Function:
Hydrolyzes ADP-ribose (ADPR) to AMP and ribose 5'-phosphate.
Gene Name:
NUDT9
Uniprot ID:
Q9BW91
Molecular Weight:
39124.685 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
AMY1A
Uniprot ID:
P04745
Molecular Weight:
57767.49 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
12. DNA
General Function:
Used for biological information storage.
Specific Function:
DNA contains the instructions needed for an organism to develop, survive and reproduce.
Molecular Weight:
2.15 x 1012 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Carbohydrate binding
Specific Function:
Could be involved in cell-cell and/or cell-matrix interactions necessary for normal growth control. Pro-apoptotic protein that functions intracellularly upstream of JNK activation and cytochrome c release.
Gene Name:
LGALS7
Uniprot ID:
P47929
Molecular Weight:
15074.965 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Glucose binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the initial step in utilization of glucose by the beta-cell and liver at physiological glucose concentration. Glucokinase has a high Km for glucose, and so it is effective only when glucose is abundant. The role of GCK is to provide G6P for the synthesis of glycogen. Pancreatic glucokinase plays an important role in modulating insulin secretion. Hepatic glucokinase helps to facilitate the uptake and conversion of glucose by acting as an insulin-sensitive determinant of hepatic glucose usage.
Gene Name:
GCK
Uniprot ID:
P35557
Molecular Weight:
52191.07 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Hydrolase activity
Specific Function:
Seems to trigger calcium oscillations in mammalian eggs. These oscillations serve as the essential trigger for egg activation and early development of the embryo (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GNPDA1
Uniprot ID:
P46926
Molecular Weight:
32668.29 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Vitamin binding
Specific Function:
Phosphorylase is an important allosteric enzyme in carbohydrate metabolism. Enzymes from different sources differ in their regulatory mechanisms and in their natural substrates. However, all known phosphorylases share catalytic and structural properties.
Gene Name:
PYGL
Uniprot ID:
P06737
Molecular Weight:
97147.82 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Mannokinase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
HK1
Uniprot ID:
P19367
Molecular Weight:
102485.1 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Type i interferon receptor binding
Specific Function:
Has antiviral, antibacterial and anticancer activities.
Gene Name:
IFNB1
Uniprot ID:
P01574
Molecular Weight:
22293.68 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Carbohydrate binding
Specific Function:
Contributes to the lung's defense against inhaled microorganisms, organic antigens and toxins. Interacts with compounds such as bacterial lipopolysaccharides, oligosaccharides and fatty acids and modulates leukocyte action in immune response. May participate in the extracellular reorganization or turnover of pulmonary surfactant. Binds strongly maltose residues and to a lesser extent other alpha-glucosyl moieties.
Gene Name:
SFTPD
Uniprot ID:
P35247
Molecular Weight:
37728.19 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Galactoside binding
Specific Function:
This protein binds beta-galactoside. Its physiological function is not yet known.
Gene Name:
LGALS2
Uniprot ID:
P05162
Molecular Weight:
14644.375 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
In the hair cortex, hair keratin intermediate filaments are embedded in an interfilamentous matrix, consisting of hair keratin-associated protein (KRTAP), which are essential for the formation of a rigid and resistant hair shaft through their extensive disulfide bond cross-linking with abundant cysteine residues of hair keratins. The matrix proteins include the high-sulfur and high-glycine-tyrosine keratins.
Gene Name:
KRTAP5-2
Uniprot ID:
Q701N4
Molecular Weight:
16270.68 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
In the hair cortex, hair keratin intermediate filaments are embedded in an interfilamentous matrix, consisting of hair keratin-associated protein (KRTAP), which are essential for the formation of a rigid and resistant hair shaft through their extensive disulfide bond cross-linking with abundant cysteine residues of hair keratins. The matrix proteins include the high-sulfur and high-glycine-tyrosine keratins.
Gene Name:
KRTAP5-3
Uniprot ID:
Q6L8H2
Molecular Weight:
22105.295 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General Function:
Carbohydrate binding
Specific Function:
Acts as an endocytic receptor mediating clathrin dependent endocytosis. Macrophage-restricted adhesion molecule that mediates sialic-acid dependent binding to lymphocytes, including granulocytes, monocytes, natural killer cells, B-cells and CD8 T-cells. Preferentially binds to alpha-2,3-linked sialic acid (By similarity). Binds to SPN/CD43 on T-cells (By similarity). May play a role in hemopoiesis.
Gene Name:
SIGLEC1
Uniprot ID:
Q9BZZ2
Molecular Weight:
182622.32 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Destroys radicals which are normally produced within the cells and which are toxic to biological systems.
Gene Name:
SOD1
Uniprot ID:
P00441
Molecular Weight:
15935.685 Da
References
  1. Takamiya R, Takahashi M, Myint T, Park YS, Miyazawa N, Endo T, Fujiwara N, Sakiyama H, Misonou Y, Miyamoto Y, Fujii J, Taniguchi N: Glycation proceeds faster in mutated Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutases related to familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. FASEB J. 2003 May;17(8):938-40. Epub 2003 Mar 5. [12626432 ]
General Function:
Peptidyl-cysteine s-nitrosylase activity
Specific Function:
Has both glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and nitrosylase activities, thereby playing a role in glycolysis and nuclear functions, respectively. Participates in nuclear events including transcription, RNA transport, DNA replication and apoptosis. Nuclear functions are probably due to the nitrosylase activity that mediates cysteine S-nitrosylation of nuclear target proteins such as SIRT1, HDAC2 and PRKDC. Modulates the organization and assembly of the cytoskeleton. Facilitates the CHP1-dependent microtubule and membrane associations through its ability to stimulate the binding of CHP1 to microtubules (By similarity). Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase is a key enzyme in glycolysis that catalyzes the first step of the pathway by converting D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P) into 3-phospho-D-glyceroyl phosphate. Component of the GAIT (gamma interferon-activated inhibitor of translation) complex which mediates interferon-gamma-induced transcript-selective translation inhibition in inflammation processes. Upon interferon-gamma treatment assembles into the GAIT complex which binds to stem loop-containing GAIT elements in the 3'-UTR of diverse inflammatory mRNAs (such as ceruplasmin) and suppresses their translation.
Gene Name:
GAPDH
Uniprot ID:
P04406
Molecular Weight:
36053.0 Da
General Function:
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function:
Involved in oxygen transport from the lung to the various peripheral tissues.
Gene Name:
HBA1
Uniprot ID:
P69905
Molecular Weight:
15257.405 Da
General Function:
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function:
Involved in oxygen transport from the lung to the various peripheral tissues.LVV-hemorphin-7 potentiates the activity of bradykinin, causing a decrease in blood pressure.Spinorphin: functions as an endogenous inhibitor of enkephalin-degrading enzymes such as DPP3, and as a selective antagonist of the P2RX3 receptor which is involved in pain signaling, these properties implicate it as a regulator of pain and inflammation.
Gene Name:
HBB
Uniprot ID:
P68871
Molecular Weight:
15998.34 Da
General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
PRKCA
Uniprot ID:
Q7Z727
Molecular Weight:
43185.135 Da
General Function:
Chloride ion binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
AMY2A
Uniprot ID:
P04746
Molecular Weight:
57706.51 Da
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Calcium-activated, phospholipid- and diacylglycerol (DAG)-dependent serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in various cellular processes such as regulation of the B-cell receptor (BCR) signalosome, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcription regulation, insulin signaling and endothelial cells proliferation. Plays a key role in B-cell activation by regulating BCR-induced NF-kappa-B activation. Mediates the activation of the canonical NF-kappa-B pathway (NFKB1) by direct phosphorylation of CARD11/CARMA1 at 'Ser-559', 'Ser-644' and 'Ser-652'. Phosphorylation induces CARD11/CARMA1 association with lipid rafts and recruitment of the BCL10-MALT1 complex as well as MAP3K7/TAK1, which then activates IKK complex, resulting in nuclear translocation and activation of NFKB1. Plays a direct role in the negative feedback regulation of the BCR signaling, by down-modulating BTK function via direct phosphorylation of BTK at 'Ser-180', which results in the alteration of BTK plasma membrane localization and in turn inhibition of BTK activity. Involved in apoptosis following oxidative damage: in case of oxidative conditions, specifically phosphorylates 'Ser-36' of isoform p66Shc of SHC1, leading to mitochondrial accumulation of p66Shc, where p66Shc acts as a reactive oxygen species producer. Acts as a coactivator of androgen receptor (ANDR)-dependent transcription, by being recruited to ANDR target genes and specifically mediating phosphorylation of 'Thr-6' of histone H3 (H3T6ph), a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional activation that prevents demethylation of histone H3 'Lys-4' (H3K4me) by LSD1/KDM1A. In insulin signaling, may function downstream of IRS1 in muscle cells and mediate insulin-dependent DNA synthesis through the RAF1-MAPK/ERK signaling cascade. May participate in the regulation of glucose transport in adipocytes by negatively modulating the insulin-stimulated translocation of the glucose transporter SLC2A4/GLUT4. Under high glucose in pancreatic beta-cells, is probably involved in the inhibition of the insulin gene transcription, via regulation of MYC expression. In endothelial cells, activation of PRKCB induces increased phosphorylation of RB1, increased VEGFA-induced cell proliferation, and inhibits PI3K/AKT-dependent nitric oxide synthase (NOS3/eNOS) regulation by insulin, which causes endothelial dysfunction. Also involved in triglyceride homeostasis (By similarity). Phosphorylates ATF2 which promotes cooperation between ATF2 and JUN, activating transcription.
Gene Name:
PRKCB
Uniprot ID:
P05771
Molecular Weight:
76868.45 Da
General Function:
Protein serine/threonine kinase activity
Specific Function:
Calcium-independent, phospholipid- and diacylglycerol (DAG)-dependent serine/threonine-protein kinase that plays contrasting roles in cell death and cell survival by functioning as a pro-apoptotic protein during DNA damage-induced apoptosis, but acting as an anti-apoptotic protein during cytokine receptor-initiated cell death, is involved in tumor suppression as well as survival of several cancers, is required for oxygen radical production by NADPH oxidase and acts as positive or negative regulator in platelet functional responses. Negatively regulates B cell proliferation and also has an important function in self-antigen induced B cell tolerance induction. Upon DNA damage, activates the promoter of the death-promoting transcription factor BCLAF1/Btf to trigger BCLAF1-mediated p53/TP53 gene transcription and apoptosis. In response to oxidative stress, interact with and activate CHUK/IKKA in the nucleus, causing the phosphorylation of p53/TP53. In the case of ER stress or DNA damage-induced apoptosis, can form a complex with the tyrosine-protein kinase ABL1 which trigger apoptosis independently of p53/TP53. In cytosol can trigger apoptosis by activating MAPK11 or MAPK14, inhibiting AKT1 and decreasing the level of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), whereas in nucleus induces apoptosis via the activation of MAPK8 or MAPK9. Upon ionizing radiation treatment, is required for the activation of the apoptosis regulators BAX and BAK, which trigger the mitochondrial cell death pathway. Can phosphorylate MCL1 and target it for degradation which is sufficient to trigger for BAX activation and apoptosis. Is required for the control of cell cycle progression both at G1/S and G2/M phases. Mediates phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced inhibition of cell cycle progression at G1/S phase by up-regulating the CDK inhibitor CDKN1A/p21 and inhibiting the cyclin CCNA2 promoter activity. In response to UV irradiation can phosphorylate CDK1, which is important for the G2/M DNA damage checkpoint activation. Can protect glioma cells from the apoptosis induced by TNFSF10/TRAIL, probably by inducing increased phosphorylation and subsequent activation of AKT1. Is highly expressed in a number of cancer cells and promotes cell survival and resistance against chemotherapeutic drugs by inducing cyclin D1 (CCND1) and hyperphosphorylation of RB1, and via several pro-survival pathways, including NF-kappa-B, AKT1 and MAPK1/3 (ERK1/2). Can also act as tumor suppressor upon mitogenic stimulation with PMA or TPA. In N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)-treated cells, is required for NCF1 (p47-phox) phosphorylation and activation of NADPH oxidase activity, and regulates TNF-elicited superoxide anion production in neutrophils, by direct phosphorylation and activation of NCF1 or indirectly through MAPK1/3 (ERK1/2) signaling pathways. May also play a role in the regulation of NADPH oxidase activity in eosinophil after stimulation with IL5, leukotriene B4 or PMA. In collagen-induced platelet aggregation, acts a negative regulator of filopodia formation and actin polymerization by interacting with and negatively regulating VASP phosphorylation. Downstream of PAR1, PAR4 and CD36/GP4 receptors, regulates differentially platelet dense granule secretion; acts as a positive regulator in PAR-mediated granule secretion, whereas it negatively regulates CD36/GP4-mediated granule release. Phosphorylates MUC1 in the C-terminal and regulates the interaction between MUC1 and beta-catenin. The catalytic subunit phosphorylates 14-3-3 proteins (YWHAB, YWHAZ and YWHAH) in a sphingosine-dependent fashion (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PRKCD
Uniprot ID:
Q05655
Molecular Weight:
77504.445 Da
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Calcium-activated, phospholipid- and diacylglycerol (DAG)-dependent serine/threonine-protein kinase that plays diverse roles in neuronal cells and eye tissues, such as regulation of the neuronal receptors GRIA4/GLUR4 and GRIN1/NMDAR1, modulation of receptors and neuronal functions related to sensitivity to opiates, pain and alcohol, mediation of synaptic function and cell survival after ischemia, and inhibition of gap junction activity after oxidative stress. Binds and phosphorylates GRIA4/GLUR4 glutamate receptor and regulates its function by increasing plasma membrane-associated GRIA4 expression. In primary cerebellar neurons treated with the agonist 3,5-dihyidroxyphenylglycine, functions downstream of the metabotropic glutamate receptor GRM5/MGLUR5 and phosphorylates GRIN1/NMDAR1 receptor which plays a key role in synaptic plasticity, synaptogenesis, excitotoxicity, memory acquisition and learning. May be involved in the regulation of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), but may be not necessary for the process of synaptic plasticity. May be involved in desensitization of mu-type opioid receptor-mediated G-protein activation in the spinal cord, and may be critical for the development and/or maintenance of morphine-induced reinforcing effects in the limbic forebrain. May modulate the functionality of mu-type-opioid receptors by participating in a signaling pathway which leads to the phosphorylation and degradation of opioid receptors. May also contributes to chronic morphine-induced changes in nociceptive processing. Plays a role in neuropathic pain mechanisms and contributes to the maintenance of the allodynia pain produced by peripheral inflammation. Plays an important role in initial sensitivity and tolerance to ethanol, by mediating the behavioral effects of ethanol as well as the effects of this drug on the GABA(A) receptors. During and after cerebral ischemia modulate neurotransmission and cell survival in synaptic membranes, and is involved in insulin-induced inhibition of necrosis, an important mechanism for minimizing ischemic injury. Required for the elimination of multiple climbing fibers during innervation of Purkinje cells in developing cerebellum. Is activated in lens epithelial cells upon hydrogen peroxide treatment, and phosphorylates connexin-43 (GJA1/CX43), resulting in disassembly of GJA1 gap junction plaques and inhibition of gap junction activity which could provide a protective effect against oxidative stress (By similarity). Phosphorylates p53/TP53 and promotes p53/TP53-dependent apoptosis in response to DNA damage. Involved in the phase resetting of the cerebral cortex circadian clock during temporally restricted feeding. Stabilizes the core clock component ARNTL/BMAL1 by interfering with its ubiquitination, thus suppressing its degradation, resulting in phase resetting of the cerebral cortex clock (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PRKCG
Uniprot ID:
P05129
Molecular Weight:
78447.23 Da
General Function:
Protein serine/threonine kinase activity
Specific Function:
Calcium- and diacylglycerol-independent serine/ threonine-protein kinase that plays a general protective role against apoptotic stimuli, is involved in NF-kappa-B activation, cell survival, differentiation and polarity, and contributes to the regulation of microtubule dynamics in the early secretory pathway. Is necessary for BCR-ABL oncogene-mediated resistance to apoptotic drug in leukemia cells, protecting leukemia cells against drug-induced apoptosis. In cultured neurons, prevents amyloid beta protein-induced apoptosis by interrupting cell death process at a very early step. In glioblastoma cells, may function downstream of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI(3)K) and PDPK1 in the promotion of cell survival by phosphorylating and inhibiting the pro-apoptotic factor BAD. Can form a protein complex in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells with PARD6A and ECT2 and regulate ECT2 oncogenic activity by phosphorylation, which in turn promotes transformed growth and invasion. In response to nerve growth factor (NGF), acts downstream of SRC to phosphorylate and activate IRAK1, allowing the subsequent activation of NF-kappa-B and neuronal cell survival. Functions in the organization of the apical domain in epithelial cells by phosphorylating EZR. This step is crucial for activation and normal distribution of EZR at the early stages of intestinal epithelial cell differentiation. Forms a protein complex with LLGL1 and PARD6B independently of PARD3 to regulate epithelial cell polarity. Plays a role in microtubule dynamics in the early secretory pathway through interaction with RAB2A and GAPDH and recruitment to vesicular tubular clusters (VTCs). In human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC), is activated by saturated fatty acids and mediates lipid-induced apoptosis.
Gene Name:
PRKCI
Uniprot ID:
P41743
Molecular Weight:
68261.855 Da