Record Information
Version2.0 (beta)
Creation Date2009-03-06 11:58:02 -0700
Update Date2014-09-10 14:09:17 -0600
Accession NumberT3D0074
Common NameZinc
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionA metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with anemia, short stature, hypogonadism, impaired wound healing, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
Compound Type
  • Inorganic Compound
  • Metal
  • Zinc Compound
  • Drug
Chemical Structure
  1. 30Zn
  2. Cinc
  3. Zinc
  4. Zincum
  5. Zink
  6. Zn
  7. Zn(ii)
  8. Zn2+
Chemical FormulaZn
Average Molecular Weight65.409 g/mol
Monoisotopic Weight63.929146578 g/mol
CAS Registry Number7440-66-6
IUPAC Namezinc
Traditional IUPAC Namezinc
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/Zn
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomInorganic Compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous Metal Compounds
ClassHomogeneous Transition Metal Compounds
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentHomogeneous Transition Metal Compounds
Alternative Parents
  • Inorganic Cations
  • Inorganic Cation
  • Homogeneous Transition Metal
External Descriptors
  • divalent metal cation(ChEBI)
  • monoatomic dication(ChEBI)
  • a cation(Cyc)
  • zinc cation(ChEBI)
Biological Properties
StatusDetected but not Quantified
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
AppearanceBluish-white metallic solid.
Experimental Properties
Melting Point419.5 C
Boiling Point908 C
SolubilityNot Available
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
physiological charge0ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count0ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count0ChemAxon
polar surface area0ChemAxon
rotatable bond count0ChemAxon
SpectraNot Available
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral (4) ; inhalation (4) ; dermal (113)
Mechanism of ToxicityExcessive zinc intake alters copper and iron absorption, most likely through competitive binding in intestinal mucosal cells. Stomach acid dissolves metallic zinc, producing zinc chloride, which is a corrosive product damaging the stomach lining. Metal fume fever is thought to be an immune response to inhaled zinc. (3, 4, 1)
MetabolismZinc enters the body through the lungs, skin, and gastrointestinal tract. Intestinal absorption of zinc is controlled by zinc carrier protein CRIP and metallothioneins. Zinc is widely distributed in tissues and tissues fluids, and concentrated in the liver, gastrointestinal tract, kidney, skin, lung, brain, heart, and pancreas. Zinc binds to carbonic anhydrase in erythrocytes, and to albumin, α2-macroglobulin, and amino acids in the the plasma. Albumin and amino acid bound zinc can diffuse across tissue membranes. Zinc is excreted in the urine and faeces. (4)
Toxicity ValuesLD50: 630 mg/kg (Oral, Rat) (2)
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)Not Available
Uses/SourcesZinc has many commercial uses as coatings to prevent rust, in dry cell batteries, and can be mixed with other metals to produce alloys such as brass and bronze. Zinc compounds are widely used in industry to make paint, rubber, dyes, wood preservatives, and ointments. (4)
Minimum Risk LevelIntermediate Oral: 0.3 mg/kg/day (6) Chronic Oral: 0.3 mg/kg/day (6)
Health EffectsChronic exposure to zinc causes anemia, atazia, lethargy, and decreases the level of HDL (good) cholesterol in the body. It is also believed to cause pancreatic and reproductive damages. Unbalanced levels of copper and zinc binding to Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase have been linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). (4)
SymptomsIngestion of large doses of zinc causes stomach cramps, nausea, and vomiting. Acute inhalation of large amounts of zinc causes metal fume fever, which is characterized by chills, fever, headache, weakness, dryness of the nose and throat, chest pain, and coughing. Dermal contact with zinc results in skin irritation. (4)
TreatmentZinc poisoning is treated symptomatically, often by administering fluids such as water or milk, or with gastric lavage. (4)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB01593
PubChem Compound ID23994
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider ID22430
UniProt IDNot Available
ChEBI ID30185
BioCyc IDZN%2b2
CTD IDD015032
Stitch IDZinc
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR ID6568
Wikipedia LinkZinc
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General References
  1. Vonk WI, Klomp LW: Role of transition metals in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Biochem Soc Trans. 2008 Dec;36(Pt 6):1322-8. doi: 10.1042/BST0361322. [19021549 ]
  2. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry (2003). 6th ed. Vol 1. Federal Republic of Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.
  3. Wikipedia. Zinc. Last Updated 24 March 2009. [Link]
  4. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2005). Toxicological profile for zinc. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  5. Wikipedia. Metallothionein. Last Updated 20 December 2008. [Link]
  6. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2001). Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs) for Hazardous Substances. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated Genes
GeneGene SymbolGene IDInteractionReference
Down-Regulated Genes
GeneGene SymbolGene IDInteractionReference


General function:
Involved in copper, zinc superoxide dismutase activity
Specific function:
Destroys radicals which are normally produced within the cells and which are toxic to biological systems
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
  1. Vonk WI, Klomp LW: Role of transition metals in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Biochem Soc Trans. 2008 Dec;36(Pt 6):1322-8. doi: 10.1042/BST0361322. [19021549 ]