Record Information
Version 1.0
Creation Date 2009-03-06 11:58:02 -0700
Update Date 2014-08-11 09:57:01 -0600
Accession Number T3D0074
Identification
Common Name Zinc
Description Zinc is a metallic element with the atomic number 30. In nature, it is principally found as the mineral sphalerite. Though excess zinc is harmful, it is an essential element for life as a cofactor for over 300 enzymes. Zinc has many commercial uses as coatings to prevent rust, in dry cell batteries, and can be mixed with other metals to produce alloys such as brass and bronze. Zinc compounds are widely used in industry to make paint, rubber, dyes, wood preservatives, and ointments. (L48, L49)
Compound Type
  • Inorganic Compound
  • Metal
  • Zinc Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. Abrasion ont
  2. Aveeno diaper rash cream
  3. Baza protect
  4. Bio statol (pour hommes)
  5. Blue powder
  6. C.I. Pigment black 16
  7. C.I. Pigment metal 6
  8. Canus li'l goat's zinc ointment
  9. Chelated Zinc
  10. Critic-aid skin paste
  11. DR. scholl's medicated foot powder
  12. Delaville
  13. Dermagran Ii Moisturiz.Spray-Liq
  14. Diaper-care
  15. Egozinc Ointment
  16. Egozinc Suppositories
  17. Egozinc Tab 220mg
  18. Emanay zinc dust
  19. Flavo-zinc lozenges
  20. Galzin
  21. Gerber diaper rash ointment
  22. Granular zinc
  23. Ihle's paste
  24. Infazinc Ont
  25. Jasad
  26. Johnson's diaper rash cream
  27. Lead refinery vacuum zinc
  28. Lozenges - zinc acetate
  29. Mega Zinc
  30. Men Formula
  31. Merrillite
  32. Micro ZN
  33. Oligostim Zinc
  34. Pasco
  35. Pate D'ihle Pst
  36. Penaten cream
  37. Phyto-Zinc
  38. Riva-Sol Ont
  39. Sandoz anuzinc
  40. Shaklee DR chewable tablets
  41. Sudocrem
  42. Viscopaste Pb7 Dressing
  43. Zinc cream
  44. Zinc dust
  45. Zinc formula
  46. Zinc gluconate
  47. Zinc gluconate tab
  48. Zinc ointment
  49. Zinc ointment BP
  50. Zinc oral spray
  51. Zinc oxide PWR
  52. Zinc oxide cream
  53. Zinc powder
  54. Zinc powder - zinc dust (pyrophoric)
  55. Zinc tally
  56. Zinc ashes
  57. Zinc powder or dust non-pyrophoric
  58. Zinc powder or dust pyrophoric
  59. Zincitrate
  60. Zincoderm Ointment
  61. Zincofax
  62. Dietary zinc
  63. Zinc cation
  64. ZINC ion
  65. Zinc, ion (zn2+)
  66. Zn(ii)
  67. Zn(2+)
  68. Zn2+
Chemical Formula Zn
Average Molecular Weight 65.409
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight 63.929146578
IUPAC Name
zinc(2+) ion
Traditional IUPAC Name
zinc, ion (zn2+)
CAS Registry Number 7440-66-6
SMILES
[Zn++]
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/Zn/q+2
InChI Key InChIKey=PTFCDOFLOPIGGS-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Kingdom Inorganic Compounds
Super Class Homogeneous Metal Compounds
Class Homogeneous Transition Metal Compounds
Sub Class Not Available
Direct Parent Homogeneous Transition Metal Compounds
Alternative Parents Not Available
Molecular Framework Acyclic Compounds
Substituents Not Available
External Descriptors
  • divalent metal cation(ChEBI)
  • monoatomic dication(ChEBI)
  • a cation(Cyc)
  • zinc cation(ChEBI)
Biological Properties
Status Unknown/Not Detected
Origin Not Available
Cellular Locations Not Available
Biofluid Locations Not Available
Tissue Locations Not Available
Pathways Not Available
Physical Properties
State Not Available
Appearance Bluish-white metallic solid.
Experimental Properties
Property Value
Melting Point 419.5 C
Boiling Point Not Available
Solubility Not Available
LogP Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP0.16ChemAxon
physiological charge2ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count0ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count0ChemAxon
polar surface area0ChemAxon
rotatable bond count0ChemAxon
refractivity0ChemAxon
polarizability1.78ChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra Not Available
Toxicity Profile
Route of Exposure Oral (L49) ; inhalation (L49) ; dermal (113)
Mechanism of Toxicity Excessive zinc intake alters copper and iron absorption, most likely through competitive binding in intestinal mucosal cells. Stomach acid dissolves metallic zinc, producing zinc chloride, which is a corrosive product damaging the stomach lining. Metal fume fever is thought to be an immune response to inhaled zinc. (L48, L49, A49)
Metabolism Zinc enters the body through the lungs, skin, and gastrointestinal tract. Intestinal absorption of zinc is controlled by zinc carrier protein CRIP and metallothioneins. Zinc is widely distributed in tissues and tissues fluids, and concentrated in the liver, gastrointestinal tract, kidney, skin, lung, brain, heart, and pancreas. Zinc binds to carbonic anhydrase in erythrocytes, and to albumin, α2-macroglobulin, and amino acids in the the plasma. Albumin and amino acid bound zinc can diffuse across tissue membranes. Zinc is excreted in the urine and faeces. (L49)
Toxicity Values LD50: 630 mg/kg (Oral, Rat) (T31)
Lethal Dose Not Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification) Not Available
Uses/Sources Zinc has many commercial uses as coatings to prevent rust, in dry cell batteries, and can be mixed with other metals to produce alloys such as brass and bronze. Zinc compounds are widely used in industry to make paint, rubber, dyes, wood preservatives, and ointments. (L49)
Minimum Risk Level Intermediate Oral: 0.3 mg/kg/day (L134) Chronic Oral: 0.3 mg/kg/day (L134)
Health Effects Chronic exposure to zinc causes anemia, atazia, lethargy, and decreases the level of HDL (good) cholesterol in the body. It is also believed to cause pancreatic and reproductive damages. Unbalanced levels of copper and zinc binding to Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase have been linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). (L49)
Symptoms Ingestion of large doses of zinc causes stomach cramps, nausea, and vomiting. Acute inhalation of large amounts of zinc causes metal fume fever, which is characterized by chills, fever, headache, weakness, dryness of the nose and throat, chest pain, and coughing. Dermal contact with zinc results in skin irritation. (L49)
Treatment Zinc poisoning is treated symptomatically, often by administering fluids such as water or milk, or with gastric lavage. (L49)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank ID Not Available
HMDB ID Not Available
PubChem Compound ID 23994
ChEMBL ID Not Available
ChemSpider ID Not Available
KEGG ID C00038
UniProt ID Not Available
OMIM ID 103600 110900 113705 121300 125270 137164 138750 150330 163729 165240 180200 184757 188840 190080 191170 191290 194470 300414 300473 314998 600140 600310 600871 600993 601487 601757 601758 602432 602575 602630 603693 604386 604485 606829 607035 607102 607818 608072 608118
ChEBI ID 30185
BioCyc ID ZN%2b2
CTD ID D015032
Stitch ID Zinc
PDB ID Not Available
ACToR ID 6568
Wikipedia Link Zinc
References
General References
  • A49 — Vonk WI, Klomp LW: Role of transition metals in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Biochem Soc Trans. 2008 Dec;36(Pt 6):1322-8. doi: 10.1042/BST0361322. [19021549 ]
  • T31 — Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry (2003). 6th ed. Vol 1. Federal Republic of Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.
  • L48 — Wikipedia. Zinc. Last Updated 24 March 2009. [Link]
  • L49 — ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2005). Toxicological profile for zinc. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  • L92 — Wikipedia. Metallothionein. Last Updated 20 December 2008. [Link]
  • L134 — ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2001). Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs) for Hazardous Substances. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]

Targets

1. Superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn]

Destroys radicals which are normally produced within the cells and which are toxic to biological systems.

Unbalanced levels of copper and zinc binding to Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase has been linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). (A49)
UniProt ID: P00441
Gene: SOD1
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • A49 — Vonk WI, Klomp LW: Role of transition metals in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Biochem Soc Trans. 2008 Dec;36(Pt 6):1322-8. doi: 10.1042/BST0361322. [19021549 ]