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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-06-01 22:04:25 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:22:50 UTC
Accession NumberT3D0799
Identification
Common NameNicotine
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionNicotine is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. It is a highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke. [PubChem]Nicotine is a stimulant drug that acts as an agonist at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. These are ionotropic receptors composed up of five homomeric or heteromeric subunits. In the brain, nicotine binds to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on dopaminergic neurons in the cortico-limbic pathways. This causes the channel to open and allow conductance of multiple cations including sodium, calcium, and potassium. This leads to depolarization, which activates voltage-gated calcium channels and allows more calcium to enter the axon terminal. Calcium stimulates vesicle trafficking towards the plasma membrane and the release of dopamine into the synapse. Dopamine binding to its receptors is responsible the euphoric and addictive properties of nicotine.Nicotine also binds to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on the chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla. Binding opens the ion channel allowing influx of sodium, causing depolarization of the cell, which activates voltage-gated calcium channels. Calcium triggers the release of epinephrine from intracellular vesicles into the bloodstream, which causes vasoconstriction, increased blood pressure, increased heart rate, and increased blood sugar.
Compound Type
  • Amine
  • Anti-Craving Agent
  • Appetite Depressant
  • Autonomic Agent
  • Central Nervous System Agent
  • Drug
  • Food Toxin
  • Ganglionic Stimulant
  • Household Toxin
  • Insecticide
  • Metabolite
  • Natural Compound
  • Nicotinic Agonist
  • Organic Compound
  • Pesticide
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
(+-)-3-(1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)pyridine
(+-)-Nicotine
(R,S)-nicotine
(RS)-nicotine
(±)-Nicotine
Habitrol
L-Nicotine
Nicoderm
Nicoderm CQ
Nicorette
Nicotin
Nicotine Alkaloid
Nicotrol
Nikotin
Chemical FormulaC10H14N2
Average Molecular Mass162.232 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass162.116 g/mol
CAS Registry Number54-11-5
IUPAC Name3-(1-methylpyrrolidin-2-yl)pyridine
Traditional Namenicotine
SMILESCN1CCCC1C1=CN=CC=C1
InChI IdentifierInChI=1/C10H14N2/c1-12-7-3-5-10(12)9-4-2-6-11-8-9/h2,4,6,8,10H,3,5,7H2,1H3
InChI KeyInChIKey=SNICXCGAKADSCV-UHFFFAOYNA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as pyrrolidinylpyridines. These are compounds containing a pyrrolidinylpyridine ring system, which consists of a pyrrolidine ring linked to a pyridine ring.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassPyridines and derivatives
Sub ClassPyrrolidinylpyridines
Direct ParentPyrrolidinylpyridines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Pyrrolidinylpyridine
  • Alkaloid or derivatives
  • Aralkylamine
  • N-alkylpyrrolidine
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Pyrrolidine
  • Tertiary aliphatic amine
  • Tertiary amine
  • Azacycle
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateLiquid
AppearanceNot Available
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point-79°C
Boiling Point247°C
Solubility1E+006 mg/L
LogP1.17
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility93.3 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0.87ALOGPS
logP1.16ChemAxon
logS-0.24ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)8.86ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area16.13 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity49.66 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability18.62 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSsplash10-001i-7900000000-a874f46eadd0eba440d0View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-Bsplash10-001i-9800000000-e2da519a4fcd1232adadView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - CI-Bsplash10-03di-1900000000-857425bc16c796bf0300View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , positivesplash10-03di-3900000000-e16953a6ae58e6dbf414View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-03di-0900000000-bf73c660c9fef052a3e2View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-03di-1900000000-317ad58e8bc4c3092420View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-053u-9400000000-ea4895202e26a55d8a9bView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-03di-0900000000-ed813017157d07798ea2View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-03di-1900000000-02ba66ba693d048f19abView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9400000000-442e757e1da476d883afView in MoNA
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral (10) ; Inhalation (10) Absorption of nicotine through the buccal mucosa is relatively slow and the high and rapid rise followed by the decline in nicotine arterial plasma concentrations seen with cigarette smoking are not achieved with the inhaler. About 10% of absorbed nicotine is excreted unchanged in urine.
Mechanism of ToxicityNicotine is a stimulant drug that acts as an agonist at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. These are ionotropic receptors composed up of five homomeric or heteromeric subunits. In the brain, nicotine binds to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on dopaminergic neurons in the cortico-limbic pathways. This causes the channel to open and allow conductance of multiple cations including sodium, calcium, and potassium. This leads to depolarization, which activates voltage-gated calcium channels and allows more calcium to enter the axon terminal. Calcium stimulates vesicle trafficking towards the plasma membrane and the release of dopamine into the synapse. Dopamine binding to its receptors is responsible the euphoric and addictive properties of nicotine. Nicotine also binds to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on the chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla. Binding opens the ion channel allowing influx of sodium, causing depolarization of the cell, which activates voltage-gated calcium channels. Calcium triggers the release of epinephrine from intracellular vesicles into the bloodstream, which causes vasoconstriction, increased blood pressure, increased heart rate, and increased blood sugar.
MetabolismAs nicotine enters the body, it is distributed quickly through the bloodstream and can cross the blood-brain barrier. On average it takes about seven seconds for the substance to reach the brain when inhaled. The half life of nicotine in the body is around two hours. Nicotine is metabolized in the liver by cytochrome P450 enzymes (mostly CYP2A6, and also by CYP2B6). A major metabolite is cotinine. Other primary metabolites include nicotine N'-oxide, nornicotine, nicotine isomethonium ion, 2-hydroxynicotine and nicotine glucuronide. (10) Route of Elimination: About 10% of the nicotine absorbed is excreted unchanged in the urine. Half Life: Cotinine has a half life of 15-20 hours, while nicotine has a half life of 1-3 hours
Toxicity ValuesLD50: 140 mg/kg (Dermal, Rat) LD50: 25 mg/kg (Subcutaneous, Rat) LD50: 5900 ug/kg (Intraperitoneal, Mouse) LD50: 2.8 mg/kg (Intravenous, Rat) (8) LD50: 24 mg/kg (Oral, Mouse) (6)
Lethal Dose40 to 60 mg (<1 mg/kg) for an adult human. (9)
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesNicotine is highly toxic alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants (Solanaceae). (10) NICOTROL Inhaler is indicated as an aid to smoking cessation for the relief of nicotine withdrawal symptoms. NICOTROL Inhaler therapy is recommended for use as part of a comprehensive behavioral smoking cessation program. It is used for the relief of nicotine withdrawal symptoms and as an aid to smoking cessation.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsNicotine has mood-altering effects that may include relaxation, sharpness, calmness, and alertness. It may act as a stimulant or sedative/pain killer, depending on the dosage. (10)
SymptomsSymptoms of overdose include nausea, abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, diaphoresis, flushing, dizziness, disturbed hearing and vision, confusion, weakness, palpitations, altered respiration and hypotension.
TreatmentOther supportive measures include diazepam or barbiturates for seizures, atropine for excessive bronchial secretions or diarrhea, respiratory support for respiratory failure, and vigorous fluid support for hypotension and cardiovascular collapse. (14)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB00184
HMDB IDHMDB14330
PubChem Compound ID942
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL3
ChemSpider ID917
KEGG IDC00745
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID18723
BioCyc IDNICOTINE
CTD IDD009538
Stitch IDNicotine
PDB IDNCT
ACToR ID951
Wikipedia LinkNicotine
References
Synthesis Reference

Charles G. Chavdarian, Edward B. Sanders, “Process for the preparation of optically active nicotine analogs.” U.S. Patent US4321387, issued September, 1959.

MSDSLink
General References
  1. Nolley EP, Kelley BM: Adolescent reward system perseveration due to nicotine: studies with methylphenidate. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2007 Jan-Feb;29(1):47-56. Epub 2006 Oct 4. [17129706 ]
  2. de Leon J, Tracy J, McCann E, McGrory A, Diaz FJ: Schizophrenia and tobacco smoking: a replication study in another US psychiatric hospital. Schizophr Res. 2002 Jul 1;56(1-2):55-65. [12084420 ]
  3. de Leon J, Dadvand M, Canuso C, White AO, Stanilla JK, Simpson GM: Schizophrenia and smoking: an epidemiological survey in a state hospital. Am J Psychiatry. 1995 Mar;152(3):453-5. [7864277 ]
  4. Aguilar MC, Gurpegui M, Diaz FJ, de Leon J: Nicotine dependence and symptoms in schizophrenia: naturalistic study of complex interactions. Br J Psychiatry. 2005 Mar;186:215-21. [15738502 ]
  5. Lewis RJ (1996). Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 9th ed. Volumes 1-3. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
  6. Hayes WJ Jr. and Laws ER Jr. (eds) (1991). Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology. Volume 3. Classes of Pesticides. New York, NY: Academic Press, Inc.
  7. Gossel TA and Bricker JD (1994). Principles of Clinical Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Raven Press, Ltd.
  8. Krieger, R (2001). Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology. Volume 2, 2nd ed. San Diego, California: Academic Press.
  9. Rumack BH (2009). POISINDEX(R) Information System. Englewood, CO: Micromedex, Inc. CCIS Volume 141, edition expires Aug, 2009.
  10. Wikipedia. Nicotine. Last Updated 29 May 2009. [Link]
  11. Alomone Labs (2003). Safety and Data Information for Tetrodotoxin. [Link]
  12. Drugs.com [Link]
  13. RxList: The Internet Drug Index (2009). [Link]
  14. RxList: The Internet Drug Index (2009). [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated Genes
GeneGene SymbolGene IDInteractionChromosomeDetails
Down-Regulated Genes
GeneGene SymbolGene IDInteractionChromosomeDetails

Targets

General Function:
Drug binding
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name:
CHRNA2
Uniprot ID:
Q15822
Molecular Weight:
59764.82 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory9.9 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50004108
AC500.62 uMNVS_LGIC_hNNR_NBungSensNovascreen
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Sullivan PF, Neale BM, van den Oord E, Miles MF, Neale MC, Bulik CM, Joyce PR, Straub RE, Kendler KS: Candidate genes for nicotine dependence via linkage, epistasis, and bioinformatics. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2004 Apr 1;126B(1):23-36. [15048644 ]
  4. Stauderman KA, Mahaffy LS, Akong M, Velicelebi G, Chavez-Noriega LE, Crona JH, Johnson EC, Elliott KJ, Gillespie A, Reid RT, Adams P, Harpold MM, Corey-Naeve J: Characterization of human recombinant neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit combinations alpha2beta4, alpha3beta4 and alpha4beta4 stably expressed in HEK293 cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998 Feb;284(2):777-89. [9454827 ]
  5. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
  6. Alomone Labs (2003). Safety and Data Information for Tetrodotoxin. [Link]
General Function:
Extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Binds to acetylcholine. Modulates neuronal synaptic transmission.
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
P58154
Molecular Weight:
26061.08 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Amiri S, Sansom MS, Biggin PC: Molecular dynamics studies of AChBP with nicotine and carbamylcholine: the role of water in the binding pocket. Protein Eng Des Sel. 2007 Jul;20(7):353-9. Epub 2007 Jun 26. [17595341 ]
  4. Celie PH, van Rossum-Fikkert SE, van Dijk WJ, Brejc K, Smit AB, Sixma TK: Nicotine and carbamylcholine binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors as studied in AChBP crystal structures. Neuron. 2004 Mar 25;41(6):907-14. [15046723 ]
  5. Arnaud V, Berthelot M, Le Questel JY: Hydrogen-bond accepting strength of protonated nicotine. J Phys Chem A. 2005 May 5;109(17):3767-70. [16833690 ]
  6. Alomone Labs (2003). Safety and Data Information for Tetrodotoxin. [Link]
General Function:
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane permeable to sodium ions.
Gene Name:
CHRNA4
Uniprot ID:
P43681
Molecular Weight:
69956.47 Da
References
  1. Ehringer MA, Clegg HV, Collins AC, Corley RP, Crowley T, Hewitt JK, Hopfer CJ, Krauter K, Lessem J, Rhee SH, Schlaepfer I, Smolen A, Stallings MC, Young SE, Zeiger JS: Association of the neuronal nicotinic receptor beta2 subunit gene (CHRNB2) with subjective responses to alcohol and nicotine. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2007 Jul 5;144B(5):596-604. [17226798 ]
  2. De Luca V, Voineskos S, Wong G, Kennedy JL: Genetic interaction between alpha4 and beta2 subunits of high affinity nicotinic receptor: analysis in schizophrenia. Exp Brain Res. 2006 Sep;174(2):292-6. Epub 2006 Apr 25. [16636791 ]
  3. Espeseth T, Endestad T, Rootwelt H, Reinvang I: Nicotine receptor gene CHRNA4 modulates early event-related potentials in auditory and visual oddball target detection tasks. Neuroscience. 2007 Jul 29;147(4):974-85. Epub 2007 Jun 27. [17590520 ]
  4. Winterer G, Musso F, Konrad A, Vucurevic G, Stoeter P, Sander T, Gallinat J: Association of attentional network function with exon 5 variations of the CHRNA4 gene. Hum Mol Genet. 2007 Sep 15;16(18):2165-74. Epub 2007 Jul 5. [17613539 ]
  5. Klaassen A, Glykys J, Maguire J, Labarca C, Mody I, Boulter J: Seizures and enhanced cortical GABAergic inhibition in two mouse models of human autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Dec 12;103(50):19152-7. Epub 2006 Dec 4. [17146052 ]
  6. Alomone Labs (2003). Safety and Data Information for Tetrodotoxin. [Link]
General Function:
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane. The channel is blocked by alpha-bungarotoxin.
Gene Name:
CHRNA7
Uniprot ID:
P36544
Molecular Weight:
56448.925 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory2 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50004108
References
  1. Mexal S, Jenkins PM, Lautner MA, Iacob E, Crouch EL, Stitzel JA: alpha7 nicotinic receptor gene promoter polymorphisms in inbred mice affect expression in a cell type-specific fashion. J Biol Chem. 2007 May 4;282(18):13220-7. Epub 2007 Mar 14. [17360707 ]
  2. Olincy A, Harris JG, Johnson LL, Pender V, Kongs S, Allensworth D, Ellis J, Zerbe GO, Leonard S, Stevens KE, Stevens JO, Martin L, Adler LE, Soti F, Kem WR, Freedman R: Proof-of-concept trial of an alpha7 nicotinic agonist in schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2006 Jun;63(6):630-8. [16754836 ]
  3. Sullivan JP, Donnelly-Roberts D, Briggs CA, Anderson DJ, Gopalakrishnan M, Piattoni-Kaplan M, Campbell JE, McKenna DG, Molinari E, Hettinger AM, Garvey DS, Wasicak JT, Holladay MW, Williams M, Arneric SP: A-85380 [3-(2(S)-azetidinylmethoxy) pyridine]: in vitro pharmacological properties of a novel, high affinity alpha 4 beta 2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ligand. Neuropharmacology. 1996 Jun;35(6):725-34. [8887981 ]
  4. Zhao L, Kuo YP, George AA, Peng JH, Purandare MS, Schroeder KM, Lukas RJ, Wu J: Functional properties of homomeric, human alpha 7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors heterologously expressed in the SH-EP1 human epithelial cell line. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Jun;305(3):1132-41. Epub 2003 Mar 6. [12626641 ]
  5. Alomone Labs (2003). Safety and Data Information for Tetrodotoxin. [Link]
General Function:
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name:
CHRNA3
Uniprot ID:
P32297
Molecular Weight:
57479.54 Da
References
  1. Mansvelder HD, Mertz M, Role LW: Nicotinic modulation of synaptic transmission and plasticity in cortico-limbic circuits. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2009 Jun;20(4):432-40. doi: 10.1016/j.semcdb.2009.01.007. Epub 2009 Jan 22. [19560048 ]
  2. Narahashi T, Fenster CP, Quick MW, Lester RA, Marszalec W, Aistrup GL, Sattelle DB, Martin BR, Levin ED: Symposium overview: mechanism of action of nicotine on neuronal acetylcholine receptors, from molecule to behavior. Toxicol Sci. 2000 Oct;57(2):193-202. [11006350 ]
  3. Jackson KJ, Marks MJ, Vann RE, Chen X, Gamage TF, Warner JA, Damaj MI: Role of alpha5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in pharmacological and behavioral effects of nicotine in mice. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2010 Jul;334(1):137-46. doi: 10.1124/jpet.110.165738. Epub 2010 Apr 16. [20400469 ]
  4. Zaniewska M, Przegalinski E, Filip M: Nicotine dependence - human and animal studies, current pharmacotherapies and future perspectives. Pharmacol Rep. 2009 Nov-Dec;61(6):957-65. [20081230 ]
General Function:
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name:
CHRNA5
Uniprot ID:
P30532
Molecular Weight:
53053.965 Da
References
  1. Mansvelder HD, Mertz M, Role LW: Nicotinic modulation of synaptic transmission and plasticity in cortico-limbic circuits. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2009 Jun;20(4):432-40. doi: 10.1016/j.semcdb.2009.01.007. Epub 2009 Jan 22. [19560048 ]
  2. Narahashi T, Fenster CP, Quick MW, Lester RA, Marszalec W, Aistrup GL, Sattelle DB, Martin BR, Levin ED: Symposium overview: mechanism of action of nicotine on neuronal acetylcholine receptors, from molecule to behavior. Toxicol Sci. 2000 Oct;57(2):193-202. [11006350 ]
  3. Jackson KJ, Marks MJ, Vann RE, Chen X, Gamage TF, Warner JA, Damaj MI: Role of alpha5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in pharmacological and behavioral effects of nicotine in mice. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2010 Jul;334(1):137-46. doi: 10.1124/jpet.110.165738. Epub 2010 Apr 16. [20400469 ]
  4. Zaniewska M, Przegalinski E, Filip M: Nicotine dependence - human and animal studies, current pharmacotherapies and future perspectives. Pharmacol Rep. 2009 Nov-Dec;61(6):957-65. [20081230 ]
General Function:
Acetylcholine-activated cation-selective channel activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name:
CHRNA6
Uniprot ID:
Q15825
Molecular Weight:
56897.745 Da
References
  1. Mansvelder HD, Mertz M, Role LW: Nicotinic modulation of synaptic transmission and plasticity in cortico-limbic circuits. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2009 Jun;20(4):432-40. doi: 10.1016/j.semcdb.2009.01.007. Epub 2009 Jan 22. [19560048 ]
  2. Narahashi T, Fenster CP, Quick MW, Lester RA, Marszalec W, Aistrup GL, Sattelle DB, Martin BR, Levin ED: Symposium overview: mechanism of action of nicotine on neuronal acetylcholine receptors, from molecule to behavior. Toxicol Sci. 2000 Oct;57(2):193-202. [11006350 ]
  3. Jackson KJ, Marks MJ, Vann RE, Chen X, Gamage TF, Warner JA, Damaj MI: Role of alpha5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in pharmacological and behavioral effects of nicotine in mice. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2010 Jul;334(1):137-46. doi: 10.1124/jpet.110.165738. Epub 2010 Apr 16. [20400469 ]
  4. Zaniewska M, Przegalinski E, Filip M: Nicotine dependence - human and animal studies, current pharmacotherapies and future perspectives. Pharmacol Rep. 2009 Nov-Dec;61(6):957-65. [20081230 ]
General Function:
Drug binding
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name:
CHRNB3
Uniprot ID:
Q05901
Molecular Weight:
52728.215 Da
References
  1. Mansvelder HD, Mertz M, Role LW: Nicotinic modulation of synaptic transmission and plasticity in cortico-limbic circuits. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2009 Jun;20(4):432-40. doi: 10.1016/j.semcdb.2009.01.007. Epub 2009 Jan 22. [19560048 ]
  2. Narahashi T, Fenster CP, Quick MW, Lester RA, Marszalec W, Aistrup GL, Sattelle DB, Martin BR, Levin ED: Symposium overview: mechanism of action of nicotine on neuronal acetylcholine receptors, from molecule to behavior. Toxicol Sci. 2000 Oct;57(2):193-202. [11006350 ]
  3. Jackson KJ, Marks MJ, Vann RE, Chen X, Gamage TF, Warner JA, Damaj MI: Role of alpha5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in pharmacological and behavioral effects of nicotine in mice. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2010 Jul;334(1):137-46. doi: 10.1124/jpet.110.165738. Epub 2010 Apr 16. [20400469 ]
  4. Zaniewska M, Przegalinski E, Filip M: Nicotine dependence - human and animal studies, current pharmacotherapies and future perspectives. Pharmacol Rep. 2009 Nov-Dec;61(6):957-65. [20081230 ]
General Function:
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name:
CHRNB4
Uniprot ID:
P30926
Molecular Weight:
56378.985 Da
References
  1. Mansvelder HD, Mertz M, Role LW: Nicotinic modulation of synaptic transmission and plasticity in cortico-limbic circuits. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2009 Jun;20(4):432-40. doi: 10.1016/j.semcdb.2009.01.007. Epub 2009 Jan 22. [19560048 ]
  2. Narahashi T, Fenster CP, Quick MW, Lester RA, Marszalec W, Aistrup GL, Sattelle DB, Martin BR, Levin ED: Symposium overview: mechanism of action of nicotine on neuronal acetylcholine receptors, from molecule to behavior. Toxicol Sci. 2000 Oct;57(2):193-202. [11006350 ]
  3. Jackson KJ, Marks MJ, Vann RE, Chen X, Gamage TF, Warner JA, Damaj MI: Role of alpha5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in pharmacological and behavioral effects of nicotine in mice. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2010 Jul;334(1):137-46. doi: 10.1124/jpet.110.165738. Epub 2010 Apr 16. [20400469 ]
  4. Zaniewska M, Przegalinski E, Filip M: Nicotine dependence - human and animal studies, current pharmacotherapies and future perspectives. Pharmacol Rep. 2009 Nov-Dec;61(6):957-65. [20081230 ]
General Function:
Group ii metabotropic glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for glutamate. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors, such as adenylate cyclase. Signaling inhibits adenylate cyclase activity. May mediate suppression of neurotransmission or may be involved in synaptogenesis or synaptic stabilization.
Gene Name:
GRM2
Uniprot ID:
Q14416
Molecular Weight:
95566.715 Da
References
  1. Liechti ME, Markou A: Interactive effects of the mGlu5 receptor antagonist MPEP and the mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist LY341495 on nicotine self-administration and reward deficits associated with nicotine withdrawal in rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007 Jan 12;554(2-3):164-74. Epub 2006 Oct 17. [17113075 ]
  2. Liechti ME, Markou A: Metabotropic glutamate 2/3 receptor activation induced reward deficits but did not aggravate brain reward deficits associated with spontaneous nicotine withdrawal in rats. Biochem Pharmacol. 2007 Oct 15;74(8):1299-307. Epub 2007 May 29. [17601493 ]
  3. Alomone Labs (2003). Safety and Data Information for Tetrodotoxin. [Link]
General Function:
Receptor binding
Specific Function:
Ionotropic receptor with a probable role in the modulation of auditory stimuli. Agonist binding may induce an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane. The channel is permeable to a range of divalent cations including calcium, the influx of which may activate a potassium current which hyperpolarizes the cell membrane. In the ear, this may lead to a reduction in basilar membrane motion, altering the activity of auditory nerve fibers and reducing the range of dynamic hearing. This may protect against acoustic trauma.
Gene Name:
CHRNA10
Uniprot ID:
Q9GZZ6
Molecular Weight:
49704.295 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Alomone Labs (2003). Safety and Data Information for Tetrodotoxin. [Link]
General Function:
Calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Ionotropic receptor with a probable role in the modulation of auditory stimuli. Agonist binding induces a conformation change that leads to the opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane (PubMed:11752216, PubMed:25282151). The channel is permeable to a range of divalent cations including calcium, the influx of which may activate a potassium current which hyperpolarizes the cell membrane (PubMed:11752216, PubMed:25282151). In the ear, this may lead to a reduction in basilar membrane motion, altering the activity of auditory nerve fibers and reducing the range of dynamic hearing. This may protect against acoustic trauma. May also regulate keratinocyte adhesion (PubMed:11021840).
Gene Name:
CHRNA9
Uniprot ID:
Q9UGM1
Molecular Weight:
54806.63 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Alomone Labs (2003). Safety and Data Information for Tetrodotoxin. [Link]
General Function:
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane permeable to sodiun ions.
Gene Name:
CHRNB2
Uniprot ID:
P17787
Molecular Weight:
57018.575 Da
References
  1. Ehringer MA, Clegg HV, Collins AC, Corley RP, Crowley T, Hewitt JK, Hopfer CJ, Krauter K, Lessem J, Rhee SH, Schlaepfer I, Smolen A, Stallings MC, Young SE, Zeiger JS: Association of the neuronal nicotinic receptor beta2 subunit gene (CHRNB2) with subjective responses to alcohol and nicotine. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2007 Jul 5;144B(5):596-604. [17226798 ]
  2. De Luca V, Voineskos S, Wong G, Kennedy JL: Genetic interaction between alpha4 and beta2 subunits of high affinity nicotinic receptor: analysis in schizophrenia. Exp Brain Res. 2006 Sep;174(2):292-6. Epub 2006 Apr 25. [16636791 ]
  3. Alomone Labs (2003). Safety and Data Information for Tetrodotoxin. [Link]
General Function:
Group ii metabotropic glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for glutamate. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors. Signaling inhibits adenylate cyclase activity.
Gene Name:
GRM3
Uniprot ID:
Q14832
Molecular Weight:
98878.05 Da
References
  1. Coyle JT: Substance use disorders and Schizophrenia: a question of shared glutamatergic mechanisms. Neurotox Res. 2006 Dec;10(3-4):221-33. [17197372 ]
  2. Alomone Labs (2003). Safety and Data Information for Tetrodotoxin. [Link]
General Function:
Ion channel activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name:
CHRNA1
Uniprot ID:
P02708
Molecular Weight:
54545.235 Da
References
  1. Alomone Labs (2003). Safety and Data Information for Tetrodotoxin. [Link]
General Function:
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name:
CHRNB1
Uniprot ID:
P11230
Molecular Weight:
56697.9 Da
References
  1. Alomone Labs (2003). Safety and Data Information for Tetrodotoxin. [Link]
General Function:
Acetylcholine-activated cation-selective channel activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name:
CHRND
Uniprot ID:
Q07001
Molecular Weight:
58894.55 Da
References
  1. Alomone Labs (2003). Safety and Data Information for Tetrodotoxin. [Link]
General Function:
Cation transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name:
CHRNE
Uniprot ID:
Q04844
Molecular Weight:
54696.54 Da
References
  1. Alomone Labs (2003). Safety and Data Information for Tetrodotoxin. [Link]
General Function:
Channel activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name:
CHRNG
Uniprot ID:
P07510
Molecular Weight:
57882.8 Da
References
  1. Alomone Labs (2003). Safety and Data Information for Tetrodotoxin. [Link]
General Function:
Choline o-acetyltransferase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the reversible synthesis of acetylcholine (ACh) from acetyl CoA and choline at cholinergic synapses.
Gene Name:
CHAT
Uniprot ID:
P28329
Molecular Weight:
82535.025 Da
References
  1. FAHMY AR, RYMAN BE, WALSH EO: The inhibition of choline acetylase by nicotine. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1954 Sep;6(9):607-9. [13192619 ]
General Function:
Oxygen binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the formation of aromatic C18 estrogens from C19 androgens.
Gene Name:
CYP19A1
Uniprot ID:
P11511
Molecular Weight:
57882.48 Da
References
  1. Barbieri RL, Gochberg J, Ryan KJ: Nicotine, cotinine, and anabasine inhibit aromatase in human trophoblast in vitro. J Clin Invest. 1986 Jun;77(6):1727-33. [3711333 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Binds to an ERR-alpha response element (ERRE) containing a single consensus half-site, 5'-TNAAGGTCA-3'. Can bind to the medium-chain acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase (MCAD) response element NRRE-1 and may act as an important regulator of MCAD promoter. Binds to the C1 region of the lactoferrin gene promoter. Requires dimerization and the coactivator, PGC-1A, for full activity. The ERRalpha/PGC1alpha complex is a regulator of energy metabolism. Induces the expression of PERM1 in the skeletal muscle.
Gene Name:
ESRRA
Uniprot ID:
P11474
Molecular Weight:
45509.11 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC505.07 uMATG_ERRa_TRANSAttagene
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]