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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-06-18 21:54:34 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:23:07 UTC
Accession NumberT3D1090
Identification
Common NamePropachlor
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionPropachlor is widely used as a selective herbicide worldwide in corn, soybean and other crop cultures. Elevated concentrations of these herbicides and their degradation products have been detected in surface and groundwater. Propachlor is a pre-emergence herbicide, effective against annual grasses and certain broad-leaved weeds. It is a compound of the family of chloroacetanilides. (1, 8)
Compound Type
  • Amide
  • Amine
  • Aromatic Hydrocarbon
  • Chloroacetanilide
  • Food Toxin
  • Household Toxin
  • Lachrymator
  • Organic Compound
  • Organochloride
  • Pesticide
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
2-Chloro-N-(1-methylethyl)-N-phenylacetamide
2-Chloro-N-isopropyl-N-phenylacetamide
2-Chloro-N-isopropylacetanilide
a-Chloro-n-isopropylacetanilide
Acilid
Albras propachlor
Albrass
alpha-chloro-N-Isopropylacetanilid
Alpha-chloro-n-isopropylacetanilide
Amber
Atlas orange
Bexton
Bexton 4L
Caswell No. 194
Chloressigsaeure-N-isopropylanilid
Chloro-n-isopropylacetanilide
Croptex
Isopropyl-2-chloroacetanilide
Kartex a
N-Isopropyl-2-chloroacetanilide
N-isopropyl-a-chloroacetanilide
N-isopropyl-alpha-chloroacetanilide
N-Methylethyl-N-chloroacidobenzene
Nitacid
Niticid
Portman propachlor 50FL
Prolex
Prolexpropaclor
Propachlor and atrazine
Propachlore
Ramrod
Ramrod 65
Ramrod flowable
Ramrod-atrazine
Satecid
Sentinel
Tripart granular
Tripart sentinel
Chemical FormulaC11H14ClNO
Average Molecular Mass211.688 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass211.076 g/mol
CAS Registry Number1918-16-7
IUPAC Name2-chloro-N-phenyl-N-(propan-2-yl)acetamide
Traditional Namepropachlor
SMILESCC(C)N(C(=O)CCl)C1=CC=CC=C1
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C11H14ClNO/c1-9(2)13(11(14)8-12)10-6-4-3-5-7-10/h3-7,9H,8H2,1-2H3
InChI KeyInChIKey=MFOUDYKPLGXPGO-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as anilides. These are organic heterocyclic compounds derived from oxoacids RkE(=O)l(OH)m (l not 0) by replacing an OH group by the NHPh group or derivative formed by ring substitution.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassAnilides
Direct ParentAnilides
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Anilide
  • Tertiary carboxylic acid amide
  • Chloroacetamide
  • Carboxamide group
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Alkyl chloride
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organochloride
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Alkyl halide
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Applications
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceTan colored solid (8).
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point77°C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility0.58 mg/mL at 25°C [TOMLIN,C (2003)]
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.9 g/LALOGPS
logP2.15ALOGPS
logP2.39ChemAxon
logS-2.4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)16.77ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-6.4ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area20.31 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity57.96 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability22.23 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-03di-0290000000-da11b3222d706a02dfe7JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-03g3-7940000000-a10637ad8a5ebc7fef45JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0006-9400000000-114803c0ca629c537684JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-03di-0190000000-576d2ca4d049d13fc916JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-03l0-3930000000-eed3c442fec29edf39cbJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-01bc-5900000000-eb6bc0115b33d5713836JSpectraViewer
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-00fu-9800000000-69e4f77c90a296affd73JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral (8) ; inhalation (8) ; dermal (8) ; dermal (8).
Mechanism of ToxicityPropachlor poisoning causes an induction of microsomal hepatic UDPGT activity, which produces increased clearance of thyroid hormone, T4. Decreased levels of T4 would result in increased levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Increased levels of TSH would result in the hyperplastic and eventually tumorigenic response of the thyroid. Propachlor metabolites also bind to nAChRs in the nervous system and cause endocrine disruption in humans by binding to and inhibiting the estrogen receptor. (3, 2, 6)
MetabolismPropachlor can be absorbed in mammals through the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts as well as through the skin. It does not accumulate in the body, since it is rapidly metabolized through the mercapturic acid pathway (MAP). Cysteine conjugates are formed by glutathione conjugation and this conjugate has been proposed as an intermediate in the metabolic formation of mercapturic acid conjugation. It has been shown that a cysteine conjugate of propachlor is the source of sulfur in methylsulfonyl- containing metabolites, but that the carbon in the methylsulfonyl group does not come from the cysteine moiety. Propachlor is conjugated firstly with glutathione and the reaction is mediated by glutathione transferases. The glutathione conjugation provides a means for inactivation of reactive electrophiles. Glutathione conjugates have the required physico-chemical properties for biliary excretion and will generally be present, together with their catabolites cysteinyl-glycine, cysteine and N-acetylcysteine-mercapturic acid, in relatively high concentrations in the bile. After excretion with the bile, they are metabolized in the intestine where the C-S lyase present cleaves the cysteine conjugate, allowing further metabolism of sulfur to a methylsulfonyl-containing moiety. Eleven urinary metabolites, six of which are 2-methylsulfonylacetanalides have been isolated. The major fecal metabolite is identified as the cysteine conjugate. (8, 9, 10)
Toxicity ValuesLD50: 950-2176 mg/kg (Oral, Rat) (8) LC50: 3580 mg/m3 (Inhalation, Rat) (9) LD50: 380 mg/kg (Dermal, Rabbit) (9)
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)Not listed by IARC.
Uses/SourcesPropachlor is used on a variety of food plants, including onions, field corn, hybrid seed, silage corn, sweet corn, grain sorghum, green peas, soybeans, flax, pumpkin, and strawberries. (8)
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsEye exposure may cause corneal damage. Erythematopapular contact eczema can follow exposure to propachlor. (8, 9)
SymptomsIrritation and/or severe burns of the skin, eye, esophagus or gastrointestinal tract, and the respiratory tract, depending on the route of exposure. (4)
TreatmentConsider gastric lavage, as well was dilution with milk or water after ingestion. Administer charcoal as a slurry following ingestion; however, activated charcoal should not be given to patients ingesting strong acidic or basic caustic chemicals. In case of inhalation, move patient to fresh air. Monitor for respiratory distress. If cough or difficulty breathing develops, evaluate for respiratory tract irritation, bronchitis, or pneumonitis. Administer oxygen and assist ventilation as required. Treat bronchospasm with inhaled beta2 agonist and oral or parenteral corticosteroids. Irrigate exposed eyes with copious amounts of room temperature water for at least 15 minutes. Following dermal exposure, remove contaminated clothing and wash exposed area thoroughly with soap and water. Treat dermal irritation or burns with standard topical therapy. Patients developing dermal hypersensitivity reactions may require treatment with systemic or topical corticosteroids or antihistamines. Administer symptomatic treatment as necessary. (4)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID4931
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL1394829
ChemSpider ID4762
KEGG IDC18759
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID19503
BioCyc IDALPHA-NAPHTHALENEACETAMIDE
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDPropachlor
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR ID6518
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D1090.pdf
General References
  1. Osano O, Admiraal W, Klamer HJ, Pastor D, Bleeker EA: Comparative toxic and genotoxic effects of chloroacetanilides, formamidines and their degradation products on Vibrio fischeri and Chironomus riparius. Environ Pollut. 2002;119(2):195-202. [12152826 ]
  2. Belyaeva OV, Kedishvili NY: Comparative genomic and phylogenetic analysis of short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases with dual retinol/sterol substrate specificity. Genomics. 2006 Dec;88(6):820-30. Epub 2006 Jul 24. [16860536 ]
  3. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
  4. Rumack BH (2009). POISINDEX(R) Information System. Englewood, CO: Micromedex, Inc. CCIS Volume 141, edition expires Aug, 2009.
  5. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs (2001). Implementation of the Determinations of a Common Mechanism of Toxicity for N-Methyl Carbamate Pesticides and for Certain Chloroacetaide Pesticides.
  6. Luft S, Milki E, Glustrom E, Ampiah-Bonney R, O'Hara P. Binding of Organochloride and Pyrethroid Pesticides To Estrogen Receptors α and β: A Fluorescence Polarization Assay. Biophysical Journal 2009;96(3):444a.
  7. Reigart JR, Roberts JR (1999). U.S. Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings. 5th ed. EPA Document No. EPA 735-R-98-003. Washington, DC: Office of Health and Environmental Assessment.
  8. International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) INCHEM (1992). Propachlor Health and Safety Guide. [Link]
  9. IPCS Intox Database (1987). Propachlor. [Link]
  10. International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) (1993). Environmental Health Criteria 147: Propachlor. IPCS under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation and the World Health Organization. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Receptor binding
Specific Function:
Ionotropic receptor with a probable role in the modulation of auditory stimuli. Agonist binding may induce an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane. The channel is permeable to a range of divalent cations including calcium, the influx of which may activate a potassium current which hyperpolarizes the cell membrane. In the ear, this may lead to a reduction in basilar membrane motion, altering the activity of auditory nerve fibers and reducing the range of dynamic hearing. This may protect against acoustic trauma.
Gene Name:
CHRNA10
Uniprot ID:
Q9GZZ6
Molecular Weight:
49704.295 Da
References
  1. Belyaeva OV, Kedishvili NY: Comparative genomic and phylogenetic analysis of short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases with dual retinol/sterol substrate specificity. Genomics. 2006 Dec;88(6):820-30. Epub 2006 Jul 24. [16860536 ]
  2. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
  3. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs (2001). Implementation of the Determinations of a Common Mechanism of Toxicity for N-Methyl Carbamate Pesticides and for Certain Chloroacetaide Pesticides.
General Function:
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name:
CHRNA3
Uniprot ID:
P32297
Molecular Weight:
57479.54 Da
References
  1. Belyaeva OV, Kedishvili NY: Comparative genomic and phylogenetic analysis of short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases with dual retinol/sterol substrate specificity. Genomics. 2006 Dec;88(6):820-30. Epub 2006 Jul 24. [16860536 ]
  2. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
  3. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs (2001). Implementation of the Determinations of a Common Mechanism of Toxicity for N-Methyl Carbamate Pesticides and for Certain Chloroacetaide Pesticides.
General Function:
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane permeable to sodium ions.
Gene Name:
CHRNA4
Uniprot ID:
P43681
Molecular Weight:
69956.47 Da
References
  1. Belyaeva OV, Kedishvili NY: Comparative genomic and phylogenetic analysis of short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases with dual retinol/sterol substrate specificity. Genomics. 2006 Dec;88(6):820-30. Epub 2006 Jul 24. [16860536 ]
  2. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
  3. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs (2001). Implementation of the Determinations of a Common Mechanism of Toxicity for N-Methyl Carbamate Pesticides and for Certain Chloroacetaide Pesticides.
General Function:
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name:
CHRNA5
Uniprot ID:
P30532
Molecular Weight:
53053.965 Da
References
  1. Belyaeva OV, Kedishvili NY: Comparative genomic and phylogenetic analysis of short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases with dual retinol/sterol substrate specificity. Genomics. 2006 Dec;88(6):820-30. Epub 2006 Jul 24. [16860536 ]
  2. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
  3. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs (2001). Implementation of the Determinations of a Common Mechanism of Toxicity for N-Methyl Carbamate Pesticides and for Certain Chloroacetaide Pesticides.
General Function:
Acetylcholine-activated cation-selective channel activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name:
CHRNA6
Uniprot ID:
Q15825
Molecular Weight:
56897.745 Da
References
  1. Belyaeva OV, Kedishvili NY: Comparative genomic and phylogenetic analysis of short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases with dual retinol/sterol substrate specificity. Genomics. 2006 Dec;88(6):820-30. Epub 2006 Jul 24. [16860536 ]
  2. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
  3. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs (2001). Implementation of the Determinations of a Common Mechanism of Toxicity for N-Methyl Carbamate Pesticides and for Certain Chloroacetaide Pesticides.
General Function:
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane. The channel is blocked by alpha-bungarotoxin.
Gene Name:
CHRNA7
Uniprot ID:
P36544
Molecular Weight:
56448.925 Da
References
  1. Belyaeva OV, Kedishvili NY: Comparative genomic and phylogenetic analysis of short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases with dual retinol/sterol substrate specificity. Genomics. 2006 Dec;88(6):820-30. Epub 2006 Jul 24. [16860536 ]
  2. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
  3. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs (2001). Implementation of the Determinations of a Common Mechanism of Toxicity for N-Methyl Carbamate Pesticides and for Certain Chloroacetaide Pesticides.
General Function:
Calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Ionotropic receptor with a probable role in the modulation of auditory stimuli. Agonist binding induces a conformation change that leads to the opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane (PubMed:11752216, PubMed:25282151). The channel is permeable to a range of divalent cations including calcium, the influx of which may activate a potassium current which hyperpolarizes the cell membrane (PubMed:11752216, PubMed:25282151). In the ear, this may lead to a reduction in basilar membrane motion, altering the activity of auditory nerve fibers and reducing the range of dynamic hearing. This may protect against acoustic trauma. May also regulate keratinocyte adhesion (PubMed:11021840).
Gene Name:
CHRNA9
Uniprot ID:
Q9UGM1
Molecular Weight:
54806.63 Da
References
  1. Belyaeva OV, Kedishvili NY: Comparative genomic and phylogenetic analysis of short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases with dual retinol/sterol substrate specificity. Genomics. 2006 Dec;88(6):820-30. Epub 2006 Jul 24. [16860536 ]
  2. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
  3. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs (2001). Implementation of the Determinations of a Common Mechanism of Toxicity for N-Methyl Carbamate Pesticides and for Certain Chloroacetaide Pesticides.
General Function:
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane permeable to sodiun ions.
Gene Name:
CHRNB2
Uniprot ID:
P17787
Molecular Weight:
57018.575 Da
References
  1. Belyaeva OV, Kedishvili NY: Comparative genomic and phylogenetic analysis of short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases with dual retinol/sterol substrate specificity. Genomics. 2006 Dec;88(6):820-30. Epub 2006 Jul 24. [16860536 ]
  2. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
  3. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs (2001). Implementation of the Determinations of a Common Mechanism of Toxicity for N-Methyl Carbamate Pesticides and for Certain Chloroacetaide Pesticides.
General Function:
Drug binding
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name:
CHRNB3
Uniprot ID:
Q05901
Molecular Weight:
52728.215 Da
References
  1. Belyaeva OV, Kedishvili NY: Comparative genomic and phylogenetic analysis of short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases with dual retinol/sterol substrate specificity. Genomics. 2006 Dec;88(6):820-30. Epub 2006 Jul 24. [16860536 ]
  2. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
  3. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs (2001). Implementation of the Determinations of a Common Mechanism of Toxicity for N-Methyl Carbamate Pesticides and for Certain Chloroacetaide Pesticides.
General Function:
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name:
CHRNB4
Uniprot ID:
P30926
Molecular Weight:
56378.985 Da
References
  1. Belyaeva OV, Kedishvili NY: Comparative genomic and phylogenetic analysis of short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases with dual retinol/sterol substrate specificity. Genomics. 2006 Dec;88(6):820-30. Epub 2006 Jul 24. [16860536 ]
  2. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
  3. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs (2001). Implementation of the Determinations of a Common Mechanism of Toxicity for N-Methyl Carbamate Pesticides and for Certain Chloroacetaide Pesticides.
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Ligand-dependent nuclear transactivation involves either direct homodimer binding to a palindromic estrogen response element (ERE) sequence or association with other DNA-binding transcription factors, such as AP-1/c-Jun, c-Fos, ATF-2, Sp1 and Sp3, to mediate ERE-independent signaling. Ligand binding induces a conformational change allowing subsequent or combinatorial association with multiprotein coactivator complexes through LXXLL motifs of their respective components. Mutual transrepression occurs between the estrogen receptor (ER) and NF-kappa-B in a cell-type specific manner. Decreases NF-kappa-B DNA-binding activity and inhibits NF-kappa-B-mediated transcription from the IL6 promoter and displace RELA/p65 and associated coregulators from the promoter. Recruited to the NF-kappa-B response element of the CCL2 and IL8 promoters and can displace CREBBP. Present with NF-kappa-B components RELA/p65 and NFKB1/p50 on ERE sequences. Can also act synergistically with NF-kappa-B to activate transcription involving respective recruitment adjacent response elements; the function involves CREBBP. Can activate the transcriptional activity of TFF1. Also mediates membrane-initiated estrogen signaling involving various kinase cascades. Isoform 3 is involved in activation of NOS3 and endothelial nitric oxide production. Isoforms lacking one or several functional domains are thought to modulate transcriptional activity by competitive ligand or DNA binding and/or heterodimerization with the full length receptor. Essential for MTA1-mediated transcriptional regulation of BRCA1 and BCAS3. Isoform 3 can bind to ERE and inhibit isoform 1.
Gene Name:
ESR1
Uniprot ID:
P03372
Molecular Weight:
66215.45 Da
References
  1. Taccone-Gallucci M, Manca-di-Villahermosa S, Battistini L, Stuffler RG, Tedesco M, Maccarrone M: N-3 PUFAs reduce oxidative stress in ESRD patients on maintenance HD by inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase activity. Kidney Int. 2006 Apr;69(8):1450-4. [16531984 ]
  2. Luft S, Milki E, Glustrom E, Ampiah-Bonney R, O'Hara P. Binding of Organochloride and Pyrethroid Pesticides To Estrogen Receptors α and β: A Fluorescence Polarization Assay. Biophysical Journal 2009;96(3):444a.
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. Binds estrogens with an affinity similar to that of ESR1, and activates expression of reporter genes containing estrogen response elements (ERE) in an estrogen-dependent manner (PubMed:20074560). Isoform beta-cx lacks ligand binding ability and has no or only very low ere binding activity resulting in the loss of ligand-dependent transactivation ability. DNA-binding by ESR1 and ESR2 is rapidly lost at 37 degrees Celsius in the absence of ligand while in the presence of 17 beta-estradiol and 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen loss in DNA-binding at elevated temperature is more gradual.
Gene Name:
ESR2
Uniprot ID:
Q92731
Molecular Weight:
59215.765 Da
References
  1. Taccone-Gallucci M, Manca-di-Villahermosa S, Battistini L, Stuffler RG, Tedesco M, Maccarrone M: N-3 PUFAs reduce oxidative stress in ESRD patients on maintenance HD by inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase activity. Kidney Int. 2006 Apr;69(8):1450-4. [16531984 ]
  2. Luft S, Milki E, Glustrom E, Ampiah-Bonney R, O'Hara P. Binding of Organochloride and Pyrethroid Pesticides To Estrogen Receptors α and β: A Fluorescence Polarization Assay. Biophysical Journal 2009;96(3):444a.
General Function:
Temperature-gated cation channel activity
Specific Function:
Receptor-activated non-selective cation channel involved in detection of pain and possibly also in cold perception and inner ear function (PubMed:25389312, PubMed:25855297). Has a central role in the pain response to endogenous inflammatory mediators and to a diverse array of volatile irritants, such as mustard oil, cinnamaldehyde, garlic and acrolein, an irritant from tears gas and vehicule exhaust fumes (PubMed:25389312, PubMed:20547126). Is also activated by menthol (in vitro)(PubMed:25389312). Acts also as a ionotropic cannabinoid receptor by being activated by delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive component of marijuana (PubMed:25389312). May be a component for the mechanosensitive transduction channel of hair cells in inner ear, thereby participating in the perception of sounds. Probably operated by a phosphatidylinositol second messenger system (By similarity).
Gene Name:
TRPA1
Uniprot ID:
O75762
Molecular Weight:
127499.88 Da
References
  1. Nilius B, Prenen J, Owsianik G: Irritating channels: the case of TRPA1. J Physiol. 2011 Apr 1;589(Pt 7):1543-9. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2010.200717. Epub 2010 Nov 15. [21078588 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear receptor that binds peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Once activated by a ligand, the nuclear receptor binds to DNA specific PPAR response elements (PPRE) and modulates the transcription of its target genes, such as acyl-CoA oxidase. It therefore controls the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway of fatty acids. Key regulator of adipocyte differentiation and glucose homeostasis. ARF6 acts as a key regulator of the tissue-specific adipocyte P2 (aP2) enhancer. Acts as a critical regulator of gut homeostasis by suppressing NF-kappa-B-mediated proinflammatory responses. Plays a role in the regulation of cardiovascular circadian rhythms by regulating the transcription of ARNTL/BMAL1 in the blood vessels (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PPARG
Uniprot ID:
P37231
Molecular Weight:
57619.58 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC502.75 uMATG_PPARg_TRANSAttagene
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Steroid hormone receptors are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Transcription factor activity is modulated by bound coactivator and corepressor proteins. Transcription activation is down-regulated by NR0B2. Activated, but not phosphorylated, by HIPK3 and ZIPK/DAPK3.
Gene Name:
AR
Uniprot ID:
P10275
Molecular Weight:
98987.9 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC503.99 uMTox21_AR_BLA_Antagonist_ratioTox21/NCGC
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Cholesterol binding
Specific Function:
Can bind protoporphyrin IX and may play a role in the transport of porphyrins and heme (By similarity). Promotes the transport of cholesterol across mitochondrial membranes and may play a role in lipid metabolism (PubMed:24814875), but its precise physiological role is controversial. It is apparently not required for steroid hormone biosynthesis. Was initially identified as peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor; can also bind isoquinoline carboxamides (PubMed:1847678).
Gene Name:
TSPO
Uniprot ID:
P30536
Molecular Weight:
18827.81 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC506.62 uMNVS_MP_hPBRNovascreen
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Oxygen binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the formation of aromatic C18 estrogens from C19 androgens.
Gene Name:
CYP19A1
Uniprot ID:
P11511
Molecular Weight:
57882.48 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC508.49 uMTox21_Aromatase_InhibitionTox21/NCGC
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]