Record Information
Version2.0 (beta)
Creation Date2009-03-06 11:57:55 -0700
Update Date2014-10-31 13:48:53 -0600
Accession NumberT3D0016
Identification
Common NameTrichloroethylene
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionTrichloroethylene is a solvent and extractive in the manufacture of foods. One recent review of the epidemiology of kidney cancer rated cigarette smoking and obesity as more important risk factors for kidney cancer than exposure to solvents such as trichloroethylene. In contrast, the most recent overall assessment of human health risks associated with trichloroethylene states, [t]here is concordance between animal and human studies, which supports the conclusion that trichloroethylene is a potential kidney carcinogen. The evidence appears to be less certain at this time regarding the relationship between humans and liver cancer observed in mice, with the NAS suggesting that low-level exposure might not represent a significant liver cancer risk in the general population. The chemical compound trichloroethylene is a chlorinated hydrocarbon commonly used as an industrial solvent. It is a clear non-flammable liquid with a sweet smell. The first known report of TCE in groundwater was given in 1949 by two English public chemists who described two separate instances of well contamination by industrial releases of TCE. Based on available federal and state surveys, between 9% to 34% of the drinking water supply sources tested in the U.S. may have some TCE contamination, though EPA has reported that most water supplies are in compliance with the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 5 ppb. In addition, a growing concern in recent years at sites with TCE contamination in soil or groundwater has been vapor intrusion in buildings, which has resulted in indoor air exposures, such is in a recent case in the McCook Field Neighborhood of Dayton, Ohio. Trichloroethylene has been detected in 852 Superfund sites across the United States, according to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Under the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974, and as amended annual water quality testing is required for all public drinking water distributors. The EPA'S current guidelines for TCE can be found here. It should be noted that the EPA's table of TCE Releases to Ground is dated 1987 to 1993, thereby omitting one of the largest Superfund Cleanup sites in the nation, the NIBW in Scottsdale, Arizona. The TCE released here occurred prior to its appearance in the municipal drinking wells in 1982. This reaction can be catalyzed by a variety of substances. The most commonly used catalyst is a mixture of potassium chloride and aluminum chloride. However, various forms of porous carbon can also be used. This reaction produces tetrachloroethylene as a byproduct, and depending on the amount of chlorine fed to the reaction, tetrachloroethylene can even be the major product. Typically, trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene are collected together and then separated by distillation.Trichloroethylene: Parkinsonism and complex 1 mitochondrial neurotoxicity). Trichloroethylene is an effective solvent for a variety of organic materials. Trichloroethylene belongs to the family of Organochlorides. These are organic compounds containing a chlorine atom.
Compound Type
  • Anesthetic
  • Cigarette Toxin
  • Food Toxin
  • Household Toxin
  • Industrial/Workplace Toxin
  • Metabolite
  • Organic Compound
  • Organochloride
  • Pollutant
  • Solvent
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
1,1,1-Trichloroethylene
1,1,2-Trichloro-Ethene
1,1,2-Trichloroethene
1,1,2-Trichloroethylene
1,1-Dichloro-2-chloroethylene
1,2,2-Trichloroethylene
1-Chloro-2,2-dichloroethylene
Acetylene trichloride
Algylen
Altene DG
Anamenth
Benzinol
Blacosolv
Blancosolv
C2HCl3
Cecolene
Chlorilen
Chlorylea
Chlorylen
Chorylen
Circosolv
Crawhaspol
Densi nfluat
Densinfluat
Disparit b
Distillex DS2
Dow-tri
Dukeron
Ethinyl trichloride
Ethylene trichloride
Fleck-flip
Flock flip
Fluate
Gemalgene
Germalgene
Lanadin
Lethurin
Narcogen
Narkogen
Narkosoid
Nialk
Perm-a-chlor
Perm-a-clor
Petzinol
Philex
TCE
Tce (chlorohydrocarbon)
Threthylen
Threthylene
Trethylene
TRI
Tri-Clene
Tri-plus
Tri-plus m
Triasol
Tric hloroethene
Trichlooretheen
Trichloorethyleen, tri
Trichloraethen
Trichloraethylen
Trichloran
Trichlorathane
Trichloren
Trichlorethene
Trichlorethylene
Trichlorethylenum
Trichloro-Ethene
Trichloro-Ethylene
Trichloroethene
TrichloroetheneI
Trichloroethylene (tce)
Trichloroethylenum
Trichlorothene
Triciene
Tricloretene
Tricloroetilene
Tricloroetileno
Trielene
Trielin
Trielina
Trieline
Trik lone
Triklone
Triklone N
Trilen
Trilene
Trilene TE-141
Triline
Trimar
Triol
Vestrol
Vitran
Westrosol
Chemical FormulaC2HCl3
Average Molecular Mass131.388 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass129.914 g/mol
CAS Registry Number1979-01-06
IUPAC Name1,1,2-trichloroethene
Traditional Nametrichloroethylene
SMILESClC=C(Cl)Cl
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C2HCl3/c3-1-2(4)5/h1H
InChI KeyInChIKey=XSTXAVWGXDQKEL-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassOrganohalogen Compounds
ClassVinyl Halides
Sub ClassVinyl Chlorides
Direct ParentOrganochlorides
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Organochloride
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
  • Chloroalkene
  • Vinyl chloride
  • Haloalkene
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic Acyclic Compounds
External Descriptors
  • Chloroethenes (chebi)
  • A Small Molecule (metacyc)
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Applications
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateLiquid
AppearanceColorless liquid.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point-84.8°C
Boiling Point86.7°C (188.1°F)
Solubility1.28 mg/mL at 25°C
LogP2.42
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility1.96ALOGPS
logP2.45ALOGPS
logP2.18ChemAxon
logS-1.8ALOGPS
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity35.18 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability9.59 Å3ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraMS1D NMR
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral (22) ; inhalation (22)
Mechanism of ToxicityThe toxic and carcinogenic effects of trichloroethylene are believed to be caused mainly by its metabolites, including trichloroacetic acid, dichloroacetic acid, and chloral hydrate. The nephrotoxicity and nephrocarcinogenicity of TRI have been attributed to glutathione conjunction, which forms reactive, sulfur-containing metabolites. Dichloroacetic acid is known to inhibit pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, while chloral hydrate inhibits alcohol dehydrogenase. Studies in rodents have shown that neurotoxic effects may be caused by trichloroethylene's incorporation into brain membranes or ability to alter the fatty acid pattern of brain phospholipids and amino acids. One of the mechanisms of trichloroethylene's carcinogenicity is believed to be the peroxisome proliferation induced by its metabolites. (22, 19, 1)
MetabolismTrichloroethylene is absorbed into the bloodstream and rapidly distributed throughout the body. Some is metabolized via cytochrome P-450 enzymes and the glutathione-conjugation pathway into metabolites such as trichloroacetic acid and trichloroethanol, which are excreted primarily in the urine. However, most trichoroethylene is exhaled unchanged or as carbon dioxide. (23)
Toxicity ValuesLD50: 2402 mg/kg (Oral, Mouse) (20) LD50: 20 001 mg/kg (Dermal, Rabbit) (20) LD50: 3222 mg/kg (Intraperitoneal, Mouse) (20)
Lethal Dose3 to 5 mg/kg for an adult human. (26)
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)2A, probably carcinogenic to humans. (25)
Uses/SourcesTrichloroethylene is mainly used as an industrial solvent, particularily to remove grease from metal parts. It is also an ingredient in adhesives, paint removers, typewriter correction fluids, and spot removers. Exposure may result from contact with contaminated water. (22)
Minimum Risk LevelAcute Inhalation: 2 ppm (24) Intermediate Inhalation: 0.1 ppm (24) Acute Oral: 0.2 mg/kg/day (24)
Health EffectsChronic inhalation or ingestion of tricholoethylene causes nerve, kidney, and liver damage, impaired immune system function, impaired fetal development in pregnant women, and possibly death. It has also been linked to both kidney and liver cancer. (22)
SymptomsInhalation of trichloroethylene causes headaches, lung irritation, dizziness, poor coordination, and difficulty concentrating, while ingestion results in nausea. Larger amounts may cause unconciousness and impaired heart function. Skin contact often results in rashes. (22)
TreatmentThere is no known antidote for trichloroethylene. Exposure is usually handled with symptomatic treatment. (23)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDHMDB29593
PubChem Compound ID6575
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider ID13837280
KEGG IDC06790
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID16602
BioCyc IDTRICHLOROETHENE
CTD IDD014241
Stitch IDTrichloroethylene
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR ID1414
Wikipedia LinkTrichloroethylene
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDSLink
General References
  1. Cummings BS, Parker JC, Lash LH: Role of cytochrome P450 and glutathione S-transferase alpha in the metabolism and cytotoxicity of trichloroethylene in rat kidney. Biochem Pharmacol. 2000 Mar 1;59(5):531-43. [10660119 ]
  2. Lantum HB, Baggs RB, Krenitsky DM, Anders MW: Nephrotoxicity of chlorofluoroacetic acid in rats. Toxicol Sci. 2002 Dec;70(2):261-8. [12441371 ]
  3. Sharkawi M, De Saint Blanquat G, Elfassy B: Inhibition of alcohol dehydrogenase by chloral hydrate and trichloroethanol: possible role in the chloral hydrate-ethanol interaction. Toxicol Lett. 1983 Jul;17(3-4):321-8. [6353674 ]
  4. SCANSETTI G, RUBINO GF, TROMPEO G: [Study on chronic trieline poisoning. Note 3. Metabolism of trichloroethylene]. Med Lav. 1959 Dec;50:743-54. [14442215 ]
  5. Formica M, Vallero A, Forneris G, Cesano G, Pozzato M, Borca M, Iadarola GM, Quarello F: [Organohalogen contamination of a dialysis-water treatment plant]. G Ital Nefrol. 2002 Jul-Aug;19(4):479-82. [12369053 ]
  6. Cichocka D, Imfeld G, Richnow HH, Nijenhuis I: Variability in microbial carbon isotope fractionation of tetra- and trichloroethene upon reductive dechlorination. Chemosphere. 2008 Mar;71(4):639-48. Epub 2007 Dec 21. [18155126 ]
  7. Pistelli A, Masini E, Caramelli L, Botti P, Peruzzi S, Zorn AM, Mannaioni PF: [Acute toxicity of trichloroethylene. Description of a case series at the Autonomous Service of Toxicology of Florence during the 1977-1988 period]. Clin Ter. 1990 Nov 15;135(3):173-80. [2150018 ]
  8. BOKAY J, GOSZLETH T, GERGELY P: [Anesthesia with narcogen (trichloroethylene) in obstetrics]. Magy Noorv Lapja. 1955 Jan;18(1):30-43. [14382738 ]
  9. Ray K, Sahana CC, Chaudhuri SB, De GC, Chatterjee K: Effects of trichloroethylene anaesthesia on salivary paracetamol elimination. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1993 Jan;37(1):79-81. [8449552 ]
  10. RUBINO GF, SCANSETTI G, TROMPEO G, GAIDO PC: [Study on chronic trieline poisoning. Note 4. Catabolism of derivatives of trichloroethylene]. Med Lav. 1959 Dec;50:755-65. [14439909 ]
  11. Guehl D, Bezard E, Dovero S, Boraud T, Bioulac B, Gross C: Trichloroethylene and parkinsonism: a human and experimental observation. Eur J Neurol. 1999 Sep;6(5):609-11. [10457397 ]
  12. Kostrzewski P, Jakubowski M, Kolacinski Z: Kinetics of trichloroethylene elimination from venous blood after acute inhalation poisoning. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 1993;31(2):353-63. [8492349 ]
  13. Eckerbom B, Lindholm CE: Performance evaluation of six heat and moisture exchangers according to the Draft International Standard (ISO/DIS 9360). Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1990 Jul;34(5):404-9. [2389657 ]
  14. Nystrom PO, Broome A, Hojer H, Ling L: A controlled trial of a plastic wound ring drape to prevent contamination and infection in colorectal surgery. Dis Colon Rectum. 1984 Jul;27(7):451-3. [6378555 ]
  15. VAN VLIET AG: [A case of toxic psychosis caused by trichloroethylene addiction]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 1959 Jan 10;103(2):75-8. [13622851 ]
  16. RUBINO GF, SCANSETTI G, TROMPEO G: [Study on chronic trieline poisoning. Note 2. Absorption of trichloroethylene]. Med Lav. 1959 Dec;50:733-42. [14439910 ]
  17. HEDGE HM: Occupational dermatitis of the nails and paronychia following use of permachlor diluted with methyl alcohol. Arch Derm Syphilol. 1948 Mar;57(3 Pt. 2):428. [18100972 ]
  18. HOLTORFF J: [Temporary report on our experiences in the use of the trichloroethylene compound chlorylene for inhalation analgesia in obstetrics]. Dtsch Gesundheitsw. 1952 Aug 14;7(33):1038-43. [13020452 ]
  19. Committee on Human Health Risks of Trichloroethylene, National Research Council (2006). Assessing the Human Health Risks of Trichloroethylene: Key Scientific Issues. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
  20. Hayes WJ Jr. and Laws ER Jr. (eds) (1991). Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology. Volume 3. Classes of Pesticides. New York, NY: Academic Press, Inc.
  21. Yannai, Shmuel. (2004) Dictionary of food compounds with CD-ROM: Additives, flavors, and ingredients. Boca Raton: Chapman & Hall/CRC.
  22. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (1997). Toxicological profile for trichloroethylene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  23. CCOHS - Canadian Centre for Occupational Health & Safety (1998). Trichloroethylene. [Link]
  24. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2001). Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs) for Hazardous Substances. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  25. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2009). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
  26. HSDB: Hazardous Substances Data Bank. National Library of Medicine (2001). [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated Genes
GeneGene SymbolGene IDInteractionChromosomeDetails
Down-Regulated Genes
GeneGene SymbolGene IDInteractionChromosomeDetails

Targets

General Function:
Involved in transcription factor activity
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues
Gene Name:
ESR1
Uniprot ID:
P03372
Molecular Weight:
66217.0 Da
References
  1. Taccone-Gallucci M, Manca-di-Villahermosa S, Battistini L, Stuffler RG, Tedesco M, Maccarrone M: N-3 PUFAs reduce oxidative stress in ESRD patients on maintenance HD by inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase activity. Kidney Int. 2006 Apr;69(8):1450-4. [16531984 ]
  2. Luft S, Milki E, Glustrom E, Ampiah-Bonney R, O'Hara P. Binding of Organochloride and Pyrethroid Pesticides To Estrogen Receptors α and β: A Fluorescence Polarization Assay. Biophysical Journal 2009;96(3):444a.
General Function:
Involved in transcription factor activity
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. Binds estrogens with an affinity similar to that of ESR1, and activates expression of reporter genes containing estrogen response elements (ERE) in an estrogen-dependent manner. Isoform beta-cx lacks ligand binding ability and has no or only very low ere binding activity resulting in the loss of ligand-dependent transactivation ability. DNA- binding by ESR1 and ESR2 is rapidly lost at 37 degrees Celsius in the absence of ligand while in the presence of 17 beta-estradiol and 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen loss in DNA-binding at elevated temperature is more gradual
Gene Name:
ESR2
Uniprot ID:
Q92731
Molecular Weight:
59217.0 Da
References
  1. Taccone-Gallucci M, Manca-di-Villahermosa S, Battistini L, Stuffler RG, Tedesco M, Maccarrone M: N-3 PUFAs reduce oxidative stress in ESRD patients on maintenance HD by inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase activity. Kidney Int. 2006 Apr;69(8):1450-4. [16531984 ]
  2. Luft S, Milki E, Glustrom E, Ampiah-Bonney R, O'Hara P. Binding of Organochloride and Pyrethroid Pesticides To Estrogen Receptors α and β: A Fluorescence Polarization Assay. Biophysical Journal 2009;96(3):444a.
General Function:
Energy production and conversion
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ADH1A
Uniprot ID:
P07327
Molecular Weight:
39728.0 Da
References
  1. Sharkawi M, De Saint Blanquat G, Elfassy B: Inhibition of alcohol dehydrogenase by chloral hydrate and trichloroethanol: possible role in the chloral hydrate-ethanol interaction. Toxicol Lett. 1983 Jul;17(3-4):321-8. [6353674 ]
General Function:
Energy production and conversion
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ADH1B
Uniprot ID:
P00325
Molecular Weight:
39724.0 Da
References
  1. Sharkawi M, De Saint Blanquat G, Elfassy B: Inhibition of alcohol dehydrogenase by chloral hydrate and trichloroethanol: possible role in the chloral hydrate-ethanol interaction. Toxicol Lett. 1983 Jul;17(3-4):321-8. [6353674 ]
General Function:
Energy production and conversion
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ADH1C
Uniprot ID:
P00326
Molecular Weight:
39737.0 Da
References
  1. Sharkawi M, De Saint Blanquat G, Elfassy B: Inhibition of alcohol dehydrogenase by chloral hydrate and trichloroethanol: possible role in the chloral hydrate-ethanol interaction. Toxicol Lett. 1983 Jul;17(3-4):321-8. [6353674 ]
General Function:
Energy production and conversion
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ADH4
Uniprot ID:
P08319
Molecular Weight:
40091.0 Da
References
  1. Sharkawi M, De Saint Blanquat G, Elfassy B: Inhibition of alcohol dehydrogenase by chloral hydrate and trichloroethanol: possible role in the chloral hydrate-ethanol interaction. Toxicol Lett. 1983 Jul;17(3-4):321-8. [6353674 ]
General Function:
Energy production and conversion
Specific Function:
An alcohol + NAD(+) = an aldehyde or ketone + NADH
Gene Name:
ADH6
Uniprot ID:
P28332
Molecular Weight:
39088.3 Da
References
  1. Sharkawi M, De Saint Blanquat G, Elfassy B: Inhibition of alcohol dehydrogenase by chloral hydrate and trichloroethanol: possible role in the chloral hydrate-ethanol interaction. Toxicol Lett. 1983 Jul;17(3-4):321-8. [6353674 ]
General Function:
Energy production and conversion
Specific Function:
Could function in retinol oxidation for the synthesis of retinoic acid, a hormone important for cellular differentiation. Medium-chain (octanol) and aromatic (m-nitrobenzaldehyde) compounds are the best substrates. Ethanol is not a good substrate but at the high ethanol concentrations reached in the digestive tract, it plays a role in the ethanol oxidation and contributes to the first pass ethanol metabolism
Gene Name:
ADH7
Uniprot ID:
P40394
Molecular Weight:
40006.0 Da
References
  1. Sharkawi M, De Saint Blanquat G, Elfassy B: Inhibition of alcohol dehydrogenase by chloral hydrate and trichloroethanol: possible role in the chloral hydrate-ethanol interaction. Toxicol Lett. 1983 Jul;17(3-4):321-8. [6353674 ]
General Function:
Energy production and conversion
Specific Function:
Class-III ADH is remarkably ineffective in oxidizing ethanol, but it readily catalyzes the oxidation of long-chain primary alcohols and the oxidation of S-(hydroxymethyl) glutathione
Gene Name:
ADH5
Uniprot ID:
P11766
Molecular Weight:
39593.0 Da
References
  1. Sharkawi M, De Saint Blanquat G, Elfassy B: Inhibition of alcohol dehydrogenase by chloral hydrate and trichloroethanol: possible role in the chloral hydrate-ethanol interaction. Toxicol Lett. 1983 Jul;17(3-4):321-8. [6353674 ]
General Function:
Inorganic ion transport and metabolism
Specific Function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of the calcium
Gene Name:
ATP2C1
Uniprot ID:
P98194
Molecular Weight:
100579.0 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in transmembrane transport
Specific Function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of calcium (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ATP2C2
Uniprot ID:
O75185
Molecular Weight:
103186.475 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in GABA-A receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRA1
Uniprot ID:
P14867
Molecular Weight:
51802.0 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in GABA-A receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRA2
Uniprot ID:
P47869
Molecular Weight:
51340.0 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in GABA-A receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRA3
Uniprot ID:
P34903
Molecular Weight:
55165.0 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in GABA-A receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRA4
Uniprot ID:
P48169
Molecular Weight:
61641.0 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in GABA-A receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRA5
Uniprot ID:
P31644
Molecular Weight:
52147.0 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in GABA-A receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRA6
Uniprot ID:
Q16445
Molecular Weight:
51035.0 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRB1
Uniprot ID:
P18505
Molecular Weight:
54235.0 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRB2
Uniprot ID:
P47870
Molecular Weight:
54607.0 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRB3
Uniprot ID:
P28472
Molecular Weight:
54116.0 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRD
Uniprot ID:
O14764
Molecular Weight:
50707.8 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRE
Uniprot ID:
P78334
Molecular Weight:
57971.2 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRG1
Uniprot ID:
Q8N1C3
Molecular Weight:
53594.5 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in benzodiazepine receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRG2
Uniprot ID:
P18507
Molecular Weight:
54161.8 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRG3
Uniprot ID:
Q99928
Molecular Weight:
54288.2 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. In the uterus, the function of the receptor appears to be related to tissue contractility. The binding of this pI subunit with other GABA(A) receptor subunits alters the sensitivity of recombinant receptors to modulatory agents such as pregnanolone
Gene Name:
GABRP
Uniprot ID:
O00591
Molecular Weight:
50639.7 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in GABA-A receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. Rho-1 GABA receptor could play a role in retinal neurotransmission
Gene Name:
GABRR1
Uniprot ID:
P24046
Molecular Weight:
55258.0 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. Rho-2 GABA receptor could play a role in retinal neurotransmission
Gene Name:
GABRR2
Uniprot ID:
P28476
Molecular Weight:
54150.4 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel (By similarity)
Gene Name:
GABRR3
Uniprot ID:
A8MPY1
Molecular Weight:
54271.1 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRQ
Uniprot ID:
Q9UN88
Molecular Weight:
72020.9 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in urinary bladder smooth muscle contraction
Specific Function:
Receptor for ATP that acts as a ligand-gated ion channel.
Gene Name:
P2RX3
Uniprot ID:
P56373
Molecular Weight:
44288.65 Da
References
  1. Fischer W, Wirkner K, Weber M, Eberts C, Koles L, Reinhardt R, Franke H, Allgaier C, Gillen C, Illes P: Characterization of P2X3, P2Y1 and P2Y4 receptors in cultured HEK293-hP2X3 cells and their inhibition by ethanol and trichloroethanol. J Neurochem. 2003 May;85(3):779-90. [12694404 ]
General Function:
Involved in transport
Specific Function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of calcium out of the cell.
Gene Name:
ATP2B1
Uniprot ID:
P20020
Molecular Weight:
138754.045 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in transport
Specific Function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of calcium out of the cell.
Gene Name:
ATP2B2
Uniprot ID:
Q01814
Molecular Weight:
136875.18 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in transport
Specific Function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of calcium out of the cell.
Gene Name:
ATP2B3
Uniprot ID:
Q16720
Molecular Weight:
134196.025 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in transport
Specific Function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of calcium out of the cell.
Gene Name:
ATP2B4
Uniprot ID:
P23634
Molecular Weight:
137919.03 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Inorganic ion transport and metabolism
Specific Function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the translocation of calcium from the cytosol to the sarcoplasmic reticulum lumen. Contributes to calcium sequestration involved in muscular excitation/contraction
Gene Name:
ATP2A1
Uniprot ID:
O14983
Molecular Weight:
110251.4 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Inorganic ion transport and metabolism
Specific Function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the translocation of calcium from the cytosol to the sarcoplasmic reticulum lumen. Isoform SERCA2A is involved in the regulation of the contraction/relaxation cycle
Gene Name:
ATP2A2
Uniprot ID:
P16615
Molecular Weight:
114755.8 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in transport
Specific Function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of calcium. Transports calcium ions from the cytosol into the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum lumen. Contributes to calcium sequestration involved in muscular excitation/contraction.
Gene Name:
ATP2A3
Uniprot ID:
Q93084
Molecular Weight:
113976.23 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Inorganic ion transport and metabolism
Specific Function:
This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This action creates the electrochemical gradient of sodium and potassium ions, providing the energy for active transport of various nutrients
Gene Name:
ATP1A1
Uniprot ID:
P05023
Molecular Weight:
112897.0 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in visual learning
Specific Function:
This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This action creates the electrochemical gradient of sodium and potassium, providing the energy for active transport of various nutrients.
Gene Name:
ATP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P50993
Molecular Weight:
112264.385 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in visual learning
Specific Function:
This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This action creates the electrochemical gradient of sodium and potassium ions, providing the energy for active transport of various nutrients.
Gene Name:
ATP1A3
Uniprot ID:
P13637
Molecular Weight:
111747.51 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in transmembrane transport
Specific Function:
This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This action creates the electrochemical gradient of sodium and potassium ions, providing the energy for active transport of various nutrients. Plays a role in sperm motility.
Gene Name:
ATP1A4
Uniprot ID:
Q13733
Molecular Weight:
114165.44 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in transport
Specific Function:
This is the non-catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of Na(+) and K(+) ions across the plasma membrane. The beta subunit regulates, through assembly of alpha/beta heterodimers, the number of sodium pumps transported to the plasma membrane.Involved in cell adhesion and establishing epithelial cell polarity.
Gene Name:
ATP1B1
Uniprot ID:
P05026
Molecular Weight:
35061.07 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in transport
Specific Function:
This is the non-catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of Na(+) and K(+) ions across the plasma membrane. The exact function of the beta-2 subunit is not known.Mediates cell adhesion of neurons and astrocytes, and promotes neurite outgrowth (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ATP1B2
Uniprot ID:
P14415
Molecular Weight:
33366.925 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in transport
Specific Function:
This is the non-catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of Na(+) and K(+) ions across the plasma membrane. The exact function of the beta-3 subunit is not known.
Gene Name:
ATP1B3
Uniprot ID:
P54709
Molecular Weight:
31512.34 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in ion channel activity
Specific Function:
May be involved in forming the receptor site for cardiac glycoside binding or may modulate the transport function of the sodium ATPase
Gene Name:
FXYD2
Uniprot ID:
P54710
Molecular Weight:
7283.0 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Signal transduction mechanisms
Specific Function:
Inhibits the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex by phosphorylation of the E1 alpha subunit, thus contributing to the regulation of glucose metabolism
Gene Name:
PDK1
Uniprot ID:
Q15118
Molecular Weight:
49243.8 Da
References
  1. Lantum HB, Baggs RB, Krenitsky DM, Anders MW: Nephrotoxicity of chlorofluoroacetic acid in rats. Toxicol Sci. 2002 Dec;70(2):261-8. [12441371 ]
General Function:
Signal transduction mechanisms
Specific Function:
Inhibits the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex by phosphorylation of the E1 alpha subunit, thus contributing to the regulation of glucose metabolism
Gene Name:
PDK2
Uniprot ID:
Q15119
Molecular Weight:
46153.4 Da
References
  1. Lantum HB, Baggs RB, Krenitsky DM, Anders MW: Nephrotoxicity of chlorofluoroacetic acid in rats. Toxicol Sci. 2002 Dec;70(2):261-8. [12441371 ]
General Function:
Signal transduction mechanisms
Specific Function:
Inhibits the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex by phosphorylation of the E1 alpha subunit, thus contributing to the regulation of glucose metabolism
Gene Name:
PDK3
Uniprot ID:
Q15120
Molecular Weight:
46938.5 Da
References
  1. Lantum HB, Baggs RB, Krenitsky DM, Anders MW: Nephrotoxicity of chlorofluoroacetic acid in rats. Toxicol Sci. 2002 Dec;70(2):261-8. [12441371 ]
General Function:
Signal transduction mechanisms
Specific Function:
Inhibits the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex by phosphorylation of the E1 alpha subunit, thus contributing to the regulation of glucose metabolism
Gene Name:
PDK4
Uniprot ID:
Q16654
Molecular Weight:
46468.8 Da
References
  1. Lantum HB, Baggs RB, Krenitsky DM, Anders MW: Nephrotoxicity of chlorofluoroacetic acid in rats. Toxicol Sci. 2002 Dec;70(2):261-8. [12441371 ]