Record Information
Version2.0 (beta)
Creation Date2009-03-06 11:58:07 -0700
Update Date2014-10-01 18:04:21 -0600
Accession NumberT3D0127
Identification
Common NameChlorpyrifos
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionChlorpyrifos (IUPAC name: O,O-diethyl O-3,5,6-trichloropyridin-2-yl phosphorothioate) is a crystalline organophosphate insecticide. It was introduced in 1965 by Dow Chemical Company and is known by many trade names (see table), including Dursban and Lorsban. It acts on the nervous system of insects by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase. Chlorpyrifos is moderately toxic to humans, and exposure has been linked to neurological effects, persistent developmental disorders, and autoimmune disorders. Exposure during pregnancy retards the mental development of children, and most use in homes has been banned since 2001 in the U.S. In agriculture, it remains one of the most widely used organophosphate insecticides, according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
Compound Type
  • Aromatic Hydrocarbon
  • Household Toxin
  • Insecticide
  • Metabolite
  • Organic Compound
  • Organochloride
  • Organophosphate
  • Pesticide
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. Bonidel
  2. Brodan
  3. Chloropyrifos
  4. Chloropyriphos
  5. Chlorpyrifos
  6. Chlorpyrifos-ethyl
  7. Chlorpyriphos
  8. Chlorpyriphos-ethyl
  9. Chlorpyrofos
  10. Chlorpyrophos
  11. Coroban
  12. Danusban
  13. Detmol U.A.
  14. Dowco 179
  15. Durmet
  16. Dursban
  17. Dursban 10CR
  18. Dursban 2E
  19. Dursban 4E
  20. Dursban F
  21. Dursban R
  22. Empire 20
  23. Equity
  24. Ethyl chlorpyriphos
  25. Geodinfos
  26. Killmaster
  27. Lentrek
  28. Lock-On
  29. Lorsban
  30. m-Chlorpyrifos
  31. O,O-Diaethyl-O-3,5,6-trichlor-2-pyridylmonothiophosphat
  32. O,O-Diethyl O-(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyl)phosphorothioate
  33. O,O-Diethyl O-(3,5,6-Trichloro-2-pyridyl) phosphorothioate
  34. O,O-Diethyl O-(3,5,6-trichloropyridin-2-yl) phosphorothioate
  35. O,O-Diethyl O-(3,5,6-trichloropyridin-2-yl) thiophosphate
  36. O,O-Diethyl-O-(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl)phosphorothioate
  37. Pageant
  38. Phosphorothioic acid, O,O-diethyl O-(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyl) ester
  39. Piridane
  40. Pyrinex
  41. Radar
  42. Silrifos
  43. Spannit
  44. Stipend
  45. SuSCon
  46. Suscon blue
  47. Suscon green
  48. Tafaban
  49. Terial
  50. Trichlorpyrphos
  51. Zidil
Chemical FormulaC9H11Cl3NO3PS
Average Molecular Mass350.58600 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass348.926283546 g/mol
CAS Registry Number2921-88-2
IUPAC NameO,O-diethyl O-3,5,6-trichloropyridin-2-yl phosphorothioate
Traditional IUPAC NameO,O-diethyl O-3,5,6-trichloropyridin-2-yl phosphorothioate
SMILESCCOP(=S)(OCC)OC1=C(Cl)C=C(Cl)C(Cl)=N1
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C9H11Cl3NO3PS/c1-3-14-17(18,15-4-2)16-9-7(11)5-6(10)8(12)13-9/h5H,3-4H2,1-2H3
InChI KeyInChIKey=SBPBAQFWLVIOKP-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassOrganophosphorus Compounds
ClassOrganothiophosphorus Compounds
Sub ClassOrganic Thiophosphoric Acids and Derivatives
Direct ParentPyridinones
Alternative Parents
  • Pyridines and Derivatives
  • Aryl Chlorides
  • Organooxygen Compounds
  • Organochlorides
  • Organonitrogen Compounds
Substituents
  • aryl chloride
  • organochloride
  • organonitrogen compound
  • pyridine
  • Heterocycle
  • Organooxygen Compound
  • Aromatic Heteromonocyclic Compound
  • Aryl Halide
  • Organohalogen Compound
  • Thiophosphate Triester
External Descriptors
  • a small molecule(Cyc)
  • organochlorine insecticide(ChEBI)
  • organic thiophosphate(ChEBI)
  • organothiophosphate insecticide(ChEBI)
  • Organophosphorus insecticides(KEGG)
  • organochlorine acaricide(ChEBI)
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Applications
Biological Roles
Chemical Roles
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite crystals.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point42 C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility0.00112 mg/mL at 24 C
LogP4.96
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility1.45e-03 g/lALOGPS
logP5.15ALOGPS
logP4.78ChemAxon
logS-5.4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4.2ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area40.58 ÅChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count6ChemAxon
Refractivity79 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability30.4 C·m2·V−1ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraMS1D NMR
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral (9) ; inhalation (9) ; dermal (9)
Mechanism of ToxicityChlorpyrifos is a cholinesterase or acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor. A cholinesterase inhibitor (or 'anticholinesterase') suppresses the action of acetylcholinesterase. Because of its essential function, chemicals that interfere with the action of acetylcholinesterase are potent neurotoxins, causing excessive salivation and eye-watering in low doses, followed by muscle spasms and ultimately death. Nerve gases and many substances used in insecticides have been shown to act by binding a serine in the active site of acetylcholine esterase, inhibiting the enzyme completely. Acetylcholine esterase breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which is released at nerve and muscle junctions, in order to allow the muscle or organ to relax. The result of acetylcholine esterase inhibition is that acetylcholine builds up and continues to act so that any nerve impulses are continually transmitted and muscle contractions do not stop. Among the most common acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are phosphorus-based compounds, which are designed to bind to the active site of the enzyme. The structural requirements are a phosphorus atom bearing two lipophilic groups, a leaving group (such as a halide or thiocyanate), and a terminal oxygen.
MetabolismChlorpyrifos is absorbed mainly via ingestion and inhalation, but may also be absorbed to a lesser extent through the skin. Chlorpyrifos rapidly distributes to all the major organs and is bioactivated to chlorpyrifos oxon in the liver via cytochrome P-450-dependent desulfuration. The oxon is hydrolyzed by A-esterase to diethylphosphate and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP), the major metabolite. Chlorpyrifos is primarily excreted in the urine in the form of TCP conjugates. (9)
Toxicity ValuesLD50: 102 mg/kg (Oral, Rat) (7) LD50: 1233 mg/kg (Dermal, Rabbit) (7) LD50: 192 mg/kg (Intraperitoneal, Mouse) (5) LC50: 560 mg/m3 over 4 hours (Inhalation, Rat) (7)
Lethal Dose300 mg/kg for an adult human. (6)
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)Not Available
Uses/SourcesChlorpyrifos is used as a pesticide. In the home, it is used to control cockroaches, fleas, and termites; it is also used in some pet flea and tick collars. On the farm, it is used to control ticks on cattle and as a spray to control crop pests. (9)
Minimum Risk LevelAcute Oral: 0.003 mg/kg/day (8) Intermediate Oral: 0.003 mg/kg/day (8) Chronic Oral: 0.001 mg/kg/day (8)
Health EffectsAcute exposure to cholinesterase inhibitors can cause a cholinergic crisis characterized by severe nausea/vomiting, salivation, sweating, bradycardia, hypotension, collapse, and convulsions. Increasing muscle weakness is a possibility and may result in death if respiratory muscles are involved. Accumulation of ACh at motor nerves causes overstimulation of nicotinic expression at the neuromuscular junction. When this occurs symptoms such as muscle weakness, fatigue, muscle cramps, fasciculation, and paralysis can be seen. When there is an accumulation of ACh at autonomic ganglia this causes overstimulation of nicotinic expression in the sympathetic system. Symptoms associated with this are hypertension, and hypoglycemia. Overstimulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the central nervous system, due to accumulation of ACh, results in anxiety, headache, convulsions, ataxia, depression of respiration and circulation, tremor, general weakness, and potentially coma. When there is expression of muscarinic overstimulation due to excess acetylcholine at muscarinic acetylcholine receptors symptoms of visual disturbances, tightness in chest, wheezing due to bronchoconstriction, increased bronchial secretions, increased salivation, lacrimation, sweating, peristalsis, and urination can occur. Certain reproductive effects in fertility, growth, and development for males and females have been linked specifically to organophosphate pesticide exposure. Most of the research on reproductive effects has been conducted on farmers working with pesticides and insecticdes in rural areas. In females menstrual cycle disturbances, longer pregnancies, spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, and some developmental effects in offspring have been linked to organophosphate pesticide exposure. Prenatal exposure has been linked to impaired fetal growth and development. Neurotoxic effects have also been linked to poisoning with OP pesticides causing four neurotoxic effects in humans: cholinergic syndrome, intermediate syndrome, organophosphate-induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDP), and chronic organophosphate-induced neuropsychiatric disorder (COPIND). These syndromes result after acute and chronic exposure to OP pesticides.
SymptomsChlorpyrifos exposure may produce a variety of effects on the nervous system including headaches, blurred vision, lacrimation, excessive salivation, runny nose, dizziness, confusion, muscle weakness or tremors, nausea, diarrhea, and sudden changes in heart rate. High levels may result in severe sweating, loss of bowel control, severe muscle tremors, seizures, loss of consciousness, coma, or death. (9)
TreatmentIf the compound has been ingested, rapid gastric lavage should be performed using 5% sodium bicarbonate. For skin contact, the skin should be washed with soap and water. If the compound has entered the eyes, they should be washed with large quantities of isotonic saline or water. In serious cases, atropine and/or pralidoxime should be administered. Anti-cholinergic drugs work to counteract the effects of excess acetylcholine and reactivate AChE. Atropine can be used as an antidote in conjunction with pralidoxime or other pyridinium oximes (such as trimedoxime or obidoxime), though the use of '-oximes' has been found to be of no benefit, or possibly harmful, in at least two meta-analyses. Atropine is a muscarinic antagonist, and thus blocks the action of acetylcholine peripherally.
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDHMDB41856
PubChem Compound ID2730
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL463210
ChemSpider ID2629
KEGG IDC14322
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM IDNot Available
ChEBI ID34631
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDD004390
Stitch IDChlorpyrifos
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR ID465
Wikipedia LinkChlorpyrifos
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDSNot Available
General References
  1. Huff RA, Corcoran JJ, Anderson JK, Abou-Donia MB: Chlorpyrifos oxon binds directly to muscarinic receptors and inhibits cAMP accumulation in rat striatum. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1994 Apr;269(1):329-35. [7513360 ]
  2. Das PC, Cao Y, Rose RL, Cherrington N, Hodgson E: Enzyme induction and cytotoxicity in human hepatocytes by chlorpyrifos and N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET). Drug Metabol Drug Interact. 2008;23(3-4):237-60. [19326769 ]
  3. Richardson RJ, Moore TB, Kayyali US, Fowke JH, Randall JC: Inhibition of hen brain acetylcholinesterase and neurotoxic esterase by chlorpyrifos in vivo and kinetics of inhibition by chlorpyrifos oxon in vitro: application to assessment of neuropathic risk. Fundam Appl Toxicol. 1993 Apr;20(3):273-9. [7684990 ]
  4. Quistad GB, Sparks SE, Casida JE: Fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibition by neurotoxic organophosphorus pesticides. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2001 May 15;173(1):48-55. [11350214 ]
  5. Lewis RJ (1996). Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 9th ed. Volumes 1-3. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
  6. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (2002). RTECS: Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances.
  7. FAO/WHO (1999). Pesticide Residues in Food, Toxicological Evaluations, Chlorpyrifos.
  8. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2001). Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs) for Hazardous Substances. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  9. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (1997). Toxicological profile for chlorpyrifos. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated Genes
GeneGene SymbolGene IDInteractionChromosomeDetails
Down-Regulated Genes
GeneGene SymbolGene IDInteractionChromosomeDetails

Targets

General Function:
Involved in Hsp90 protein binding
Specific Function:
Ligand-activated transcriptional activator. Binds to the XRE promoter region of genes it activates. Activates the expression of multiple phase I and II xenobiotic chemical metabolizing enzyme genes (such as the CYP1A1 gene). Mediates biochemical and toxic effects of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons. Involved in cell-cycle regulation. Likely to play an important role in the development and maturation of many tissues
Gene Name:
AHR
Uniprot ID:
P35869
Molecular Weight:
96146.7 Da

Constants

TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC502.23 uMTox21_AhRTox21/NCGC
References
  1. Long M, Laier P, Vinggaard AM, Andersen HR, Lynggaard J, Bonefeld-Jorgensen EC: Effects of currently used pesticides in the AhR-CALUX assay: comparison between the human TV101L and the rat H4IIE cell line. Toxicology. 2003 Dec 15;194(1-2):77-93. [14636698 ]
  2. ToxCastDB (EPA, United States Environmental Protection Agency) [Link]
General Function:
Involved in transcription factor activity
Specific Function:
Orphan receptor; its natural ligand is probably pregnane. Binds to a response element in the CYP3A4 and ABCB1/MDR1 genes promoter. Activates its expression in response to a wide variety of endobiotics and xenobiotics
Gene Name:
NR1I2
Uniprot ID:
O75469
Molecular Weight:
49762.0 Da

Constants

TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC507.76 uMATG_PXRE_CISAttagene
References
  1. Kretschmer XC, Baldwin WS: CAR and PXR: xenosensors of endocrine disrupters? Chem Biol Interact. 2005 Aug 15;155(3):111-28. [16054614 ]
  2. Kojima H, Sata F, Takeuchi S, Sueyoshi T, Nagai T: Comparative study of human and mouse pregnane X receptor agonistic activity in 200 pesticides using in vitro reporter gene assays. Toxicology. 2011 Feb 27;280(3):77-87. doi: 10.1016/j.tox.2010.11.008. Epub 2010 Nov 27. [21115097 ]
  3. ToxCastDB (EPA, United States Environmental Protection Agency) [Link]
General Function:
Involved in transcription factor activity
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues
Gene Name:
ESR1
Uniprot ID:
P03372
Molecular Weight:
66217.0 Da
References
  1. Taccone-Gallucci M, Manca-di-Villahermosa S, Battistini L, Stuffler RG, Tedesco M, Maccarrone M: N-3 PUFAs reduce oxidative stress in ESRD patients on maintenance HD by inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase activity. Kidney Int. 2006 Apr;69(8):1450-4. [16531984 ]
  2. Luft S, Milki E, Glustrom E, Ampiah-Bonney R, O'Hara P. Binding of Organochloride and Pyrethroid Pesticides To Estrogen Receptors α and β: A Fluorescence Polarization Assay. Biophysical Journal 2009;96(3):444a.
General Function:
Involved in transcription factor activity
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. Binds estrogens with an affinity similar to that of ESR1, and activates expression of reporter genes containing estrogen response elements (ERE) in an estrogen-dependent manner. Isoform beta-cx lacks ligand binding ability and has no or only very low ere binding activity resulting in the loss of ligand-dependent transactivation ability. DNA- binding by ESR1 and ESR2 is rapidly lost at 37 degrees Celsius in the absence of ligand while in the presence of 17 beta-estradiol and 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen loss in DNA-binding at elevated temperature is more gradual
Gene Name:
ESR2
Uniprot ID:
Q92731
Molecular Weight:
59217.0 Da
References
  1. Taccone-Gallucci M, Manca-di-Villahermosa S, Battistini L, Stuffler RG, Tedesco M, Maccarrone M: N-3 PUFAs reduce oxidative stress in ESRD patients on maintenance HD by inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase activity. Kidney Int. 2006 Apr;69(8):1450-4. [16531984 ]
  2. Luft S, Milki E, Glustrom E, Ampiah-Bonney R, O'Hara P. Binding of Organochloride and Pyrethroid Pesticides To Estrogen Receptors α and β: A Fluorescence Polarization Assay. Biophysical Journal 2009;96(3):444a.
General Function:
Lipid transport and metabolism
Specific Function:
Rapidly hydrolyzes choline released into the synapse
Gene Name:
ACHE
Uniprot ID:
P22303
Molecular Weight:
67797.0 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (1997). Toxicological profile for chlorpyrifos. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Inorganic ion transport and metabolism
Specific Function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of the calcium
Gene Name:
ATP2C1
Uniprot ID:
P98194
Molecular Weight:
100579.0 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in transmembrane transport
Specific Function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of calcium (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ATP2C2
Uniprot ID:
O75185
Molecular Weight:
103186.475 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in cannabinoid receptor activity
Specific Function:
Involved in cannabinoid-induced CNS effects. Acts by inhibiting adenylate cyclase. Could be a receptor for anandamide. Isoform 2 and isoform 3 have altered ligand binding
Gene Name:
CNR1
Uniprot ID:
P21554
Molecular Weight:
52859.0 Da
References
  1. Quistad GB, Nomura DK, Sparks SE, Segall Y, Casida JE: Cannabinoid CB1 receptor as a target for chlorpyrifos oxon and other organophosphorus pesticides. Toxicol Lett. 2002 Sep 5;135(1-2):89-93. [12243867 ]
General Function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4- hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57344.0 Da
References
  1. Usmani KA, Hodgson E, Rose RL: In vitro metabolism of carbofuran by human, mouse, and rat cytochrome P450 and interactions with chlorpyrifos, testosterone, and estradiol. Chem Biol Interact. 2004 Dec 7;150(3):221-32. [15560889 ]
General Function:
Translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis
Specific Function:
Degrades bioactive fatty acid amides like oleamide, the endogenous cannabinoid, anandamide and myristic amide to their corresponding acids, thereby serving to terminate the signaling functions of these molecules
Gene Name:
FAAH
Uniprot ID:
O00519
Molecular Weight:
63067.0 Da
References
  1. Quistad GB, Sparks SE, Casida JE: Fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibition by neurotoxic organophosphorus pesticides. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2001 May 15;173(1):48-55. [11350214 ]
General Function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific Function:
Degrades bioactive fatty acid amides like oleamide, the endogenous cannabinoid, anandamide and myristic amide to their corresponding acids, thereby serving to terminate the signaling functions of these molecules. Hydrolyzes monounsaturated substrate anandamide preferentially as compared to polyunsaturated substrates.
Gene Name:
FAAH2
Uniprot ID:
Q6GMR7
Molecular Weight:
58303.115 Da
References
  1. Quistad GB, Sparks SE, Casida JE: Fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibition by neurotoxic organophosphorus pesticides. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2001 May 15;173(1):48-55. [11350214 ]
General Function:
Involved in GABA-A receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRA1
Uniprot ID:
P14867
Molecular Weight:
51802.0 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in GABA-A receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRA2
Uniprot ID:
P47869
Molecular Weight:
51340.0 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in GABA-A receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRA3
Uniprot ID:
P34903
Molecular Weight:
55165.0 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in GABA-A receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRA4
Uniprot ID:
P48169
Molecular Weight:
61641.0 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in GABA-A receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRA5
Uniprot ID:
P31644
Molecular Weight:
52147.0 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in GABA-A receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRA6
Uniprot ID:
Q16445
Molecular Weight:
51035.0 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRB1
Uniprot ID:
P18505
Molecular Weight:
54235.0 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRB2
Uniprot ID:
P47870
Molecular Weight:
54607.0 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRB3
Uniprot ID:
P28472
Molecular Weight:
54116.0 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRD
Uniprot ID:
O14764
Molecular Weight:
50707.8 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRE
Uniprot ID:
P78334
Molecular Weight:
57971.2 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRG1
Uniprot ID:
Q8N1C3
Molecular Weight:
53594.5 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in benzodiazepine receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRG2
Uniprot ID:
P18507
Molecular Weight:
54161.8 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRG3
Uniprot ID:
Q99928
Molecular Weight:
54288.2 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. In the uterus, the function of the receptor appears to be related to tissue contractility. The binding of this pI subunit with other GABA(A) receptor subunits alters the sensitivity of recombinant receptors to modulatory agents such as pregnanolone
Gene Name:
GABRP
Uniprot ID:
O00591
Molecular Weight:
50639.7 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in GABA-A receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. Rho-1 GABA receptor could play a role in retinal neurotransmission
Gene Name:
GABRR1
Uniprot ID:
P24046
Molecular Weight:
55258.0 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. Rho-2 GABA receptor could play a role in retinal neurotransmission
Gene Name:
GABRR2
Uniprot ID:
P28476
Molecular Weight:
54150.4 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel (By similarity)
Gene Name:
GABRR3
Uniprot ID:
A8MPY1
Molecular Weight:
54271.1 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRQ
Uniprot ID:
Q9UN88
Molecular Weight:
72020.9 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Defense mechanisms and drug export
Specific Function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular Weight:
141464.0 Da
References
  1. Bain LJ, LeBlanc GA: Interaction of structurally diverse pesticides with the human MDR1 gene product P-glycoprotein. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1996 Nov;141(1):288-98. [8917702 ]
General Function:
Involved in rhodopsin-like receptor activity
Specific Function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is Pi turnover
Gene Name:
CHRM1
Uniprot ID:
P11229
Molecular Weight:
51421.0 Da
References
  1. Huff RA, Corcoran JJ, Anderson JK, Abou-Donia MB: Chlorpyrifos oxon binds directly to muscarinic receptors and inhibits cAMP accumulation in rat striatum. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1994 Apr;269(1):329-35. [7513360 ]
General Function:
Involved in rhodopsin-like receptor activity
Specific Function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is adenylate cyclase inhibition
Gene Name:
CHRM2
Uniprot ID:
P08172
Molecular Weight:
51716.0 Da
References
  1. Huff RA, Corcoran JJ, Anderson JK, Abou-Donia MB: Chlorpyrifos oxon binds directly to muscarinic receptors and inhibits cAMP accumulation in rat striatum. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1994 Apr;269(1):329-35. [7513360 ]
General Function:
Involved in rhodopsin-like receptor activity
Specific Function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is Pi turnover
Gene Name:
CHRM3
Uniprot ID:
P20309
Molecular Weight:
66129.0 Da
References
  1. Huff RA, Corcoran JJ, Anderson JK, Abou-Donia MB: Chlorpyrifos oxon binds directly to muscarinic receptors and inhibits cAMP accumulation in rat striatum. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1994 Apr;269(1):329-35. [7513360 ]
General Function:
Involved in rhodopsin-like receptor activity
Specific Function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is inhibition of adenylate cyclase
Gene Name:
CHRM4
Uniprot ID:
P08173
Molecular Weight:
53050.0 Da
References
  1. Huff RA, Corcoran JJ, Anderson JK, Abou-Donia MB: Chlorpyrifos oxon binds directly to muscarinic receptors and inhibits cAMP accumulation in rat striatum. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1994 Apr;269(1):329-35. [7513360 ]
General Function:
Involved in rhodopsin-like receptor activity
Specific Function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is Pi turnover
Gene Name:
CHRM5
Uniprot ID:
P08912
Molecular Weight:
60074.0 Da
References
  1. Huff RA, Corcoran JJ, Anderson JK, Abou-Donia MB: Chlorpyrifos oxon binds directly to muscarinic receptors and inhibits cAMP accumulation in rat striatum. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1994 Apr;269(1):329-35. [7513360 ]
General Function:
Involved in phosphatidylcholine metabolic process
Specific Function:
Phospholipase B that deacylates intracellular phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho), generating glycerophosphocholine (GroPtdCho). This deacylation occurs at both sn-2 and sn-1 positions of PtdCho. Its specific chemical modification by certain organophosphorus (OP) compounds leads to distal axonopathy.
Gene Name:
PNPLA6
Uniprot ID:
Q8IY17
Molecular Weight:
149993.285 Da
References
  1. Richardson RJ, Moore TB, Kayyali US, Fowke JH, Randall JC: Inhibition of hen brain acetylcholinesterase and neurotoxic esterase by chlorpyrifos in vivo and kinetics of inhibition by chlorpyrifos oxon in vitro: application to assessment of neuropathic risk. Fundam Appl Toxicol. 1993 Apr;20(3):273-9. [7684990 ]
General Function:
Involved in transport
Specific Function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of calcium out of the cell.
Gene Name:
ATP2B1
Uniprot ID:
P20020
Molecular Weight:
138754.045 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in transport
Specific Function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of calcium out of the cell.
Gene Name:
ATP2B2
Uniprot ID:
Q01814
Molecular Weight:
136875.18 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in transport
Specific Function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of calcium out of the cell.
Gene Name:
ATP2B3
Uniprot ID:
Q16720
Molecular Weight:
134196.025 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in transport
Specific Function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of calcium out of the cell.
Gene Name:
ATP2B4
Uniprot ID:
P23634
Molecular Weight:
137919.03 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Inorganic ion transport and metabolism
Specific Function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the translocation of calcium from the cytosol to the sarcoplasmic reticulum lumen. Contributes to calcium sequestration involved in muscular excitation/contraction
Gene Name:
ATP2A1
Uniprot ID:
O14983
Molecular Weight:
110251.4 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Inorganic ion transport and metabolism
Specific Function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the translocation of calcium from the cytosol to the sarcoplasmic reticulum lumen. Isoform SERCA2A is involved in the regulation of the contraction/relaxation cycle
Gene Name:
ATP2A2
Uniprot ID:
P16615
Molecular Weight:
114755.8 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in transport
Specific Function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of calcium. Transports calcium ions from the cytosol into the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum lumen. Contributes to calcium sequestration involved in muscular excitation/contraction.
Gene Name:
ATP2A3
Uniprot ID:
Q93084
Molecular Weight:
113976.23 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in antioxidant activity
Specific Function:
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloidal osmotic pressure of blood
Gene Name:
ALB
Uniprot ID:
P02768
Molecular Weight:
69367.0 Da
References
  1. Li B, Schopfer LM, Hinrichs SH, Masson P, Lockridge O: Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry assay for organophosphorus toxicants bound to human albumin at Tyr411. Anal Biochem. 2007 Feb 15;361(2):263-72. Epub 2006 Dec 4. [17188226 ]
General Function:
Inorganic ion transport and metabolism
Specific Function:
This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This action creates the electrochemical gradient of sodium and potassium ions, providing the energy for active transport of various nutrients
Gene Name:
ATP1A1
Uniprot ID:
P05023
Molecular Weight:
112897.0 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in visual learning
Specific Function:
This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This action creates the electrochemical gradient of sodium and potassium, providing the energy for active transport of various nutrients.
Gene Name:
ATP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P50993
Molecular Weight:
112264.385 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in visual learning
Specific Function:
This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This action creates the electrochemical gradient of sodium and potassium ions, providing the energy for active transport of various nutrients.
Gene Name:
ATP1A3
Uniprot ID:
P13637
Molecular Weight:
111747.51 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in transmembrane transport
Specific Function:
This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This action creates the electrochemical gradient of sodium and potassium ions, providing the energy for active transport of various nutrients. Plays a role in sperm motility.
Gene Name:
ATP1A4
Uniprot ID:
Q13733
Molecular Weight:
114165.44 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in transport
Specific Function:
This is the non-catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of Na(+) and K(+) ions across the plasma membrane. The beta subunit regulates, through assembly of alpha/beta heterodimers, the number of sodium pumps transported to the plasma membrane.Involved in cell adhesion and establishing epithelial cell polarity.
Gene Name:
ATP1B1
Uniprot ID:
P05026
Molecular Weight:
35061.07 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in transport
Specific Function:
This is the non-catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of Na(+) and K(+) ions across the plasma membrane. The exact function of the beta-2 subunit is not known.Mediates cell adhesion of neurons and astrocytes, and promotes neurite outgrowth (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ATP1B2
Uniprot ID:
P14415
Molecular Weight:
33366.925 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in transport
Specific Function:
This is the non-catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of Na(+) and K(+) ions across the plasma membrane. The exact function of the beta-3 subunit is not known.
Gene Name:
ATP1B3
Uniprot ID:
P54709
Molecular Weight:
31512.34 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in ion channel activity
Specific Function:
May be involved in forming the receptor site for cardiac glycoside binding or may modulate the transport function of the sodium ATPase
Gene Name:
FXYD2
Uniprot ID:
P54710
Molecular Weight:
7283.0 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in DNA binding
Specific Function:
Receptor that binds peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Once activated by a ligand, the receptor binds to a promoter element in the gene for acyl-CoA oxidase and activates its transcription. It therefore controls the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway of fatty acids. Decreases expression of NPC1L1 once activated by a ligand
Gene Name:
PPARD
Uniprot ID:
Q03181
Molecular Weight:
49904.0 Da

Constants

TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC500.49 uMATG_PPARd_TRANSAttagene
References
  1. ToxCastDB (EPA, United States Environmental Protection Agency) [Link]
General Function:
Involved in androgen receptor activity
Specific Function:
Binds and transactivates the retinoic acid response elements that control expression of the retinoic acid receptor beta 2 and alcohol dehydrogenase 3 genes. Transactivates both the phenobarbital responsive element module of the human CYP2B6 gene and the CYP3A4 xenobiotic response element
Gene Name:
NR1I3
Uniprot ID:
Q14994
Molecular Weight:
39942.1 Da

Constants

TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC504.01 uMATG_CAR_TRANSAttagene
References
  1. ToxCastDB (EPA, United States Environmental Protection Agency) [Link]