Tmic
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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-05-06 21:37:51 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:22:48 UTC
Accession NumberT3D0770
Identification
Common NameEthanol
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionEthanol is a clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in alcoholic beverages. Indeed, ethanol has widespread use as a solvent of substances intended for human contact or consumption, including scents, flavorings, colorings, and medicines. Ethanol has a depressive effect on the central nervous system and because of its psychoactive effects, it is considered a drug. Ethanol has a complex mode of action and affects multiple systems in the brain, most notably it acts as an agonist to the GABA receptors. Death from ethanol consumption is possible when blood alcohol level reaches 0.4%. A blood level of 0.5% or more is commonly fatal. Levels of even less than 0.1% can cause intoxication, with unconsciousness often occurring at 0.3-0.4 %. Ethanol is metabolized by the body as an energy-providing carbohydrate nutrient, as it metabolizes into acetyl CoA, an intermediate common with glucose metabolism, that can be used for energy in the citric acid cycle or for biosynthesis. Ethanol within the human body is converted into acetaldehyde by alcohol dehydrogenase and then into acetic acid by acetaldehyde dehydrogenase. The product of the first step of this breakdown, acetaldehyde, is more toxic than ethanol. Acetaldehyde is linked to most of the clinical effects of alcohol. It has been shown to increase the risk of developing cirrhosis of the liver,[77] multiple forms of cancer, and alcoholism. Industrially, ethanol is produced both as a petrochemical, through the hydration of ethylene, and biologically, by fermenting sugars with yeast. Small amounts of ethanol are endogenously produced by gut microflora through anaerobic fermentation. However most ethanol detected in biofluids and tissues likely comes from consumption of alcoholic beverages. Absolute ethanol or anhydrous alcohol generally refers to purified ethanol, containing no more than one percent water. Absolute alcohol is not intended for human consumption. It often contains trace amounts of toxic benzene (used to remove water by azeotropic distillation). Consumption of this form of ethanol can be fatal over a short time period. Generally absolute or pure ethanol is used as a solvent for lab and industrial settings where water will disrupt a desired reaction. Pure ethanol is classed as 200 proof in the USA and Canada, equivalent to 175 degrees proof in the UK system.
Compound Type
  • Anti-Infective Agent, Local
  • Central Nervous System Depressant
  • Disinfectant
  • Drug
  • Food Toxin
  • Household Toxin
  • Industrial/Workplace Toxin
  • Metabolite
  • Natural Compound
  • Organic Compound
  • Solvent
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
1-Hydroxyethane
Absolute alcohol
Absolute ethanol
Absolute ethyl alcohol
Aethanol
Aethylalkohol
Alcare Hand Degermer
Alcohol
Algrain
Alkohol
Alkoholu etylowego
Anhydrol
Anhydrous alcohol
C2H5OH
Cologne spirit
Cologne spirits
Dehydrated alcohol
Dehydrated ethanol
Denatured alcohol
Denatured ethanol
Diluted Alcohol
Distilled spirits
Etanol
Ethanol 200 proof
Ethanol solution
Ethicap
Ethyl alc
Ethyl alcohol
Ethyl alcohol anhydrous
Ethyl hydrate
Ethyl hydroxide
EtOH
Fermentation alcohol
Grain alcohol
Hinetoless
Hydroxyethane
Infinity Pure
Jaysol
Jaysol S
Lux
Methylcarbinol
Molasses alcohol
Potato alcohol
Punctilious ethyl alcohol
Pyro
Silent spirit
Spirit
Spirits of wine
Spiritus vini
Spirt
Synasol
Tecsol
Tecsol C
Thanol
Undenatured Ethanol
[CH2Me(OH)]
[OEtH]
Chemical FormulaC2H6O
Average Molecular Mass46.068 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass46.042 g/mol
CAS Registry Number64-17-5
IUPAC Nameethanol
Traditional Nameethyl alcohol
SMILESCCO
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C2H6O/c1-2-3/h3H,2H2,1H3
InChI KeyInChIKey=LFQSCWFLJHTTHZ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as primary alcohols. Primary alcohols are compounds comprising the primary alcohol functional group, with the general structure RCOH (R=alkyl, aryl).
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic oxygen compounds
ClassOrganooxygen compounds
Sub ClassAlcohols and polyols
Direct ParentPrimary alcohols
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary alcohol
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginEndogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Peroxisome
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue Locations
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Adrenal Cortex
  • Adrenal Gland
  • Adrenal Medulla
  • Bladder
  • Brain
  • Epidermis
  • Fetus
  • Fibroblasts
  • Gonads
  • Gut
  • Heart
  • Intestine
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Lung
  • Mouth
  • Muscle
  • Myelin
  • Nerve Cells
  • Neuron
  • Pancreas
  • Placenta
  • Platelet
  • Prostate
  • Skeletal Muscle
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Ethanol DegradationSMP00449 Not Available
Applications
Biological Roles
Chemical Roles
Physical Properties
StateLiquid
AppearanceNot Available
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point-114.1°C
Boiling Point78.2°C
Solubility1E+006 mg/L (at 25°C)
LogP-0.31
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility579 g/LALOGPS
logP-0.4ALOGPS
logP-0.16ChemAxon
logS1.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)16.47ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-2.2ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area20.23 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity13.01 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability5.3 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-001j-9000000000-a705823ce4aeba7f89e1View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-001j-9000000000-a705823ce4aeba7f89e1View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-002b-9000000000-7fa80a491183c1cdd23eView in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0fmi-9200000000-587cc3c48ab7fbf9cd3aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI RMU-7M) , Positivesplash10-001j-9000000000-a705823ce4aeba7f89e1View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0002-9000000000-d75d9996bc68c673f090View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0002-9000000000-893c2599624722912f25View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-004i-9000000000-8af4124822065023744fView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0002-9000000000-22231ed69c5f28bfed79View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0002-9000000000-d2881505c47bbef13f18View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0002-9000000000-2ed988bb761ac20ba44aView in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-003s-9000000000-dabf5a61c5a7da9fbe13View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral, rapidly absorbed. Blood alcohol level and the time necessary to achieve it are controlled largely by the rapidity and extent of ethanol consumption. (26)
Mechanism of ToxicityAlcohol binds to the GABA(A) receptors (delta subunit), NMDA receptors, Glycine receptors, Serotonin receptors, Acetylcholine receptors, L-channel calcium channels and GIRK channels. Ethanol acts in the central nervous system primarily by binding to the GABAA receptor, increasing the effects of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. Ethanol within the human body is converted into acetaldehyde by alcohol dehydrogenase. Acetaldehyde is linked to most of the clinical effects of alcohol. It has been shown to increase the risk of developing cirrhosis of the liver and multiple forms of cancer. During the metabolism of alcohol via the respective dehydrogenases, NAD (Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) is converted into reduced NAD. Normally, NAD is used to metabolise fats in the liver, and as such alcohol competes with these fats for the use of NAD. Prolonged exposure to alcohol means that fats accumulate in the liver, leading to the term 'fatty liver'. Continued consumption (such as in alcoholism) then leads to cell death in the hepatocytes as the fat stores reduce the function of the cell to the point of death. These cells are then replaced with scar tissue, leading to the condition called cirrhosis.
MetabolismEthanol is metabolized to acetaldehyde by three enzymes: 1. Alcohol dehydrogenase metabolized methanol to acetaldehyde, which is oxidized by acetaldehyde dehydrogenase to acetate. 2. Catalase metabolizes ethanol by utilizing H2O2 supplied by the actionhs of NADPH oxidase and xanthine oxidase. This normally accounts for more than 10% of ethanol metabolism. 3. CYP2E1, is the principal component of the hepatic microsomal ethanol oxidizing system, MEOS) (26)
Toxicity ValuesLD50: 5628 mg/kg (Oral, rat)
Lethal DoseThe fatal dose of ethanol is 300-400 mL of pure ethanol (600-800 mL of 50% spirits), for the average adult if consumed in less than one hour. More specifically, the lethal dose of alcohol is 5-8g/kg (3g/kg for children).
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)Ethanol in alcoholic beverages is carcinogenic to humans (Group 1). (27)
Uses/SourcesEthanol is used as a solvent in industry, in many household products and pharmaceuticals, and in intoxicating beverages. It is also used for therapeutic neurolysis of nerves or ganglia for the relief of intractable chronic pain in such conditions as inoperable cancer and trigeminal neuralgia (tic douloureux), in patients for whom neurosurgical procedures are contraindicated.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsAcute: At 0.1% blood alcohol levels individuals experience CNS depression, nausea, possible vomiting, impaired cognition and impaired motor and sensory function. Accidents or injury can also occur due to the side effects of loss of coordination, slowed reaction time, sleepiness and impaired judgment. At >0.14% blood alcohol levels there is decreased blood flow to the brain. At greater than 0.3% blood alcohol there is a marked degree of stupefaction and possible unconsciousness. At levels greater than 0.4% there is a risk of death. Acute consumption leading to blood alcohol levels greater than 0.5% is almost universally fatal. Chronic: high levels of alcohol consumption are associated with an increased risk of alcoholism, malnutrition, chronic pancreatitis, alcoholic (fatty) liver disease, and cancer. Frequent drinking of alcoholic beverages has been shown to be a major contributing factor in cases of elevated blood levels of triglycerides. In addition, damage to the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system can occur from chronic alcohol abuse. The long-term use of alcohol is capable of damaging nearly every organ and system in the body. The developing adolescent brain is particularly vulnerable to the toxic effects of alcohol. In addition, the developing fetal brain is also vulnerable, and fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) may result if pregnant mothers consume alcohol. The net effect of alcohol consumption on global human health is quite detrimental, with an estimated 3.8% of all global deaths and 4.6% of global disability-adjusted life-years attributable to alcohol. Ethanol is considered a teratogen (causing fetal alcohol syndrome) and a Group 1 carcinogen because of the carcinogenicity of acetaldehyde (a major metabolite of alcohol).
SymptomsSymptoms and effects of overdose include nausea, vomiting, CNS depression, acute respiratory failure or death and with chronic use, severe health problems, such as liver and brain damage. At >0.14% blood alcohol levels there is decreased blood flow to the brain. At greater than 0.3% blood alcohol there is a marked degree of stupefaction and possible unconsciousness. At levels greater than 0.4% there is a risk of death. Acute consumption leading to blood alcohol levels greater than 0.5% is almost universally fatal. With chronic alcohol abuse, severe health problems, such as liver and brain damage can be present.
TreatmentIf you suspect someone has alcohol poisoning, call for an ambulance to take them to a hospital. While you're waiting: try to keep them sitting up and awake, give them water if they can drink it. If they've passed out, lie them on their side in the recovery position and check they're breathing properly, keep them warm and stay with them and monitor their symptoms. Acute alcohol poisoning is a medical emergency due to the risk of death from respiratory depression and/or inhalation of vomit if emesis occurs while the patient is unconscious and unresponsive. Emergency treatment for acute alcohol poisoning strives to stabilize the patient and maintain a patent airway and respiration, while waiting for the alcohol to metabolize. Emergency treatment in a hospital can involve: 1) treating hypoglycaemia (low blood sugar) with 50 ml of 50% dextrose solution and saline flush, as ethanol induced hypoglycaemia is unresponsive to glucagon; 2) Administration of the vitamin thiamine to prevent Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, which can cause a seizure; 3) application of haemodialysis if the blood concentration is dangerously high (>400 mg%), and especially if there is metabolic acidosis and 4) Providing oxygen therapy as needed via nasal cannula or non-rebreather mask.
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB00898
HMDB IDHMDB00108
PubChem Compound ID702
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL545
ChemSpider ID682
KEGG IDC00469
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID16236
BioCyc IDETOH
CTD IDD000431
Stitch IDEthanol
PDB IDEOH
ACToR ID594
Wikipedia LinkEthanol
References
Synthesis Reference

William S. Hedrick, “Process for ethanol production from cellulosic materials.” U.S. Patent US4650689, issued June, 1917.

MSDSLink
General References
  1. Snyder R, Kalf GF: A perspective on benzene leukemogenesis. Crit Rev Toxicol. 1994;24(3):177-209. [7945890 ]
  2. Chastain G: Alcohol, neurotransmitter systems, and behavior. J Gen Psychol. 2006 Oct;133(4):329-35. [17128954 ]
  3. McDonnell G, Russell AD: Antiseptics and disinfectants: activity, action, and resistance. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1999 Jan;12(1):147-79. [9880479 ]
  4. Barceloux DG, Bond GR, Krenzelok EP, Cooper H, Vale JA: American Academy of Clinical Toxicology practice guidelines on the treatment of methanol poisoning. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 2002;40(4):415-46. [12216995 ]
  5. Hingson R, Winter M: Epidemiology and consequences of drinking and driving. Alcohol Res Health. 2003;27(1):63-78. [15301401 ]
  6. Silwood CJ, Lynch E, Claxson AW, Grootveld MC: 1H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic analysis of human saliva. J Dent Res. 2002 Jun;81(6):422-7. [12097436 ]
  7. Gordon Z, Parsons CL, Monga M: Intravesical ethanol test: an ineffective measure of bladder hyperpermeability. Urology. 2003 Mar;61(3):555-7. [12639646 ]
  8. Huang JS, She QB, Crilly KS, Kiss Z: Ethanol, Zn2+ and insulin interact as progression factors to enhance DNA synthesis synergistically in the presence of Ca2+ and other cell cycle initiators in fibroblasts. Biochem J. 2000 Feb 15;346 Pt 1:241-7. [10657263 ]
  9. Friedman GD, Klatsky AL, Siegelaub AB: Alcohol, tobacco, and hypertension. Hypertension. 1982 Sep-Oct;4(5 Pt 2):III143-50. [7049929 ]
  10. Uemura M, Lehmann WD, Schneider W, Seitz HK, Benner A, Keppler-Hafkemeyer A, Hafkemeyer P, Kojima H, Fujimoto M, Tsujii T, Fukui H, Keppler D: Enhanced urinary excretion of cysteinyl leukotrienes in patients with acute alcohol intoxication. Gastroenterology. 2000 Jun;118(6):1140-8. [10833489 ]
  11. Hemmingsen R, Barry DI, Hertz MM, Klinken L: Cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption during ethanol withdrawal in the rat. Brain Res. 1979 Sep 14;173(2):259-69. [573652 ]
  12. Lopez JM, Bombi JA, Valderrama R, Gimenez A, Pares A, Caballeria J, Imperial S, Navarro S: Effects of prolonged ethanol intake and malnutrition on rat pancreas. Gut. 1996 Feb;38(2):285-92. [8801213 ]
  13. Yamashina S, Ikejima K, Enomoto N, Takei Y, Sato N: [Ethanol changes sensitivity of Kupffer cells to endotoxin]. Nihon Arukoru Yakubutsu Igakkai Zasshi. 2003 Oct;38(5):415-24. [14639920 ]
  14. Aye MM, Ma C, Lin H, Bower KA, Wiggins RC, Luo J: Ethanol-induced in vitro invasion of breast cancer cells: the contribution of MMP-2 by fibroblasts. Int J Cancer. 2004 Dec 10;112(5):738-46. [15386367 ]
  15. De Martinis BS, de Paula CM, Braga A, Moreira HT, Martin CC: Alcohol distribution in different postmortem body fluids. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2006 Feb;25(2):93-7. [16539214 ]
  16. Pohorecky LA: Influence of alcohol on peripheral neurotransmitter function. Fed Proc. 1982 Jun;41(8):2452-5. [6123447 ]
  17. Dean RA, Zhang J, Brzezinski MR, Bosron WF: Tissue distribution of cocaine methyl esterase and ethyl transferase activities: correlation with carboxylesterase protein. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1995 Nov;275(2):965-71. [7473189 ]
  18. Elias AN, Meshkinpour H, Valenta LJ, Grossman MK: Pseudo-Cushing's syndrome: the role of alcohol. J Clin Gastroenterol. 1982 Apr;4(2):137-9. [6282953 ]
  19. Henriksson J, Knol M: A single bout of exercise is followed by a prolonged decrease in the interstitial glucose concentration in skeletal muscle. Acta Physiol Scand. 2005 Dec;185(4):313-20. [16266372 ]
  20. Rosdahl H, Lind L, Millgard J, Lithell H, Ungerstedt U, Henriksson J: Effect of physiological hyperinsulinemia on blood flow and interstitial glucose concentration in human skeletal muscle and adipose tissue studied by microdialysis. Diabetes. 1998 Aug;47(8):1296-301. [9703331 ]
  21. Boschmann M, Adams F, Schaller K, Franke G, Sharma AM, Klaus S, Luft FC, Jordan J: Hemodynamic and metabolic responses to interstitial angiotensin II in normal weight and obese men. J Hypertens. 2006 Jun;24(6):1165-71. [16685217 ]
  22. Igawa Y, Satoh T, Mizusawa H, Seki S, Kato H, Ishizuka O, Nishizawa O: The role of capsaicin-sensitive afferents in autonomic dysreflexia in patients with spinal cord injury. BJU Int. 2003 May;91(7):637-41. [12699475 ]
  23. Enocksson S, Shimizu M, Lonnqvist F, Nordenstrom J, Arner P: Demonstration of an in vivo functional beta 3-adrenoceptor in man. J Clin Invest. 1995 May;95(5):2239-45. [7738189 ]
  24. Collins JW, Macdermott S, Bradbrook RA, Keeley FX Jr, Timoney AG: Is using ethanol-glycine irrigating fluid monitoring and 'good surgical practice' enough to prevent harmful absorption during transurethral resection of the prostate? BJU Int. 2006 Jun;97(6):1247-51. [16686720 ]
  25. Sokolik VV, Chursina VS, Artemchuk AA, Artemchuk AF, Bozhko GKh: [Depression of serum esterase and lipoprotein lipase activities in acute and longitudinal actions of ethanol]. Biomed Khim. 2006 Jan-Feb;52(1):95-100. [16739925 ]
  26. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
  27. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2014). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated Genes
GeneGene SymbolGene IDInteractionChromosomeDetails
Down-Regulated Genes
GeneGene SymbolGene IDInteractionChromosomeDetails

Targets

General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ADH1A
Uniprot ID:
P07327
Molecular Weight:
39858.37 Da
References
  1. Hernandez-Tobias A, Julian-Sanchez A, Pina E, Riveros-Rosas H: Natural alcohol exposure: is ethanol the main substrate for alcohol dehydrogenases in animals? Chem Biol Interact. 2011 May 30;191(1-3):14-25. doi: 10.1016/j.cbi.2011.02.008. Epub 2011 Feb 15. [21329681 ]
  2. Matsumoto M, Cyganek I, Sanghani PC, Cho WK, Liangpunsakul S, Crabb DW: Ethanol metabolism by HeLa cells transduced with human alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzymes: control of the pathway by acetaldehyde concentration. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2011 Jan;35(1):28-38. doi: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2010.01319.x. [21166830 ]
  3. Nishimura FT, Kimura Y, Abe S, Fukunaga T, Saijoh K: Effects of polymorphisms in untranslated regions of the class I alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) genes on alcohol metabolism in Japanese subjects and transcriptional activity in HepG2 cells. Nihon Arukoru Yakubutsu Igakkai Zasshi. 2009 Jun;44(3):139-55. [19618839 ]
  4. Jelski W, Kozlowski M, Laudanski J, Niklinski J, Szmitkowski M: The activity of class I, II, III, and IV alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isoenzymes and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in esophageal cancer. Dig Dis Sci. 2009 Apr;54(4):725-30. doi: 10.1007/s10620-008-0422-8. Epub 2008 Aug 9. [18688716 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ADH1B
Uniprot ID:
P00325
Molecular Weight:
39854.21 Da
References
  1. Hernandez-Tobias A, Julian-Sanchez A, Pina E, Riveros-Rosas H: Natural alcohol exposure: is ethanol the main substrate for alcohol dehydrogenases in animals? Chem Biol Interact. 2011 May 30;191(1-3):14-25. doi: 10.1016/j.cbi.2011.02.008. Epub 2011 Feb 15. [21329681 ]
  2. Matsumoto M, Cyganek I, Sanghani PC, Cho WK, Liangpunsakul S, Crabb DW: Ethanol metabolism by HeLa cells transduced with human alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzymes: control of the pathway by acetaldehyde concentration. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2011 Jan;35(1):28-38. doi: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2010.01319.x. [21166830 ]
  3. Nishimura FT, Kimura Y, Abe S, Fukunaga T, Saijoh K: Effects of polymorphisms in untranslated regions of the class I alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) genes on alcohol metabolism in Japanese subjects and transcriptional activity in HepG2 cells. Nihon Arukoru Yakubutsu Igakkai Zasshi. 2009 Jun;44(3):139-55. [19618839 ]
  4. Jelski W, Kozlowski M, Laudanski J, Niklinski J, Szmitkowski M: The activity of class I, II, III, and IV alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isoenzymes and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in esophageal cancer. Dig Dis Sci. 2009 Apr;54(4):725-30. doi: 10.1007/s10620-008-0422-8. Epub 2008 Aug 9. [18688716 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ADH1C
Uniprot ID:
P00326
Molecular Weight:
39867.27 Da
References
  1. Hernandez-Tobias A, Julian-Sanchez A, Pina E, Riveros-Rosas H: Natural alcohol exposure: is ethanol the main substrate for alcohol dehydrogenases in animals? Chem Biol Interact. 2011 May 30;191(1-3):14-25. doi: 10.1016/j.cbi.2011.02.008. Epub 2011 Feb 15. [21329681 ]
  2. Matsumoto M, Cyganek I, Sanghani PC, Cho WK, Liangpunsakul S, Crabb DW: Ethanol metabolism by HeLa cells transduced with human alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzymes: control of the pathway by acetaldehyde concentration. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2011 Jan;35(1):28-38. doi: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2010.01319.x. [21166830 ]
  3. Nishimura FT, Kimura Y, Abe S, Fukunaga T, Saijoh K: Effects of polymorphisms in untranslated regions of the class I alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) genes on alcohol metabolism in Japanese subjects and transcriptional activity in HepG2 cells. Nihon Arukoru Yakubutsu Igakkai Zasshi. 2009 Jun;44(3):139-55. [19618839 ]
  4. Jelski W, Kozlowski M, Laudanski J, Niklinski J, Szmitkowski M: The activity of class I, II, III, and IV alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isoenzymes and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in esophageal cancer. Dig Dis Sci. 2009 Apr;54(4):725-30. doi: 10.1007/s10620-008-0422-8. Epub 2008 Aug 9. [18688716 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GABRA1
Uniprot ID:
P14867
Molecular Weight:
51801.395 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Santhakumar V, Wallner M, Otis TS: Ethanol acts directly on extrasynaptic subtypes of GABAA receptors to increase tonic inhibition. Alcohol. 2007 May;41(3):211-21. [17591544 ]
  4. Davies M: The role of GABAA receptors in mediating the effects of alcohol in the central nervous system. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2003 Jul;28(4):263-74. [12921221 ]
General Function:
Protein phosphatase 2a binding
Specific Function:
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with reduced single-channel conductance, low calcium permeability and low voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine. May play a role in the development of dendritic spines. May play a role in PPP2CB-NMDAR mediated signaling mechanism (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GRIN3A
Uniprot ID:
Q8TCU5
Molecular Weight:
125464.07 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Wang J, Lanfranco MF, Gibb SL, Ron D: Ethanol-mediated long-lasting adaptations of the NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in the dorsomedial striatum. Channels (Austin). 2011 May-Jun;5(3):205-9. Epub 2011 May 1. [21289476 ]
General Function:
Transmitter-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
The glycine receptor is a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel. Binding of glycine to its receptor increases the chloride conductance and thus produces hyperpolarization (inhibition of neuronal firing).
Gene Name:
GLRA1
Uniprot ID:
P23415
Molecular Weight:
52623.35 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Ye Q, Koltchine VV, Mihic SJ, Mascia MP, Wick MJ, Finn SE, Harrison NL, Harris RA: Enhancement of glycine receptor function by ethanol is inversely correlated with molecular volume at position alpha267. J Biol Chem. 1998 Feb 6;273(6):3314-9. [9452448 ]
General Function:
Transmitter-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
The glycine receptor is a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel. Binding of glycine to its receptor increases the chloride conductance and thus produces hyperpolarization (inhibition of neuronal firing).
Gene Name:
GLRA2
Uniprot ID:
P23416
Molecular Weight:
52001.585 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Ye Q, Koltchine VV, Mihic SJ, Mascia MP, Wick MJ, Finn SE, Harrison NL, Harris RA: Enhancement of glycine receptor function by ethanol is inversely correlated with molecular volume at position alpha267. J Biol Chem. 1998 Feb 6;273(6):3314-9. [9452448 ]
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic or carcinogenic forms.
Gene Name:
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID:
P05181
Molecular Weight:
56848.42 Da
References
  1. Bardag-Gorce F, Li J, French BA, French SW: Ethanol withdrawal induced CYP2E1 degradation in vivo, blocked by proteasomal inhibitor PS-341. Free Radic Biol Med. 2002 Jan 1;32(1):17-21. [11755313 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General Function:
G-protein activated inward rectifier potassium channel activity
Specific Function:
This potassium channel is controlled by G proteins. Inward rectifier potassium channels are characterized by a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into the cell rather than out of it. Their voltage dependence is regulated by the concentration of extracellular potassium; as external potassium is raised, the voltage range of the channel opening shifts to more positive voltages. The inward rectification is mainly due to the blockage of outward current by internal magnesium. This receptor plays a crucial role in regulating the heartbeat.
Gene Name:
KCNJ3
Uniprot ID:
P48549
Molecular Weight:
56602.84 Da
References
  1. Spanagel R: Alcoholism: a systems approach from molecular physiology to addictive behavior. Physiol Rev. 2009 Apr;89(2):649-705. doi: 10.1152/physrev.00013.2008. [19342616 ]
  2. Bodhinathan K, Slesinger PA: Molecular mechanism underlying ethanol activation of G-protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium channels. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Nov 5;110(45):18309-14. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1311406110. Epub 2013 Oct 21. [24145411 ]
General Function:
Inward rectifier potassium channel activity
Specific Function:
This potassium channel may be involved in the regulation of insulin secretion by glucose and/or neurotransmitters acting through G-protein-coupled receptors. Inward rectifier potassium channels are characterized by a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into the cell rather than out of it. Their voltage dependence is regulated by the concentration of extracellular potassium; as external potassium is raised, the voltage range of the channel opening shifts to more positive voltages. The inward rectification is mainly due to the blockage of outward current by internal magnesium.
Gene Name:
KCNJ6
Uniprot ID:
P48051
Molecular Weight:
48450.96 Da
References
  1. Spanagel R: Alcoholism: a systems approach from molecular physiology to addictive behavior. Physiol Rev. 2009 Apr;89(2):649-705. doi: 10.1152/physrev.00013.2008. [19342616 ]
  2. Bodhinathan K, Slesinger PA: Molecular mechanism underlying ethanol activation of G-protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium channels. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Nov 5;110(45):18309-14. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1311406110. Epub 2013 Oct 21. [24145411 ]
General Function:
G-protein activated inward rectifier potassium channel activity
Specific Function:
This receptor is controlled by G proteins. Inward rectifier potassium channels are characterized by a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into the cell rather than out of it. Their voltage dependence is regulated by the concentration of extracellular potassium; as external potassium is raised, the voltage range of the channel opening shifts to more positive voltages. The inward rectification is mainly due to the blockage of outward current by internal magnesium (By similarity).
Gene Name:
KCNJ9
Uniprot ID:
Q92806
Molecular Weight:
44019.45 Da
References
  1. Spanagel R: Alcoholism: a systems approach from molecular physiology to addictive behavior. Physiol Rev. 2009 Apr;89(2):649-705. doi: 10.1152/physrev.00013.2008. [19342616 ]
  2. Bodhinathan K, Slesinger PA: Molecular mechanism underlying ethanol activation of G-protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium channels. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Nov 5;110(45):18309-14. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1311406110. Epub 2013 Oct 21. [24145411 ]
General Function:
G-protein activated inward rectifier potassium channel activity
Specific Function:
This potassium channel is controlled by G proteins. Inward rectifier potassium channels are characterized by a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into the cell rather than out of it. Their voltage dependence is regulated by the concentration of extracellular potassium; as external potassium is raised, the voltage range of the channel opening shifts to more positive voltages. The inward rectification is mainly due to the blockage of outward current by internal magnesium. Can be blocked by external barium.
Gene Name:
KCNJ5
Uniprot ID:
P48544
Molecular Weight:
47667.3 Da
References
  1. Spanagel R: Alcoholism: a systems approach from molecular physiology to addictive behavior. Physiol Rev. 2009 Apr;89(2):649-705. doi: 10.1152/physrev.00013.2008. [19342616 ]
  2. Bodhinathan K, Slesinger PA: Molecular mechanism underlying ethanol activation of G-protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium channels. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Nov 5;110(45):18309-14. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1311406110. Epub 2013 Oct 21. [24145411 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA2
Uniprot ID:
P47869
Molecular Weight:
51325.85 Da
References
  1. Santhakumar V, Wallner M, Otis TS: Ethanol acts directly on extrasynaptic subtypes of GABAA receptors to increase tonic inhibition. Alcohol. 2007 May;41(3):211-21. [17591544 ]
  2. Davies M: The role of GABAA receptors in mediating the effects of alcohol in the central nervous system. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2003 Jul;28(4):263-74. [12921221 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA3
Uniprot ID:
P34903
Molecular Weight:
55164.055 Da
References
  1. Santhakumar V, Wallner M, Otis TS: Ethanol acts directly on extrasynaptic subtypes of GABAA receptors to increase tonic inhibition. Alcohol. 2007 May;41(3):211-21. [17591544 ]
  2. Davies M: The role of GABAA receptors in mediating the effects of alcohol in the central nervous system. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2003 Jul;28(4):263-74. [12921221 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA4
Uniprot ID:
P48169
Molecular Weight:
61622.645 Da
References
  1. Santhakumar V, Wallner M, Otis TS: Ethanol acts directly on extrasynaptic subtypes of GABAA receptors to increase tonic inhibition. Alcohol. 2007 May;41(3):211-21. [17591544 ]
  2. Davies M: The role of GABAA receptors in mediating the effects of alcohol in the central nervous system. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2003 Jul;28(4):263-74. [12921221 ]
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA5
Uniprot ID:
P31644
Molecular Weight:
52145.645 Da
References
  1. Santhakumar V, Wallner M, Otis TS: Ethanol acts directly on extrasynaptic subtypes of GABAA receptors to increase tonic inhibition. Alcohol. 2007 May;41(3):211-21. [17591544 ]
  2. Davies M: The role of GABAA receptors in mediating the effects of alcohol in the central nervous system. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2003 Jul;28(4):263-74. [12921221 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA6
Uniprot ID:
Q16445
Molecular Weight:
51023.69 Da
References
  1. Santhakumar V, Wallner M, Otis TS: Ethanol acts directly on extrasynaptic subtypes of GABAA receptors to increase tonic inhibition. Alcohol. 2007 May;41(3):211-21. [17591544 ]
  2. Davies M: The role of GABAA receptors in mediating the effects of alcohol in the central nervous system. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2003 Jul;28(4):263-74. [12921221 ]
General Function:
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GABRB1
Uniprot ID:
P18505
Molecular Weight:
54234.085 Da
References
  1. Santhakumar V, Wallner M, Otis TS: Ethanol acts directly on extrasynaptic subtypes of GABAA receptors to increase tonic inhibition. Alcohol. 2007 May;41(3):211-21. [17591544 ]
  2. Davies M: The role of GABAA receptors in mediating the effects of alcohol in the central nervous system. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2003 Jul;28(4):263-74. [12921221 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRB2
Uniprot ID:
P47870
Molecular Weight:
59149.895 Da
References
  1. Santhakumar V, Wallner M, Otis TS: Ethanol acts directly on extrasynaptic subtypes of GABAA receptors to increase tonic inhibition. Alcohol. 2007 May;41(3):211-21. [17591544 ]
  2. Davies M: The role of GABAA receptors in mediating the effects of alcohol in the central nervous system. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2003 Jul;28(4):263-74. [12921221 ]
General Function:
Gaba-gated chloride ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRB3
Uniprot ID:
P28472
Molecular Weight:
54115.04 Da
References
  1. Santhakumar V, Wallner M, Otis TS: Ethanol acts directly on extrasynaptic subtypes of GABAA receptors to increase tonic inhibition. Alcohol. 2007 May;41(3):211-21. [17591544 ]
  2. Davies M: The role of GABAA receptors in mediating the effects of alcohol in the central nervous system. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2003 Jul;28(4):263-74. [12921221 ]
General Function:
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRD
Uniprot ID:
O14764
Molecular Weight:
50707.835 Da
References
  1. Santhakumar V, Wallner M, Otis TS: Ethanol acts directly on extrasynaptic subtypes of GABAA receptors to increase tonic inhibition. Alcohol. 2007 May;41(3):211-21. [17591544 ]
  2. Davies M: The role of GABAA receptors in mediating the effects of alcohol in the central nervous system. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2003 Jul;28(4):263-74. [12921221 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRE
Uniprot ID:
P78334
Molecular Weight:
57971.175 Da
References
  1. Santhakumar V, Wallner M, Otis TS: Ethanol acts directly on extrasynaptic subtypes of GABAA receptors to increase tonic inhibition. Alcohol. 2007 May;41(3):211-21. [17591544 ]
  2. Davies M: The role of GABAA receptors in mediating the effects of alcohol in the central nervous system. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2003 Jul;28(4):263-74. [12921221 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRG1
Uniprot ID:
Q8N1C3
Molecular Weight:
53594.49 Da
References
  1. Santhakumar V, Wallner M, Otis TS: Ethanol acts directly on extrasynaptic subtypes of GABAA receptors to increase tonic inhibition. Alcohol. 2007 May;41(3):211-21. [17591544 ]
  2. Davies M: The role of GABAA receptors in mediating the effects of alcohol in the central nervous system. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2003 Jul;28(4):263-74. [12921221 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRG3
Uniprot ID:
Q99928
Molecular Weight:
54288.16 Da
References
  1. Santhakumar V, Wallner M, Otis TS: Ethanol acts directly on extrasynaptic subtypes of GABAA receptors to increase tonic inhibition. Alcohol. 2007 May;41(3):211-21. [17591544 ]
  2. Davies M: The role of GABAA receptors in mediating the effects of alcohol in the central nervous system. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2003 Jul;28(4):263-74. [12921221 ]
General Function:
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. In the uterus, the function of the receptor appears to be related to tissue contractility. The binding of this pI subunit with other GABA(A) receptor subunits alters the sensitivity of recombinant receptors to modulatory agents such as pregnanolone.
Gene Name:
GABRP
Uniprot ID:
O00591
Molecular Weight:
50639.735 Da
References
  1. Santhakumar V, Wallner M, Otis TS: Ethanol acts directly on extrasynaptic subtypes of GABAA receptors to increase tonic inhibition. Alcohol. 2007 May;41(3):211-21. [17591544 ]
  2. Davies M: The role of GABAA receptors in mediating the effects of alcohol in the central nervous system. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2003 Jul;28(4):263-74. [12921221 ]
General Function:
Receptor binding
Specific Function:
Ionotropic receptor with a probable role in the modulation of auditory stimuli. Agonist binding may induce an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane. The channel is permeable to a range of divalent cations including calcium, the influx of which may activate a potassium current which hyperpolarizes the cell membrane. In the ear, this may lead to a reduction in basilar membrane motion, altering the activity of auditory nerve fibers and reducing the range of dynamic hearing. This may protect against acoustic trauma.
Gene Name:
CHRNA10
Uniprot ID:
Q9GZZ6
Molecular Weight:
49704.295 Da
References
  1. Hendrickson LM, Guildford MJ, Tapper AR: Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: common molecular substrates of nicotine and alcohol dependence. Front Psychiatry. 2013 Apr 30;4:29. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00029. eCollection 2013. [23641218 ]
  2. Dopico AM, Lovinger DM: Acute alcohol action and desensitization of ligand-gated ion channels. Pharmacol Rev. 2009 Mar;61(1):98-114. doi: 10.1124/pr.108.000430. Epub 2009 Mar 6. [19270242 ]
General Function:
Drug binding
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name:
CHRNA2
Uniprot ID:
Q15822
Molecular Weight:
59764.82 Da
References
  1. Hendrickson LM, Guildford MJ, Tapper AR: Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: common molecular substrates of nicotine and alcohol dependence. Front Psychiatry. 2013 Apr 30;4:29. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00029. eCollection 2013. [23641218 ]
  2. Dopico AM, Lovinger DM: Acute alcohol action and desensitization of ligand-gated ion channels. Pharmacol Rev. 2009 Mar;61(1):98-114. doi: 10.1124/pr.108.000430. Epub 2009 Mar 6. [19270242 ]
General Function:
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name:
CHRNA3
Uniprot ID:
P32297
Molecular Weight:
57479.54 Da
References
  1. Hendrickson LM, Guildford MJ, Tapper AR: Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: common molecular substrates of nicotine and alcohol dependence. Front Psychiatry. 2013 Apr 30;4:29. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00029. eCollection 2013. [23641218 ]
  2. Dopico AM, Lovinger DM: Acute alcohol action and desensitization of ligand-gated ion channels. Pharmacol Rev. 2009 Mar;61(1):98-114. doi: 10.1124/pr.108.000430. Epub 2009 Mar 6. [19270242 ]
General Function:
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane permeable to sodium ions.
Gene Name:
CHRNA4
Uniprot ID:
P43681
Molecular Weight:
69956.47 Da
References
  1. Hendrickson LM, Guildford MJ, Tapper AR: Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: common molecular substrates of nicotine and alcohol dependence. Front Psychiatry. 2013 Apr 30;4:29. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00029. eCollection 2013. [23641218 ]
  2. Dopico AM, Lovinger DM: Acute alcohol action and desensitization of ligand-gated ion channels. Pharmacol Rev. 2009 Mar;61(1):98-114. doi: 10.1124/pr.108.000430. Epub 2009 Mar 6. [19270242 ]
General Function:
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name:
CHRNA5
Uniprot ID:
P30532
Molecular Weight:
53053.965 Da
References
  1. Hendrickson LM, Guildford MJ, Tapper AR: Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: common molecular substrates of nicotine and alcohol dependence. Front Psychiatry. 2013 Apr 30;4:29. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00029. eCollection 2013. [23641218 ]
  2. Dopico AM, Lovinger DM: Acute alcohol action and desensitization of ligand-gated ion channels. Pharmacol Rev. 2009 Mar;61(1):98-114. doi: 10.1124/pr.108.000430. Epub 2009 Mar 6. [19270242 ]
General Function:
Acetylcholine-activated cation-selective channel activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name:
CHRNA6
Uniprot ID:
Q15825
Molecular Weight:
56897.745 Da
References
  1. Hendrickson LM, Guildford MJ, Tapper AR: Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: common molecular substrates of nicotine and alcohol dependence. Front Psychiatry. 2013 Apr 30;4:29. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00029. eCollection 2013. [23641218 ]
  2. Dopico AM, Lovinger DM: Acute alcohol action and desensitization of ligand-gated ion channels. Pharmacol Rev. 2009 Mar;61(1):98-114. doi: 10.1124/pr.108.000430. Epub 2009 Mar 6. [19270242 ]
General Function:
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane. The channel is blocked by alpha-bungarotoxin.
Gene Name:
CHRNA7
Uniprot ID:
P36544
Molecular Weight:
56448.925 Da
References
  1. Hendrickson LM, Guildford MJ, Tapper AR: Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: common molecular substrates of nicotine and alcohol dependence. Front Psychiatry. 2013 Apr 30;4:29. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00029. eCollection 2013. [23641218 ]
  2. Dopico AM, Lovinger DM: Acute alcohol action and desensitization of ligand-gated ion channels. Pharmacol Rev. 2009 Mar;61(1):98-114. doi: 10.1124/pr.108.000430. Epub 2009 Mar 6. [19270242 ]
General Function:
Calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Ionotropic receptor with a probable role in the modulation of auditory stimuli. Agonist binding induces a conformation change that leads to the opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane (PubMed:11752216, PubMed:25282151). The channel is permeable to a range of divalent cations including calcium, the influx of which may activate a potassium current which hyperpolarizes the cell membrane (PubMed:11752216, PubMed:25282151). In the ear, this may lead to a reduction in basilar membrane motion, altering the activity of auditory nerve fibers and reducing the range of dynamic hearing. This may protect against acoustic trauma. May also regulate keratinocyte adhesion (PubMed:11021840).
Gene Name:
CHRNA9
Uniprot ID:
Q9UGM1
Molecular Weight:
54806.63 Da
References
  1. Hendrickson LM, Guildford MJ, Tapper AR: Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: common molecular substrates of nicotine and alcohol dependence. Front Psychiatry. 2013 Apr 30;4:29. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00029. eCollection 2013. [23641218 ]
  2. Dopico AM, Lovinger DM: Acute alcohol action and desensitization of ligand-gated ion channels. Pharmacol Rev. 2009 Mar;61(1):98-114. doi: 10.1124/pr.108.000430. Epub 2009 Mar 6. [19270242 ]
General Function:
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane permeable to sodiun ions.
Gene Name:
CHRNB2
Uniprot ID:
P17787
Molecular Weight:
57018.575 Da
References
  1. Hendrickson LM, Guildford MJ, Tapper AR: Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: common molecular substrates of nicotine and alcohol dependence. Front Psychiatry. 2013 Apr 30;4:29. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00029. eCollection 2013. [23641218 ]
  2. Dopico AM, Lovinger DM: Acute alcohol action and desensitization of ligand-gated ion channels. Pharmacol Rev. 2009 Mar;61(1):98-114. doi: 10.1124/pr.108.000430. Epub 2009 Mar 6. [19270242 ]
General Function:
Drug binding
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name:
CHRNB3
Uniprot ID:
Q05901
Molecular Weight:
52728.215 Da
References
  1. Hendrickson LM, Guildford MJ, Tapper AR: Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: common molecular substrates of nicotine and alcohol dependence. Front Psychiatry. 2013 Apr 30;4:29. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00029. eCollection 2013. [23641218 ]
  2. Dopico AM, Lovinger DM: Acute alcohol action and desensitization of ligand-gated ion channels. Pharmacol Rev. 2009 Mar;61(1):98-114. doi: 10.1124/pr.108.000430. Epub 2009 Mar 6. [19270242 ]
General Function:
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name:
CHRNB4
Uniprot ID:
P30926
Molecular Weight:
56378.985 Da
References
  1. Hendrickson LM, Guildford MJ, Tapper AR: Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: common molecular substrates of nicotine and alcohol dependence. Front Psychiatry. 2013 Apr 30;4:29. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00029. eCollection 2013. [23641218 ]
  2. Dopico AM, Lovinger DM: Acute alcohol action and desensitization of ligand-gated ion channels. Pharmacol Rev. 2009 Mar;61(1):98-114. doi: 10.1124/pr.108.000430. Epub 2009 Mar 6. [19270242 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated potassium channel activity
Specific Function:
This is one of the several different receptors for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. This receptor is a ligand-gated ion channel, which when activated causes fast, depolarizing responses in neurons. It is a cation-specific, but otherwise relatively nonselective, ion channel.
Gene Name:
HTR3A
Uniprot ID:
P46098
Molecular Weight:
55279.835 Da
References
  1. Dopico AM, Lovinger DM: Acute alcohol action and desensitization of ligand-gated ion channels. Pharmacol Rev. 2009 Mar;61(1):98-114. doi: 10.1124/pr.108.000430. Epub 2009 Mar 6. [19270242 ]
General Function:
Serotonin-activated cation-selective channel activity
Specific Function:
This is one of the several different receptors for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. This receptor is a ligand-gated ion channel, which when activated causes fast, depolarizing responses. It is a cation-specific, but otherwise relatively nonselective, ion channel.
Gene Name:
HTR3B
Uniprot ID:
O95264
Molecular Weight:
50291.3 Da
References
  1. Dopico AM, Lovinger DM: Acute alcohol action and desensitization of ligand-gated ion channels. Pharmacol Rev. 2009 Mar;61(1):98-114. doi: 10.1124/pr.108.000430. Epub 2009 Mar 6. [19270242 ]
General Function:
Serotonin-activated cation-selective channel activity
Specific Function:
This is one of the several different receptors for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. This receptor is a ligand-gated ion channel, which when activated causes fast, depolarizing responses. It is a cation-specific, but otherwise relatively nonselective, ion channel.
Gene Name:
HTR3C
Uniprot ID:
Q8WXA8
Molecular Weight:
50219.07 Da
References
  1. Dopico AM, Lovinger DM: Acute alcohol action and desensitization of ligand-gated ion channels. Pharmacol Rev. 2009 Mar;61(1):98-114. doi: 10.1124/pr.108.000430. Epub 2009 Mar 6. [19270242 ]
General Function:
Serotonin-activated cation-selective channel activity
Specific Function:
This is one of the several different receptors for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. This receptor is a ligand-gated ion channel, which when activated causes fast, depolarizing responses. It is a cation-specific, but otherwise relatively nonselective, ion channel.
Gene Name:
HTR3D
Uniprot ID:
Q70Z44
Molecular Weight:
50190.625 Da
References
  1. Dopico AM, Lovinger DM: Acute alcohol action and desensitization of ligand-gated ion channels. Pharmacol Rev. 2009 Mar;61(1):98-114. doi: 10.1124/pr.108.000430. Epub 2009 Mar 6. [19270242 ]
General Function:
Serotonin-activated cation-selective channel activity
Specific Function:
This is one of the several different receptors for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. This receptor is a ligand-gated ion channel, which when activated causes fast, depolarizing responses. It is a cation-specific, but otherwise relatively nonselective, ion channel.
Gene Name:
HTR3E
Uniprot ID:
A5X5Y0
Molecular Weight:
51437.415 Da
References
  1. Dopico AM, Lovinger DM: Acute alcohol action and desensitization of ligand-gated ion channels. Pharmacol Rev. 2009 Mar;61(1):98-114. doi: 10.1124/pr.108.000430. Epub 2009 Mar 6. [19270242 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ADH4
Uniprot ID:
P08319
Molecular Weight:
40221.335 Da
References
  1. Lee SL, Chau GY, Yao CT, Wu CW, Yin SJ: Functional assessment of human alcohol dehydrogenase family in ethanol metabolism: significance of first-pass metabolism. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2006 Jul;30(7):1132-42. [16792560 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ADH6
Uniprot ID:
P28332
Molecular Weight:
39088.335 Da
References
  1. Lee SL, Chau GY, Yao CT, Wu CW, Yin SJ: Functional assessment of human alcohol dehydrogenase family in ethanol metabolism: significance of first-pass metabolism. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2006 Jul;30(7):1132-42. [16792560 ]
General Function:
L-glucuronate reductase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of a variety of aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes to their corresponding alcohols. Catalyzes the reduction of mevaldate to mevalonic acid and of glyceraldehyde to glycerol. Has broad substrate specificity. In vitro substrates include succinic semialdehyde, 4-nitrobenzaldehyde, 1,2-naphthoquinone, methylglyoxal, and D-glucuronic acid. Plays a role in the activation of procarcinogens, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon trans-dihydrodiols, and in the metabolism of various xenobiotics and drugs, including the anthracyclines doxorubicin (DOX) and daunorubicin (DAUN).
Gene Name:
AKR1A1
Uniprot ID:
P14550
Molecular Weight:
36572.71 Da
References
  1. Lee SL, Chau GY, Yao CT, Wu CW, Yin SJ: Functional assessment of human alcohol dehydrogenase family in ethanol metabolism: significance of first-pass metabolism. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2006 Jul;30(7):1132-42. [16792560 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Could function in retinol oxidation for the synthesis of retinoic acid, a hormone important for cellular differentiation. Medium-chain (octanol) and aromatic (m-nitrobenzaldehyde) compounds are the best substrates. Ethanol is not a good substrate but at the high ethanol concentrations reached in the digestive tract, it plays a role in the ethanol oxidation and contributes to the first pass ethanol metabolism.
Gene Name:
ADH7
Uniprot ID:
P40394
Molecular Weight:
41480.985 Da
References
  1. Lee SL, Chau GY, Yao CT, Wu CW, Yin SJ: Functional assessment of human alcohol dehydrogenase family in ethanol metabolism: significance of first-pass metabolism. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2006 Jul;30(7):1132-42. [16792560 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Class-III ADH is remarkably ineffective in oxidizing ethanol, but it readily catalyzes the oxidation of long-chain primary alcohols and the oxidation of S-(hydroxymethyl) glutathione.
Gene Name:
ADH5
Uniprot ID:
P11766
Molecular Weight:
39723.945 Da
References
  1. Lee SL, Chau GY, Yao CT, Wu CW, Yin SJ: Functional assessment of human alcohol dehydrogenase family in ethanol metabolism: significance of first-pass metabolism. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2006 Jul;30(7):1132-42. [16792560 ]
General Function:
Vitamin d 24-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP1A1
Uniprot ID:
P04798
Molecular Weight:
58164.815 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N3-demethylation. Also acts in the metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and acetaminophen. Participates in the bioactivation of carcinogenic aromatic and heterocyclic amines. Catalizes the N-hydroxylation of heterocyclic amines and the O-deethylation of phenacetin.
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular Weight:
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase.
Gene Name:
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID:
P20813
Molecular Weight:
56277.81 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and imipramine.
Gene Name:
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID:
P33261
Molecular Weight:
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenytoin, tolbutamide and losartan.
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular Weight:
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide (PubMed:11159812). Catalyzes 4-beta-hydroxylation of cholesterol. May catalyze 25-hydroxylation of cholesterol in vitro (PubMed:21576599).
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General Function:
Leukotriene-b4 20-monooxygenase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the omega- and (omega-1)-hydroxylation of various fatty acids such as laurate, myristate and palmitate. Has little activity toward prostaglandins A1 and E1. Oxidizes arachidonic acid to 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE).
Gene Name:
CYP4A11
Uniprot ID:
Q02928
Molecular Weight:
59347.31 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General Function:
Nucleoside transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates both influx and efflux of nucleosides across the membrane (equilibrative transporter). It is sensitive (ES) to low concentrations of the inhibitor nitrobenzylmercaptopurine riboside (NBMPR) and is sodium-independent. It has a higher affinity for adenosine. Inhibited by dipyridamole and dilazep (anticancer chemotherapeutics drugs).
Gene Name:
SLC29A1
Uniprot ID:
Q99808
Molecular Weight:
50218.805 Da
References
  1. Allen-Gipson DS, Jarrell JC, Bailey KL, Robinson JE, Kharbanda KK, Sisson JH, Wyatt TA: Ethanol blocks adenosine uptake via inhibiting the nucleoside transport system in bronchial epithelial cells. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2009 May;33(5):791-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2009.00897.x. Epub 2009 Mar 6. [19298329 ]
General Function:
Nucleoside transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates equilibrative transport of purine, pyrimidine nucleosides and the purine base hypoxanthine. Very less sensitive than SLC29A1 to inhibition by nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBMPR), dipyridamole, dilazep and draflazine.
Gene Name:
SLC29A2
Uniprot ID:
Q14542
Molecular Weight:
50112.335 Da
References
  1. Allen-Gipson DS, Jarrell JC, Bailey KL, Robinson JE, Kharbanda KK, Sisson JH, Wyatt TA: Ethanol blocks adenosine uptake via inhibiting the nucleoside transport system in bronchial epithelial cells. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2009 May;33(5):791-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2009.00897.x. Epub 2009 Mar 6. [19298329 ]
General Function:
Pdz domain binding
Specific Function:
Ionotropic glutamate receptor. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. Binding of the excitatory neurotransmitter L-glutamate induces a conformation change, leading to the opening of the cation channel, and thereby converts the chemical signal to an electrical impulse. The receptor then desensitizes rapidly and enters a transient inactive state, characterized by the presence of bound agonist. In the presence of CACNG4 or CACNG7 or CACNG8, shows resensitization which is characterized by a delayed accumulation of current flux upon continued application of glutamate.
Gene Name:
GRIA1
Uniprot ID:
P42261
Molecular Weight:
101505.245 Da
References
  1. Dopico AM, Lovinger DM: Acute alcohol action and desensitization of ligand-gated ion channels. Pharmacol Rev. 2009 Mar;61(1):98-114. doi: 10.1124/pr.108.000430. Epub 2009 Mar 6. [19270242 ]
General Function:
Ionotropic glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function:
Receptor for glutamate that functions as ligand-gated ion channel in the central nervous system and plays an important role in excitatory synaptic transmission. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. Binding of the excitatory neurotransmitter L-glutamate induces a conformation change, leading to the opening of the cation channel, and thereby converts the chemical signal to an electrical impulse. The receptor then desensitizes rapidly and enters a transient inactive state, characterized by the presence of bound agonist. In the presence of CACNG4 or CACNG7 or CACNG8, shows resensitization which is characterized by a delayed accumulation of current flux upon continued application of glutamate.
Gene Name:
GRIA2
Uniprot ID:
P42262
Molecular Weight:
98820.32 Da
References
  1. Dopico AM, Lovinger DM: Acute alcohol action and desensitization of ligand-gated ion channels. Pharmacol Rev. 2009 Mar;61(1):98-114. doi: 10.1124/pr.108.000430. Epub 2009 Mar 6. [19270242 ]
General Function:
Extracellular-glutamate-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Receptor for glutamate that functions as ligand-gated ion channel in the central nervous system and plays an important role in excitatory synaptic transmission. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. Binding of the excitatory neurotransmitter L-glutamate induces a conformation change, leading to the opening of the cation channel, and thereby converts the chemical signal to an electrical impulse. The receptor then desensitizes rapidly and enters a transient inactive state, characterized by the presence of bound agonist. In the presence of CACNG4 or CACNG7 or CACNG8, shows resensitization which is characterized by a delayed accumulation of current flux upon continued application of glutamate.
Gene Name:
GRIA3
Uniprot ID:
P42263
Molecular Weight:
101155.975 Da
References
  1. Dopico AM, Lovinger DM: Acute alcohol action and desensitization of ligand-gated ion channels. Pharmacol Rev. 2009 Mar;61(1):98-114. doi: 10.1124/pr.108.000430. Epub 2009 Mar 6. [19270242 ]
General Function:
Ionotropic glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function:
Receptor for glutamate that functions as ligand-gated ion channel in the central nervous system and plays an important role in excitatory synaptic transmission. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. Binding of the excitatory neurotransmitter L-glutamate induces a conformation change, leading to the opening of the cation channel, and thereby converts the chemical signal to an electrical impulse. The receptor then desensitizes rapidly and enters a transient inactive state, characterized by the presence of bound agonist. In the presence of CACNG4 or CACNG7 or CACNG8, shows resensitization which is characterized by a delayed accumulation of current flux upon continued application of glutamate.
Gene Name:
GRIA4
Uniprot ID:
P48058
Molecular Weight:
100870.085 Da
References
  1. Dopico AM, Lovinger DM: Acute alcohol action and desensitization of ligand-gated ion channels. Pharmacol Rev. 2009 Mar;61(1):98-114. doi: 10.1124/pr.108.000430. Epub 2009 Mar 6. [19270242 ]
General Function:
Primary amine oxidase activity
Specific Function:
Important in cell-cell recognition. Appears to function in leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion. Interacts with integrin alpha-4/beta-1 (ITGA4/ITGB1) on leukocytes, and mediates both adhesion and signal transduction. The VCAM1/ITGA4/ITGB1 interaction may play a pathophysiologic role both in immune responses and in leukocyte emigration to sites of inflammation.
Gene Name:
VCAM1
Uniprot ID:
P19320
Molecular Weight:
81275.43 Da
References
  1. Arevalo E, Shanmugasundararaj S, Wilkemeyer MF, Dou X, Chen S, Charness ME, Miller KW: An alcohol binding site on the neural cell adhesion molecule L1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Jan 8;105(1):371-5. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0707815105. Epub 2007 Dec 28. [18165316 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. The isoform alpha-1C gives rise to L-type calcium currents. Long-lasting (L-type) calcium channels belong to the 'high-voltage activated' (HVA) group. They are blocked by dihydropyridines (DHP), phenylalkylamines, benzothiazepines, and by omega-agatoxin-IIIA (omega-Aga-IIIA). They are however insensitive to omega-conotoxin-GVIA (omega-CTx-GVIA) and omega-agatoxin-IVA (omega-Aga-IVA). Calcium channels containing the alpha-1C subunit play an important role in excitation-contraction coupling in the heart. The various isoforms display marked differences in the sensitivity to DHP compounds. Binding of calmodulin or CABP1 at the same regulatory sites results in an opposit effects on the channel function.
Gene Name:
CACNA1C
Uniprot ID:
Q13936
Molecular Weight:
248974.1 Da
References
  1. Hendricson AW, Thomas MP, Lippmann MJ, Morrisett RA: Suppression of L-type voltage-gated calcium channel-dependent synaptic plasticity by ethanol: analysis of miniature synaptic currents and dendritic calcium transients. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Nov;307(2):550-8. Epub 2003 Sep 11. [12970385 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity involved sa node cell action potential
Specific Function:
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. The isoform alpha-1D gives rise to L-type calcium currents. Long-lasting (L-type) calcium channels belong to the 'high-voltage activated' (HVA) group. They are blocked by dihydropyridines (DHP), phenylalkylamines, benzothiazepines, and by omega-agatoxin-IIIA (omega-Aga-IIIA). They are however insensitive to omega-conotoxin-GVIA (omega-CTx-GVIA) and omega-agatoxin-IVA (omega-Aga-IVA).
Gene Name:
CACNA1D
Uniprot ID:
Q01668
Molecular Weight:
245138.75 Da
References
  1. Hendricson AW, Thomas MP, Lippmann MJ, Morrisett RA: Suppression of L-type voltage-gated calcium channel-dependent synaptic plasticity by ethanol: analysis of miniature synaptic currents and dendritic calcium transients. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Nov;307(2):550-8. Epub 2003 Sep 11. [12970385 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. The isoform alpha-1S gives rise to L-type calcium currents. Long-lasting (L-type) calcium channels belong to the 'high-voltage activated' (HVA) group. They are blocked by dihydropyridines (DHP), phenylalkylamines, benzothiazepines, and by omega-agatoxin-IIIA (omega-Aga-IIIA). They are however insensitive to omega-conotoxin-GVIA (omega-CTx-GVIA) and omega-agatoxin-IVA (omega-Aga-IVA). Calcium channels containing the alpha-1S subunit play an important role in excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle.
Gene Name:
CACNA1S
Uniprot ID:
Q13698
Molecular Weight:
212348.1 Da
References
  1. Hendricson AW, Thomas MP, Lippmann MJ, Morrisett RA: Suppression of L-type voltage-gated calcium channel-dependent synaptic plasticity by ethanol: analysis of miniature synaptic currents and dendritic calcium transients. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Nov;307(2):550-8. Epub 2003 Sep 11. [12970385 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
The beta subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels contributes to the function of the calcium channel by increasing peak calcium current, shifting the voltage dependencies of activation and inactivation, modulating G protein inhibition and controlling the alpha-1 subunit membrane targeting.
Gene Name:
CACNB1
Uniprot ID:
Q02641
Molecular Weight:
65712.995 Da
References
  1. Hendricson AW, Thomas MP, Lippmann MJ, Morrisett RA: Suppression of L-type voltage-gated calcium channel-dependent synaptic plasticity by ethanol: analysis of miniature synaptic currents and dendritic calcium transients. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Nov;307(2):550-8. Epub 2003 Sep 11. [12970385 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
This protein is a subunit of the dihydropyridine (DHP) sensitive calcium channel. Plays a role in excitation-contraction coupling. The skeletal muscle DHP-sensitive Ca(2+) channel may function only as a multiple subunit complex.
Gene Name:
CACNG1
Uniprot ID:
Q06432
Molecular Weight:
25028.105 Da
References
  1. Hendricson AW, Thomas MP, Lippmann MJ, Morrisett RA: Suppression of L-type voltage-gated calcium channel-dependent synaptic plasticity by ethanol: analysis of miniature synaptic currents and dendritic calcium transients. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Nov;307(2):550-8. Epub 2003 Sep 11. [12970385 ]
General Function:
Transmembrane signaling receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRQ
Uniprot ID:
Q9UN88
Molecular Weight:
72020.875 Da
References
  1. Santhakumar V, Wallner M, Otis TS: Ethanol acts directly on extrasynaptic subtypes of GABAA receptors to increase tonic inhibition. Alcohol. 2007 May;41(3):211-21. [17591544 ]
  2. Davies M: The role of GABAA receptors in mediating the effects of alcohol in the central nervous system. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2003 Jul;28(4):263-74. [12921221 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Regulates the trafficking and gating properties of AMPA-selective glutamate receptors (AMPARs). Promotes their targeting to the cell membrane and synapses and modulates their gating properties by slowing their rates of activation, deactivation and desensitization. Does not show subunit-specific AMPA receptor regulation and regulates all AMPAR subunits. Thought to stabilize the calcium channel in an inactivated (closed) state.
Gene Name:
CACNG2
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y698
Molecular Weight:
35965.44 Da
References
  1. Hendricson AW, Thomas MP, Lippmann MJ, Morrisett RA: Suppression of L-type voltage-gated calcium channel-dependent synaptic plasticity by ethanol: analysis of miniature synaptic currents and dendritic calcium transients. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Nov;307(2):550-8. Epub 2003 Sep 11. [12970385 ]