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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-06-19 21:59:04 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:24:21 UTC
Accession NumberT3D1639
Identification
Common NameVanadium(V) oxide
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionVanadium(V) oxide is an oxide of vanadium. It is highly toxic and found in nature as the rare mineral shcherbinaite. Vanadium(V) oxide catalyses several useful aerobic oxidation reactions, most notably in the production of sulfuric acid from sulfur dioxide. Vanadium is a transition metal with the chemical symbol V and atomic number 23. The element usually combines with other elements such as oxygen, sodium, sulfur, or chloride, and occurs naturally in about 65 different minerals and in fossil fuel deposits. Vanadium is found in many organisms, and is used by some life forms as an active center of enzymes. (10, 11, 12)
Compound Type
  • Industrial/Workplace Toxin
  • Inorganic Compound
  • Natural Compound
  • Vanadium Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
Anhydride vanadique
Divanadium pentaoxide
Divanadium pentoxide
KM vanadium pentoxide
RCRA waste no. P120
Rcra waste number P120
V-o
V2O5
Vanadic acid anhydride
Vanadic anhydride
Vanadio, pentossido di
vanadium (5) oxide
Vanadium dust and fume
Vanadium oxide
Vanadium oxide (5)
vanadium oxide (C2O5)
Vanadium oxide (V2O5)
Vanadium oxide V2O5
Vanadium oxides
Vanadium pentaoxide
Vanadium pentoxide
Vanadium pentoxide, non-fused form
Vanadium pentoxide, nonfused form
Vanadium, pentoxyde de
Vanadiumpentoxid
Vanadiumpentoxyde
Vandium pentoxide
Wanadu pieciotlenek
Chemical FormulaO5V2
Average Molecular Mass181.880 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass181.863 g/mol
CAS Registry Number1314-62-1
IUPAC Name[(dioxovanadio)oxy]dioxovanadium
Traditional Namevanadium(V) oxide
SMILESO=[V](=O)O[V](=O)=O
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/5O.2V
InChI KeyInChIKey=GNTDGMZSJNCJKK-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of chemical entities known as miscellaneous metavanadates. These are inorganic compounds in which the largest metallic oxoanion is metavanadate, to which either no atom or a non metal atom is bonded.
KingdomChemical entities
Super ClassInorganic compounds
ClassMixed metal/non-metal compounds
Sub ClassMiscellaneous mixed metal/non-metals
Direct ParentMiscellaneous metavanadates
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Metavanadate
  • Inorganic oxide
  • Inorganic salt
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceOrange solid.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point690°C
Boiling PointNot Available
SolubilityNot Available
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-1.1ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-5.4ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area77.51 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity7.12 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability9.25 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral (10) ; inhalation (10) ; dermal (10)
Mechanism of ToxicityVanadium damages alveolar macrophages by decreasing the macrophage membrane integrity, thus impairing the cells' phagocytotic ability and viability. The pentavalent form of vanadium, vanadate, is a potent inhibitor of the Ca+-ATPase and Na+,K+-ATPase of plasma membranes, which decreases intracellular ATP concentration. Vanadium is also believed to induce the production of reactive oxygen species. This may damage DNA and also cause oxidative stress, which can damage the reproductive system. Vanadium also inhibits protein tyrosine phosphatases, producing insulin-like effects. (10, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5)
MetabolismVanadium is absorbed mainly via inhalation, though small amounts can be absorbed through the skin and gastrointestional tract. It is rapidly distributed in the plasma, mainly to the kidney, liver, lungs, heart, bone, where it tends to accumulate. With the help of cytochrome P-450 enzymes, it can interconvert between its two oxidation states, vanadyl (V+4) and vanadate (V+5). Both states of vanadium can reversibly bind to transferrin protein in the blood and then be taken up into erythrocytes. Vanadium is excreted mainly in the urine. (10)
Toxicity ValuesLD50: 14 mg/kg (Subcutaneous, Rat) (6) LD50: 23 mg/kg (Oral, Mouse) (6) LC50: 70 mg/m3 over 1 hour (Inhalation, Rat) (7)
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)2B, possibly carcinogenic to humans. (9)
Uses/SourcesVanadium(V) oxide catalyses several useful aerobic oxidation reactions, most notably in the production of sulfuric acid from sulfur dioxide. (12)
Minimum Risk LevelAcute Inhalation: 0.0002 mg/m3 (8) Intermediate Oral: 0.003 mg/kg/day (8)
Health EffectsBreathing high levels of vanadium affects the lungs, throat, and eyes. Ingestion of vanadium may cause kidney and liver damage, birth defects, or death. (10)
SymptomsInhalation of vanadium causes lung irritation, coughing, wheezing, chest pain, runny nose, and a sore throat. (10)
TreatmentEYES: irrigate opened eyes for several minutes under running water. INGESTION: do not induce vomiting. Rinse mouth with water (never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person). Seek immediate medical advice. SKIN: should be treated immediately by rinsing the affected parts in cold running water for at least 15 minutes, followed by thorough washing with soap and water. If necessary, the person should shower and change contaminated clothing and shoes, and then must seek medical attention. INHALATION: supply fresh air. If required provide artificial respiration.
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID14814
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL2447948
ChemSpider ID14130
KEGG IDNot Available
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID30045
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDC066075
Stitch IDVanadium(V) oxide
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR ID6564
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D1639.pdf
General References
  1. Zhang Z, Huang C, Li J, Leonard SS, Lanciotti R, Butterworth L, Shi X: Vanadate-induced cell growth regulation and the role of reactive oxygen species. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2001 Aug 15;392(2):311-20. [11488607 ]
  2. Sakurai H: Vanadium distribution in rats and DNA cleavage by vanadyl complex: implication for vanadium toxicity and biological effects. Environ Health Perspect. 1994 Sep;102 Suppl 3:35-6. [7843133 ]
  3. Chandra AK, Ghosh R, Chatterjee A, Sarkar M: Effects of vanadate on male rat reproductive tract histology, oxidative stress markers and androgenic enzyme activities. J Inorg Biochem. 2007 Jun;101(6):944-56. Epub 2007 Mar 23. [17475337 ]
  4. Foller M, Sopjani M, Mahmud H, Lang F: Vanadate-induced suicidal erythrocyte death. Kidney Blood Press Res. 2008;31(2):87-93. doi: 10.1159/000119704. Epub 2008 Mar 5. [18319605 ]
  5. Wang J, Yuen VG, McNeill JH: Effect of vanadium on insulin sensitivity and appetite. Metabolism. 2001 Jun;50(6):667-73. [11398143 ]
  6. Lewis RJ (1996). Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 9th ed. Volumes 1-3. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
  7. Bingham, E, Cohrssen, B, and Powell, CH (2001). Patty's Toxicology Volumes 1-9. 5th ed. New York, N.Y: John Wiley & Sons.
  8. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2001). Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs) for Hazardous Substances. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  9. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2014). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
  10. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (1992). Toxicological profile for vanadium. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  11. Wikipedia. Vanadium. Last Updated 9 June 2009. [Link]
  12. Wikipedia. Vanadium(V) oxide. Last Updated 4 June 2009. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated Genes
GeneGene SymbolGene IDInteractionChromosomeDetails
Down-Regulated Genes
GeneGene SymbolGene IDInteractionChromosomeDetails

Targets

General Function:
Steroid hormone binding
Specific Function:
This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This action creates the electrochemical gradient of sodium and potassium ions, providing the energy for active transport of various nutrients.
Gene Name:
ATP1A1
Uniprot ID:
P05023
Molecular Weight:
112895.01 Da
References
  1. Foller M, Sopjani M, Mahmud H, Lang F: Vanadate-induced suicidal erythrocyte death. Kidney Blood Press Res. 2008;31(2):87-93. doi: 10.1159/000119704. Epub 2008 Mar 5. [18319605 ]
  2. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (1992). Toxicological profile for vanadium. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Steroid hormone binding
Specific Function:
This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This action creates the electrochemical gradient of sodium and potassium, providing the energy for active transport of various nutrients.
Gene Name:
ATP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P50993
Molecular Weight:
112264.385 Da
References
  1. Foller M, Sopjani M, Mahmud H, Lang F: Vanadate-induced suicidal erythrocyte death. Kidney Blood Press Res. 2008;31(2):87-93. doi: 10.1159/000119704. Epub 2008 Mar 5. [18319605 ]
  2. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (1992). Toxicological profile for vanadium. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Steroid hormone binding
Specific Function:
This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This action creates the electrochemical gradient of sodium and potassium ions, providing the energy for active transport of various nutrients.
Gene Name:
ATP1A3
Uniprot ID:
P13637
Molecular Weight:
111747.51 Da
References
  1. Foller M, Sopjani M, Mahmud H, Lang F: Vanadate-induced suicidal erythrocyte death. Kidney Blood Press Res. 2008;31(2):87-93. doi: 10.1159/000119704. Epub 2008 Mar 5. [18319605 ]
  2. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (1992). Toxicological profile for vanadium. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Sodium:potassium-exchanging atpase activity
Specific Function:
This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This action creates the electrochemical gradient of sodium and potassium ions, providing the energy for active transport of various nutrients. Plays a role in sperm motility.
Gene Name:
ATP1A4
Uniprot ID:
Q13733
Molecular Weight:
114165.44 Da
References
  1. Foller M, Sopjani M, Mahmud H, Lang F: Vanadate-induced suicidal erythrocyte death. Kidney Blood Press Res. 2008;31(2):87-93. doi: 10.1159/000119704. Epub 2008 Mar 5. [18319605 ]
  2. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (1992). Toxicological profile for vanadium. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Sodium:potassium-exchanging atpase activity
Specific Function:
This is the non-catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of Na(+) and K(+) ions across the plasma membrane. The beta subunit regulates, through assembly of alpha/beta heterodimers, the number of sodium pumps transported to the plasma membrane.Involved in cell adhesion and establishing epithelial cell polarity.
Gene Name:
ATP1B1
Uniprot ID:
P05026
Molecular Weight:
35061.07 Da
References
  1. Foller M, Sopjani M, Mahmud H, Lang F: Vanadate-induced suicidal erythrocyte death. Kidney Blood Press Res. 2008;31(2):87-93. doi: 10.1159/000119704. Epub 2008 Mar 5. [18319605 ]
  2. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (1992). Toxicological profile for vanadium. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Sodium:potassium-exchanging atpase activity
Specific Function:
This is the non-catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of Na(+) and K(+) ions across the plasma membrane. The exact function of the beta-2 subunit is not known.Mediates cell adhesion of neurons and astrocytes, and promotes neurite outgrowth.
Gene Name:
ATP1B2
Uniprot ID:
P14415
Molecular Weight:
33366.925 Da
References
  1. Foller M, Sopjani M, Mahmud H, Lang F: Vanadate-induced suicidal erythrocyte death. Kidney Blood Press Res. 2008;31(2):87-93. doi: 10.1159/000119704. Epub 2008 Mar 5. [18319605 ]
  2. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (1992). Toxicological profile for vanadium. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Sodium:potassium-exchanging atpase activity
Specific Function:
This is the non-catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of Na(+) and K(+) ions across the plasma membrane. The exact function of the beta-3 subunit is not known.
Gene Name:
ATP1B3
Uniprot ID:
P54709
Molecular Weight:
31512.34 Da
References
  1. Foller M, Sopjani M, Mahmud H, Lang F: Vanadate-induced suicidal erythrocyte death. Kidney Blood Press Res. 2008;31(2):87-93. doi: 10.1159/000119704. Epub 2008 Mar 5. [18319605 ]
  2. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (1992). Toxicological profile for vanadium. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
May be involved in forming the receptor site for cardiac glycoside binding or may modulate the transport function of the sodium ATPase.
Gene Name:
FXYD2
Uniprot ID:
P54710
Molecular Weight:
7283.265 Da
References
  1. Foller M, Sopjani M, Mahmud H, Lang F: Vanadate-induced suicidal erythrocyte death. Kidney Blood Press Res. 2008;31(2):87-93. doi: 10.1159/000119704. Epub 2008 Mar 5. [18319605 ]
  2. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (1992). Toxicological profile for vanadium. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Protein tyrosine/serine/threonine phosphatase activity
Specific Function:
Lipid phosphatase which dephosphorylates phosphatidylglycerophosphate (PGP) to phosphatidylglycerol (PG). PGP is an essential intermediate in the biosynthetic pathway of cardiolipin, a mitochondrial-specific phospholipid regulating the membrane integrity and activities of the organelle. Has also been shown to display phosphatase activity toward phosphoprotein substrates, specifically mediates dephosphorylation of mitochondrial proteins, thereby playing an essential role in ATP production. Has probably a preference for proteins phosphorylated on Ser and/or Thr residues compared to proteins phosphorylated on Tyr residues. Probably involved in regulation of insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PTPMT1
Uniprot ID:
Q8WUK0
Molecular Weight:
22843.38 Da
References
  1. Wang J, Yuen VG, McNeill JH: Effect of vanadium on insulin sensitivity and appetite. Metabolism. 2001 Jun;50(6):667-73. [11398143 ]
General Function:
Protein tyrosine/serine/threonine phosphatase activity
Specific Function:
Protein tyrosine phosphatase which stimulates progression from G1 into S phase during mitosis. May play a role in the development and maintenance of differentiating epithelial tissues. Enhances cell proliferation, cell motility and invasive activity, and promotes cancer metastasis.
Gene Name:
PTP4A1
Uniprot ID:
Q93096
Molecular Weight:
19814.93 Da
References
  1. Wang J, Yuen VG, McNeill JH: Effect of vanadium on insulin sensitivity and appetite. Metabolism. 2001 Jun;50(6):667-73. [11398143 ]
General Function:
Prenylated protein tyrosine phosphatase activity
Specific Function:
Protein tyrosine phosphatase which stimulates progression from G1 into S phase during mitosis. Promotes tumors. Inhibits geranylgeranyl transferase type II activity by blocking the association between RABGGTA and RABGGTB.
Gene Name:
PTP4A2
Uniprot ID:
Q12974
Molecular Weight:
19127.05 Da
References
  1. Wang J, Yuen VG, McNeill JH: Effect of vanadium on insulin sensitivity and appetite. Metabolism. 2001 Jun;50(6):667-73. [11398143 ]
General Function:
Protein tyrosine/serine/threonine phosphatase activity
Specific Function:
Protein tyrosine phosphatase which stimulates progression from G1 into S phase during mitosis. Enhances cell proliferation, cell motility and invasive activity, and promotes cancer metastasis. May be involved in the progression of cardiac hypertrophy by inhibiting intracellular calcium mobilization in response to angiotensin II.
Gene Name:
PTP4A3
Uniprot ID:
O75365
Molecular Weight:
19534.69 Da
References
  1. Wang J, Yuen VG, McNeill JH: Effect of vanadium on insulin sensitivity and appetite. Metabolism. 2001 Jun;50(6):667-73. [11398143 ]
General Function:
Transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase activity
Specific Function:
Possible cell adhesion receptor. It possesses an intrinsic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity (PTPase) and dephosphorylates EPHA2 regulating its activity.The first PTPase domain has enzymatic activity, while the second one seems to affect the substrate specificity of the first one.
Gene Name:
PTPRF
Uniprot ID:
P10586
Molecular Weight:
212877.35 Da
References
  1. Wang J, Yuen VG, McNeill JH: Effect of vanadium on insulin sensitivity and appetite. Metabolism. 2001 Jun;50(6):667-73. [11398143 ]
General Function:
Transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase activity
Specific Function:
May contribute to contact inhibition of cell growth and motility by mediating the dephosphorylation of focal adhesion-associated substrates and thus negatively regulating integrin-promoted signaling processes. Induces apoptotic cell death by at least two distinct mechanisms: inhibition of cell survival signaling mediated by PI 3-kinase, Akt, and ILK and activation of a caspase-dependent proapoptotic pathway. Inhibits the basal activity of LCK and its activation in response to TCR stimulation and TCR-induced activation of MAP kinase and surface expression of CD69. Inhibits TCR-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of LAT and ZAP70. Inhibits both basal activity of DOK1 and its CD2-induced tyrosine phosphorylation. Induces dephosphorylation of p130cas, focal adhesion kinase and c-Src. Reduces migratory activity of Jurkat cells.
Gene Name:
PTPRH
Uniprot ID:
Q9HD43
Molecular Weight:
122351.35 Da
References
  1. Wang J, Yuen VG, McNeill JH: Effect of vanadium on insulin sensitivity and appetite. Metabolism. 2001 Jun;50(6):667-73. [11398143 ]
General Function:
Transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase activity
Specific Function:
Plays a role in vesicle-mediated secretory processes. Required for normal accumulation of secretory vesicles in hippocampus, pituitary and pancreatic islets. Required for the accumulation of normal levels of insulin-containing vesicles and preventing their degradation. Plays a role in insulin secretion in response to glucose stimuli. Required for normal accumulation of the neurotransmitters norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin in the brain. In females, but not in males, required for normal accumulation and secretion of pituitary hormones, such as luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).
Gene Name:
PTPRN2
Uniprot ID:
Q92932
Molecular Weight:
111270.29 Da
References
  1. Wang J, Yuen VG, McNeill JH: Effect of vanadium on insulin sensitivity and appetite. Metabolism. 2001 Jun;50(6):667-73. [11398143 ]
General Function:
Wnt-protein binding
Specific Function:
Possesses tyrosine phosphatase activity. Plays a role in regulating the glomerular pressure/filtration rate relationship through an effect on podocyte structure and function (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PTPRO
Uniprot ID:
Q16827
Molecular Weight:
138342.845 Da
References
  1. Wang J, Yuen VG, McNeill JH: Effect of vanadium on insulin sensitivity and appetite. Metabolism. 2001 Jun;50(6):667-73. [11398143 ]
General Function:
Transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase activity
Specific Function:
Sequesters mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) such as MAPK1, MAPK3 and MAPK14 in the cytoplasm in an inactive form. The MAPKs bind to a dephosphorylated kinase interacting motif, phosphorylation of which by the protein kinase A complex releases the MAPKs for activation and translocation into the nucleus (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PTPRR
Uniprot ID:
Q15256
Molecular Weight:
73833.73 Da
References
  1. Wang J, Yuen VG, McNeill JH: Effect of vanadium on insulin sensitivity and appetite. Metabolism. 2001 Jun;50(6):667-73. [11398143 ]
General Function:
Transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase activity
Specific Function:
Interacts with LAR-interacting protein LIP.1.
Gene Name:
PTPRS
Uniprot ID:
Q13332
Molecular Weight:
217039.825 Da
References
  1. Wang J, Yuen VG, McNeill JH: Effect of vanadium on insulin sensitivity and appetite. Metabolism. 2001 Jun;50(6):667-73. [11398143 ]
General Function:
Protein tyrosine phosphatase activity
Specific Function:
May be involved in both signal transduction and cellular adhesion in the CNS.
Gene Name:
PTPRT
Uniprot ID:
O14522
Molecular Weight:
162132.92 Da
References
  1. Wang J, Yuen VG, McNeill JH: Effect of vanadium on insulin sensitivity and appetite. Metabolism. 2001 Jun;50(6):667-73. [11398143 ]
General Function:
Transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase activity
Specific Function:
Tyrosine-protein phosphatase which dephosphorylates CTNNB1. Regulates CTNNB1 function both in cell adhesion and signaling. May function in cell proliferation and migration and play a role in the maintenance of epithelial integrity. May play a role in megakaryocytopoiesis.
Gene Name:
PTPRU
Uniprot ID:
Q92729
Molecular Weight:
162422.095 Da
References
  1. Wang J, Yuen VG, McNeill JH: Effect of vanadium on insulin sensitivity and appetite. Metabolism. 2001 Jun;50(6):667-73. [11398143 ]
General Function:
Transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
PTPRA
Uniprot ID:
P18433
Molecular Weight:
90599.295 Da
References
  1. Wang J, Yuen VG, McNeill JH: Effect of vanadium on insulin sensitivity and appetite. Metabolism. 2001 Jun;50(6):667-73. [11398143 ]
General Function:
Transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase activity
Specific Function:
Plays an important role in blood vessel remodeling and angiogenesis. Not necessary for the initial formation of blood vessels, but is essential for their maintenance and remodeling. Can induce dephosphorylation of TEK/TIE2, CDH5/VE-cadherin and KDR/VEGFR-2. Regulates angiopoietin-TIE2 signaling in endothelial cells. Acts as a negative regulator of TIE2, and controls TIE2 driven endothelial cell proliferation, which in turn affects blood vessel remodeling during embryonic development and determines blood vessel size during perinatal growth. Essential for the maintenance of endothelial cell contact integrity and for the adhesive function of VE-cadherin in endothelial cells and this requires the presence of plakoglobin (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PTPRB
Uniprot ID:
P23467
Molecular Weight:
224299.74 Da
References
  1. Wang J, Yuen VG, McNeill JH: Effect of vanadium on insulin sensitivity and appetite. Metabolism. 2001 Jun;50(6):667-73. [11398143 ]
General Function:
Transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
PTPRD
Uniprot ID:
P23468
Molecular Weight:
214758.455 Da
References
  1. Wang J, Yuen VG, McNeill JH: Effect of vanadium on insulin sensitivity and appetite. Metabolism. 2001 Jun;50(6):667-73. [11398143 ]
General Function:
Transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase activity
Specific Function:
Isoform 1 plays a critical role in signaling transduction pathways and phosphoprotein network topology in red blood cells. May play a role in osteoclast formation and function (By similarity).Isoform 2 acts as a negative regulator of insulin receptor (IR) signaling in skeletal muscle. Regulates insulin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor (IR) and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), phosphorylation of protein kinase B and glycogen synthase kinase-3 and insulin induced stimulation of glucose uptake (By similarity).Isoform 1 and isoform 2 act as a negative regulator of FceRI-mediated signal transduction leading to cytokine production and degranulation, most likely by acting at the level of SYK to affect downstream events such as phosphorylation of SLP76 and LAT and mobilization of Ca(2+).
Gene Name:
PTPRE
Uniprot ID:
P23469
Molecular Weight:
80641.165 Da
References
  1. Wang J, Yuen VG, McNeill JH: Effect of vanadium on insulin sensitivity and appetite. Metabolism. 2001 Jun;50(6):667-73. [11398143 ]
General Function:
Protein tyrosine phosphatase activity
Specific Function:
Tyrosine phosphatase which dephosphorylates or contributes to the dephosphorylation of CTNND1, FLT3, PDGFRB, MET, RET (variant MEN2A), KDR, LYN, SRC, MAPK1, MAPK3, EGFR, TJP1, OCLN, PIK3R1 and PIK3R2. Plays a role in cell adhesion, migration, proliferation and differentiation. Involved in vascular development. Regulator of macrophage adhesion and spreading. Positively affects cell-matrix adhesion. Positive regulator of platelet activation and thrombosis. Negative regulator of cell proliferation. Negative regulator of PDGF-stimulated cell migration; through dephosphorylation of PDGFR. Positive regulator of endothelial cell survival, as well as of VEGF-induced SRC and AKT activation; through KDR dephosphorylation. Negative regulator of EGFR signaling pathway; through EGFR dephosphorylation. Enhances the barrier function of epithelial junctions during reassembly. Negatively regulates T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling. Upon T-cell TCR activation, it is up-regulated and excluded from the immunological synapses, while upon T-cell-antigen presenting cells (APC) disengagement, it is no longer excluded and can dephosphorylate PLCG1 and LAT to down-regulate prolongation of signaling.
Gene Name:
PTPRJ
Uniprot ID:
Q12913
Molecular Weight:
145940.37 Da
References
  1. Wang J, Yuen VG, McNeill JH: Effect of vanadium on insulin sensitivity and appetite. Metabolism. 2001 Jun;50(6):667-73. [11398143 ]
General Function:
Transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase activity
Specific Function:
Possesses tyrosine phosphatase activity.
Gene Name:
PTPRG
Uniprot ID:
P23470
Molecular Weight:
162002.3 Da
References
  1. Wang J, Yuen VG, McNeill JH: Effect of vanadium on insulin sensitivity and appetite. Metabolism. 2001 Jun;50(6):667-73. [11398143 ]
General Function:
Transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase activity
Specific Function:
Regulation of processes involving cell contact and adhesion such as growth control, tumor invasion, and metastasis. Negative regulator of EGFR signaling pathway. Forms complexes with beta-catenin and gamma-catenin/plakoglobin. Beta-catenin may be a substrate for the catalytic activity of PTPRK/PTP-kappa.
Gene Name:
PTPRK
Uniprot ID:
Q15262
Molecular Weight:
162100.87 Da
References
  1. Wang J, Yuen VG, McNeill JH: Effect of vanadium on insulin sensitivity and appetite. Metabolism. 2001 Jun;50(6):667-73. [11398143 ]
General Function:
Transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase activity
Specific Function:
Involved in cell-cell adhesion through homophilic interactions. May play a key role in signal transduction and growth control.
Gene Name:
PTPRM
Uniprot ID:
P28827
Molecular Weight:
163681.285 Da
References
  1. Wang J, Yuen VG, McNeill JH: Effect of vanadium on insulin sensitivity and appetite. Metabolism. 2001 Jun;50(6):667-73. [11398143 ]
General Function:
Transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase activity
Specific Function:
Protein tyrosine phosphatase that negatively regulates oligodendrocyte precursor proliferation in the embryonic spinal cord. Required for normal differentiation of the precursor cells into mature, fully myelinating oligodendrocytes. May play a role in protecting oligondendrocytes against apoptosis. May play a role in the establishment of contextual memory, probably via the dephosphorylation of proteins that are part of important signaling cascades (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PTPRZ1
Uniprot ID:
P23471
Molecular Weight:
254585.05 Da
References
  1. Wang J, Yuen VG, McNeill JH: Effect of vanadium on insulin sensitivity and appetite. Metabolism. 2001 Jun;50(6):667-73. [11398143 ]
General Function:
Spectrin binding
Specific Function:
Plays a role in vesicle-mediated secretory processes (PubMed:24843546). Required for normal accumulation of secretory vesicles in hippocampus, pituitary and pancreatic islets (By similarity). Required for the accumulation of normal levels of insulin-containing vesicles and preventing their degradation (PubMed:24843546). Plays a role in insulin secretion in response to glucose stimuli (PubMed:24843546). Required for normal accumulation of the neurotransmitters norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin in the brain (By similarity). In females, but not in males, required for normal accumulation and secretion of pituitary hormones, such as luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) (By similarity). Seems to lack intrinsic enzyme activity (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PTPRN
Uniprot ID:
Q16849
Molecular Weight:
105846.52 Da
References
  1. Wang J, Yuen VG, McNeill JH: Effect of vanadium on insulin sensitivity and appetite. Metabolism. 2001 Jun;50(6):667-73. [11398143 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Tyrosine-protein phosphatase which acts as a regulator of endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response. Mediates dephosphorylation of EIF2AK3/PERK; inactivating the protein kinase activity of EIF2AK3/PERK. May play an important role in CKII- and p60c-src-induced signal transduction cascades. May regulate the EFNA5-EPHA3 signaling pathway which modulates cell reorganization and cell-cell repulsion. May also regulate the hepatocyte growth factor receptor signaling pathway through dephosphorylation of MET.
Gene Name:
PTPN1
Uniprot ID:
P18031
Molecular Weight:
49966.44 Da
References
  1. Wang J, Yuen VG, McNeill JH: Effect of vanadium on insulin sensitivity and appetite. Metabolism. 2001 Jun;50(6):667-73. [11398143 ]
General Function:
Sh3/sh2 adaptor activity
Specific Function:
Acts downstream of various receptor and cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinases to participate in the signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Dephosphorylates ROCK2 at Tyr-722 resulting in stimulatation of its RhoA binding activity.
Gene Name:
PTPN11
Uniprot ID:
Q06124
Molecular Weight:
68436.0 Da
References
  1. Wang J, Yuen VG, McNeill JH: Effect of vanadium on insulin sensitivity and appetite. Metabolism. 2001 Jun;50(6):667-73. [11398143 ]
General Function:
Sh3 domain binding
Specific Function:
Dephosphorylates cellular tyrosine kinases, including PTK2B/PYK2, and thereby regulates signaling via PTK2B/PYK2.
Gene Name:
PTPN12
Uniprot ID:
Q05209
Molecular Weight:
88105.665 Da
References
  1. Wang J, Yuen VG, McNeill JH: Effect of vanadium on insulin sensitivity and appetite. Metabolism. 2001 Jun;50(6):667-73. [11398143 ]
General Function:
Protein tyrosine phosphatase activity
Specific Function:
Tyrosine phosphatase which regulates negatively FAS-induced apoptosis and NGFR-mediated pro-apoptotic signaling (PubMed:15611135). May regulate phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling through dephosphorylation of PIK3R2 (PubMed:23604317).
Gene Name:
PTPN13
Uniprot ID:
Q12923
Molecular Weight:
276903.22 Da
References
  1. Wang J, Yuen VG, McNeill JH: Effect of vanadium on insulin sensitivity and appetite. Metabolism. 2001 Jun;50(6):667-73. [11398143 ]
General Function:
Transcription cofactor activity
Specific Function:
Protein tyrosine phosphatase which may play a role in the regulation of lymphangiogenesis, cell-cell adhesion, cell-matrix adhesion, cell migration, cell growth and also regulates TGF-beta gene expression, thereby modulating epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Mediates beta-catenin dephosphorylation at adhesion junctions. Acts as a negative regulator of the oncogenic property of YAP, a downstream target of the hippo pathway, in a cell density-dependent manner. May function as a tumor suppressor.
Gene Name:
PTPN14
Uniprot ID:
Q15678
Molecular Weight:
135260.15 Da
References
  1. Wang J, Yuen VG, McNeill JH: Effect of vanadium on insulin sensitivity and appetite. Metabolism. 2001 Jun;50(6):667-73. [11398143 ]
General Function:
Non-membrane spanning protein tyrosine phosphatase activity
Specific Function:
Differentially dephosphorylate autophosphorylated tyrosine kinases which are known to be overexpressed in tumor tissues.
Gene Name:
PTPN18
Uniprot ID:
Q99952
Molecular Weight:
50481.995 Da
References
  1. Wang J, Yuen VG, McNeill JH: Effect of vanadium on insulin sensitivity and appetite. Metabolism. 2001 Jun;50(6):667-73. [11398143 ]
General Function:
Syntaxin binding
Specific Function:
Non-receptor type tyrosine-specific phosphatase that dephosphorylates receptor protein tyrosine kinases including INSR, EGFR, CSF1R, PDGFR. Also dephosphorylates non-receptor protein tyrosine kinases like JAK1, JAK2, JAK3, Src family kinases, STAT1, STAT3, STAT5A, STAT5B and STAT6 either in the nucleus or the cytoplasm. Negatively regulates numerous signaling pathways and biological processes like hematopoiesis, inflammatory response, cell proliferation and differentiation, and glucose homeostasis. Plays a multifaceted and important role in the development of the immune system. Functions in T-cell receptor signaling through dephosphorylation of FYN and LCK to control T-cells differentiation and activation. Dephosphorylates CSF1R, negatively regulating its downstream signaling and macrophage differentiation. Negatively regulates cytokine (IL2/interleukin-2 and interferon)-mediated signaling through dephosphorylation of the cytoplasmic kinases JAK1, JAK3 and their substrate STAT1, that propagate signaling downstream of the cytokine receptors. Also regulates the IL6/interleukin-6 and IL4/interleukin-4 cytokine signaling through dephosphorylation of STAT3 and STAT6 respectively. In addition to the immune system, it is involved in anchorage-dependent, negative regulation of EGF-stimulated cell growth. Activated by the integrin ITGA1/ITGB1, it dephosphorylates EGFR and negatively regulates EGF signaling. Dephosphorylates PDGFRB and negatively regulates platelet-derived growth factor receptor-beta signaling pathway and therefore cell proliferation. Negatively regulates tumor necrosis factor-mediated signaling downstream via MAPK through SRC dephosphorylation. May also regulate the hepatocyte growth factor receptor signaling pathway through dephosphorylation of the hepatocyte growth factor receptor MET. Plays also an important role in glucose homeostasis. For instance, negatively regulates the insulin receptor signaling pathway through the dephosphorylation of INSR and control gluconeogenesis and liver glucose production through negative regulation of the IL6 signaling pathways. Finally, it negatively regulates prolactin-mediated signaling pathway through dephosphorylation of STAT5A and STAT5B. May also bind DNA.
Gene Name:
PTPN2
Uniprot ID:
P17706
Molecular Weight:
48472.94 Da
References
  1. Wang J, Yuen VG, McNeill JH: Effect of vanadium on insulin sensitivity and appetite. Metabolism. 2001 Jun;50(6):667-73. [11398143 ]
General Function:
Protein tyrosine phosphatase activity
Specific Function:
Tyrosine-protein phosphatase targeted to sites of actin polymerization in response of varied extracellular stimuli. Has tyrosine phosphatase activity towards various tyrosyl phosphorylated substrates.
Gene Name:
PTPN20
Uniprot ID:
Q4JDL3
Molecular Weight:
48422.455 Da
References
  1. Wang J, Yuen VG, McNeill JH: Effect of vanadium on insulin sensitivity and appetite. Metabolism. 2001 Jun;50(6):667-73. [11398143 ]
General Function:
Protein tyrosine phosphatase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
PTPN21
Uniprot ID:
Q16825
Molecular Weight:
133279.965 Da
References
  1. Wang J, Yuen VG, McNeill JH: Effect of vanadium on insulin sensitivity and appetite. Metabolism. 2001 Jun;50(6):667-73. [11398143 ]
General Function:
Ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Specific Function:
Acts as negative regulator of T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling by direct dephosphorylation of the Src family kinases LCK and FYN, ITAMs of the TCRz/CD3 complex, as well as ZAP70, VAV, VCP and other key signaling molecules (PubMed:16461343, PubMed:18056643). Associates with and probably dephosphorylates CBL. Dephosphorylates LCK at its activating 'Tyr-394' residue (PubMed:21719704). Dephosphorylates ZAP70 at its activating 'Tyr-493' residue (PubMed:16461343). Dephosphorylates the immune system activator SKAP2 (PubMed:21719704). Positively regulates toll-like receptor (TLR)-induced type 1 interferon production (PubMed:23871208). Promotes host antiviral responses mediated by type 1 interferon (By similarity). Regulates NOD2-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion and autophagy (PubMed:23991106).
Gene Name:
PTPN22
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y2R2
Molecular Weight:
91703.92 Da
References
  1. Wang J, Yuen VG, McNeill JH: Effect of vanadium on insulin sensitivity and appetite. Metabolism. 2001 Jun;50(6):667-73. [11398143 ]
General Function:
Protein tyrosine phosphatase activity
Specific Function:
Plays a role in sorting of endocytic ubiquitinated cargos into multivesicular bodies (MVBs) via its interaction with the ESCRT-I complex (endosomal sorting complex required for transport I), and possibly also other ESCRT complexes. May act as a negative regulator of Ras-mediated mitogenic activity. Plays a role in ciliogenesis.
Gene Name:
PTPN23
Uniprot ID:
Q9H3S7
Molecular Weight:
178971.945 Da
References
  1. Wang J, Yuen VG, McNeill JH: Effect of vanadium on insulin sensitivity and appetite. Metabolism. 2001 Jun;50(6):667-73. [11398143 ]
General Function:
Sodium channel regulator activity
Specific Function:
May act at junctions between the membrane and the cytoskeleton. Possesses tyrosine phosphatase activity.
Gene Name:
PTPN3
Uniprot ID:
P26045
Molecular Weight:
103989.11 Da
References
  1. Wang J, Yuen VG, McNeill JH: Effect of vanadium on insulin sensitivity and appetite. Metabolism. 2001 Jun;50(6):667-73. [11398143 ]
General Function:
Non-membrane spanning protein tyrosine phosphatase activity
Specific Function:
May act at junctions between the membrane and the cytoskeleton.
Gene Name:
PTPN4
Uniprot ID:
P29074
Molecular Weight:
105910.315 Da
References
  1. Wang J, Yuen VG, McNeill JH: Effect of vanadium on insulin sensitivity and appetite. Metabolism. 2001 Jun;50(6):667-73. [11398143 ]
General Function:
Protein tyrosine phosphatase activity
Specific Function:
May regulate the activity of several effector molecules involved in synaptic plasticity and neuronal cell survival, including MAPKs, Src family kinases and NMDA receptors.
Gene Name:
PTPN5
Uniprot ID:
P54829
Molecular Weight:
63537.53 Da
References
  1. Wang J, Yuen VG, McNeill JH: Effect of vanadium on insulin sensitivity and appetite. Metabolism. 2001 Jun;50(6):667-73. [11398143 ]
General Function:
Transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase activity
Specific Function:
Modulates signaling by tyrosine phosphorylated cell surface receptors such as KIT and the EGF receptor/EGFR. The SH2 regions may interact with other cellular components to modulate its own phosphatase activity against interacting substrates. Together with MTUS1, induces UBE2V2 expression upon angiotensin II stimulation. Plays a key role in hematopoiesis.
Gene Name:
PTPN6
Uniprot ID:
P29350
Molecular Weight:
67560.79 Da
References
  1. Wang J, Yuen VG, McNeill JH: Effect of vanadium on insulin sensitivity and appetite. Metabolism. 2001 Jun;50(6):667-73. [11398143 ]
General Function:
Protein tyrosine phosphatase activity
Specific Function:
Protein phosphatase that acts preferentially on tyrosine-phosphorylated MAPK1. Plays a role in the regulation of T and B-lymphocyte development and signal transduction.
Gene Name:
PTPN7
Uniprot ID:
P35236
Molecular Weight:
40528.965 Da
References
  1. Wang J, Yuen VG, McNeill JH: Effect of vanadium on insulin sensitivity and appetite. Metabolism. 2001 Jun;50(6):667-73. [11398143 ]
General Function:
Protein tyrosine phosphatase activity
Specific Function:
Protein-tyrosine phosphatase that could participate in the transfer of hydrophobic ligands or in functions of the Golgi apparatus.
Gene Name:
PTPN9
Uniprot ID:
P43378
Molecular Weight:
68019.58 Da
References
  1. Wang J, Yuen VG, McNeill JH: Effect of vanadium on insulin sensitivity and appetite. Metabolism. 2001 Jun;50(6):667-73. [11398143 ]